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Echo Hiding using Exponential Time-spread Echo Kernel (ETEK-EH) and Its Applications to Audio Digital Watermarking and

Speaker Recognition Overview Two channel DW based on ETEK-EH & LSB


Application 1

Digital Watermarking for Music

Ap pl

(A data hiding method) Trapezoid Fuzzy Similarity Personal Identification Voice ETEK-EH

Proposed ETEK - EH

ica t

ion

Speaker Recognition System

Nguyen Thi Huong Lien - Hirota Lab

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Conventional Echo Hiding


EH [D. Gruhl et al, 1996]
input

h(l2)

output original sig nal

=
echo kernel

echo

original signal

echoed signal

(a) em bedding process

+
x2( l2)

t
orig inal sig nal

x2(l2)
echo signal K
orig inal sig nal echo sig nal K

i2

d1

(b) 1 kernel

d0

(c) 0 kernel

Nguyen Thi Huong Lien - Hirota Lab

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Echo Hiding using Exponential Time-spread Echo Kernel (ETEK-EH)


Single Echo Method [D. Gruhl et al, 1996] Room Reverberation

x2 (l2 )
orig inal sig nal echo sig nal K
original signal echoes
p

i2

Exponential time- spread echo kernel


Kp

0 kernel Single(c) echo kernel

d0

K1

delay

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ETEK-EH: Experimental Results


Retrieval rate and Sound quality Music Data: 10 clips (44.1 kHz, 30s~90s) Embedded Information: 26x26 image
Sound evaluation Retrieval Rate
1 00 Percentag e(%) (% ) Percentage 8 0 6 0 4 0 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 Music clip Music Clip 5 6 7 8 9 1 0
Conventional Single m ethod

Accuracy Rate

5 4 3 2

The proposed method=4.57

echo

The conventional method=3.86

Proposed ETEK m ethod

Retrieval rate comparison of the proposed method and conventional single echo method on 10 music clips
Nguyen Thi Huong Lien - Hirota Lab

1 (7 young people
SONY, MDR-CD900ST) 4/10

Application to Digital Audio Watermarking:


Two Channel Digital Watermarking for Music based on ETEK
Copyright Problems
Easy copy

Digital Watermarking: Trade-off Imperceptibility Robustness

Capacity Extracted watermarks: (a) channel 1 (b) channel 2

Encoding
watermark

watermark length Segmenttation

watermark bits Resegment 2channel unification

Method 1

2channel separation original music signal

Embedding Process

Method 2 SegmentRebased on tation segment ETEK Nguyen Thi Huong Lien - Hirota Lab

watermarked 5/10 music signal

Experiments
Comparison Methods & Measurement
1. Least Significant Bit [Yeh, 2004] 2. Single EH [Gruhl, 1996] 3. Multiple EH [Oh, 2001] 4. Negative EH [Foo, 2001] 5. Backward and Forward EH [Kim, 2003] 6. ETEK-2 Channel Method 30 clips (8 genres, 44.1 kHz, 16bit) Watermarking using 6 methods Applying SMBA 42 attacks

Measurements for comparing different Sound Evaluation methods Objective Difference Grade ODG) [ITU-R BS.1387, 2001] EAQUAL Software Robustness against Attacks StirMark Benchmark for Audio (SMBA) [Andreas, 2005] 42 attacks
Nguyen Thi Huong Lien - Hirota Lab 6/10

Two Channel Digital Watermarking for Music based on ETEK: Experiment Results
LSB [Yeh, 2004] Single EH [Gruhl, 2001] Multiple EH [Oh, 2001]

Negative EH [Foo, 2001]

Backward & Forward EH [Kim, 2003]

Proposed ETEK-2channel

Nguyen Thi Huong Lien - Hirota Lab

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Application to Speaker Recognition


Speaker Recognition based on PIV & TFS
Proposal Personal Identification Voice (PIV) Record 3 times/person 8 voice features

Nearest Centroid Neighbor

Similarity
mean

Application
Voice from 24 users/ 3 times

0 Ci , j

Ei , j x j Increase recognition TFS=Trapezoid Fuzzy Similarity accuracy Nguyen Thi Huong Lien - Hirota Lab 8/10 8/16

Ai , j

range Di , j range

Bi , j

Application to Speaker Recognition


Security Enhancement for SR by ETEK-EH
Proposal

Watermark exists Fail


Nguyen Thi Huong Lien - Hirota Lab 9/10 9/16

Conclusion
A data hiding method

ETEK for EH
Two channel DW based on ETEK & LSB for Music

Speaker Recognition System

Improve security of SR by ETEK

Digital Watermarking:

Speaker Identification:

EH with ETEK: robust against attacks, natural sound quality Copyright Protection for Music

New features, trapezoid fuzzy similarity: better performance ETEK to improve security for SR
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Nguyen Thi Huong Lien - Hirota Lab