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MANAGEMENT OF URBAN WASTE SERVICES

URBANISATION SCENARIO INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTSNGO,CBO INVOLVEMENT JNNURM AND SWM

URBANISATION AND JNNURM

GLOBAL URBAN SCENARIO


The making of cities: natural increase and migration: push and pull Almost 1,80,000 people are added to the urban population each day Most significant urbanisation in Asia (61% of the total world population; and share in global urban population has risen from 9% in 1920 to 48% in 2000, and 53% by 2030) Africa (12% of global population) Latin America: High urbanisation but stabilising Urban stagnation and aging populations in Europe, Japan It is estimated that there are almost a billion poor people in the world, of this over 750 million live in urban areas without adequate shelter and basic services

EMERGING URBAN REALITIES

Rapid Urbanisation, especially in metropolitan areas, beyond the cities carrying capacity, putting tremendous pressure on infrastructure and services In an urbanizing world, cities will determine the economic future of countries. But cities will also face the challenge of urbanization of poverty. Globalizing economies will accentuate increasing competition between cities The demographic and economic pressures will heighten concerns of equity, environment, quality of life and sustainability Each city is unique. Therefore both the problems and solutions should be identified locally

THE INDIAN URBAN CHALLENGE

India has second largest Urban System in the world, with 310 million people in 5161 cities & towns Indian cities contribute 55-60% of GDP 1% households without tap water in premises and several cities have only 2 4 hours of supply 43% households without sanitation 23% live in abject poverty 40 million people live in slums 30% households live in single room tenements Urban Infrastructure severely stressed

MUNICIPALITIES IN DISARRAY
Demographic shift to urban areas unlikely to slow down Cost of inadequate infrastructure is enormous Unable to meet rising demand for services Unable to raise resources Constrained by old fashioned rules and procedures

REASONS FOR POOR SERVICES


Population pressure Absence of long term planning Governance Issues Inadequate cost recovery Precarious financial position of ULBs Poor operation and maintenance of assets Inadequate capacities

JNNURM

RATIONALE FOR JNNURM


Challenge lies in bridging the Infrastructure deficit Creating an environment & statutory framework for smooth transition Need a departure from Business as Usual JNNURM: A response to this challenge Improving O&M of assets

MISSION STATEMENT

Reforms driven, fast track, planned development of identified cities with focus on efficiency in urban infrastructure/services delivery mechanism, community participation and accountability of ULBs towards citizen

MISSION STRATEGY

Planned urban perspective frameworks for a period of 20-25 years (5 Yr updates) indicating policies and strategies of meeting fund requirements Perspective plan should be based on City Development Plan (CDP) Cities will be required to prepare DPR Private Sector Participation in development, management and financing of Urban infrastructure Funds will be released to State Nodal agency (TUFIDCO) Funds from State/Central Govt will flow directly to the Nodal agency as Grant Revolving fund will be created to meet the O&M cost of the assets created

JNNURM: THE CONTEXT


Urban Water Supply, Sanitation and Roads will need about 28,035 Crores for next 10 years Urban Transport Infrastructure in cities with population more than 1 Lakh will need 207000 Crores for next 20 years It is estimated that over a seven-year period, Urban Local Bodies would require a total investments of Rs. 1,20,536 crores. JNNURM plans investment of Rs 50,000 crores over seven years To be matched by State and local governments Rest to be raised from Private Sector Participation

MISSION PERIOD

The duration of the Mission is seven years beginning from 2005-06.

SCOPE OF THE MISSION

Major thrust will be on urban infrastructure projects relating to Watersupply including sanitation, sewerage, solid waste management, road network, urban transport and redevelopment of old city areas with a view to upgrading of existing infrastructure

OBJECTIVES OF JNNURM
2 Ensure adequate funds to fulfil deficiencies 1 Integrated development of infrastructure services in the cities JNNURM seeks to encourage reforms and fast track planned development 4 Provision of services for the urban poor

3 Bring about urbanisation in a dispersed manner through planned development of cities

6 Secure effective linkages between asset creation & asset management to make infrastructural services selfsustaining

5 Redevelopment of old cities

JNNURM CONSTITUENTS
Sub-Mission 1: MoUD: Governance (reform agenda) and Infrastructure Issues
JNNURM

in 63 Mission cities UIDSSMT in Non-Mission cities (IDSMT)

Sub-Mission 2: MoH&UPA BSUP: Basic Services to the Urban Poor IHSDP in Non-Mission cities (VAMBAY)

JNNURM COMPONENTS
Cities/UAs with 4 million plus population (7),1 million plus population(28) State Capitals and other Cities(selected cities - 30) All other cities to be covered under UIDSSMT and IHSDP Investment support from GoI : Rs.50,000 Crore over the Mission period for both Sub-Missions, UIDSSMT and IHSDP JNNURM Components Capacity Building component : Initiatives to be undertaken to build capacities at the State as well as ULB levels to enhance their abilities to absorb investment component Assistance for preparation of City Development Plans (CDPs); Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) ; Training and Capacity Building; Community Participation ; IEC Activities

(5% of Central grant would be set apart for the above and up to 5% of Central grant or actual, whichever is less, to be set apart for Administrative and other expenses)

CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN


Where are we now?

What strategies are required?

A perspective and vision for the future development of the city

Where do we want to go?

What are priority needs?

PREPARATION OF CDP
In depth analysis of existing situation Development of a perspective and vision of the city Formulating a strategy for bridging the gap between where the city and where it wishes to go. Preparing City Investment Plan (CIP) and a financial strategy.

FORMULATING A CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN


Step 1 Step 2
Future perspective and vision

Step 3
Strategies for development

Step 4

City Assessment

City Investment Plan

Opportunities Strengths Risks Weakness Unmet demand/gap

Direction of change and expectation Economic Vision Services Vision

Options and strategies Link with reform agenda Criteria for prioritisation

Estimate level of investment Financing options

THE CDP IS NECESSARY STEP FOR ACCESSING JNNURM FUNDS

City Development Plan

Timeline for Implementation of Reforms

Detailed Project Reports

Apply for JNNURM funds

FUNDING PATTERN
Centre State Grant ULB/ Parastatals/Loa n from Financial Institution
50%

Cities with 4 million plus population

35%

15%

Cities with million 50% plus but less than 4 million population Cities in North Eastern States and J&K Other Cities 90%

20%

30%

10%

80%

10%

10%

PERMISSIBLE SECTORS

Water Supply (including Desalination and Sewerage) Solid Waste Management Storm Water Drains Urban Transport Parking spaces on PPP basis Development of heritage areas Prevention and rehabilitation of soil erosion (only in case of Special Category States) Preservation of water bodies

NON-PERMISSIBLE SECTORS
Power Telecom Health Education Wage Employment & Staff Components Administration & Procedures

IMPLEMENTATION DESIGN
MoUD Sub-mission on Urban Infrastructure and Governance State level Nodal Agency State Level Steering committee Technical Advisory Group Central Sanctioning & Monitoring Committee National Steering Group Procedure for sanction of projects Project proposals to be sanctioned by the Central Sanctioning and Monitoring Committee in MoUD Funds to be released in four instalments based on the terms of the sanction and the MoAs to be signed by ULBs/ Parastatals, state and Ministry.

FUNCTIONS OF SLNA

Appraisal of projects submitted by ULBs/Parastatal agencies Obtaining sanction of State Level Steering Committee for seeking assistance from Central Government under JNNURM Management of grants received from Central and State Government Release of funds to ULBs/Parastatal agencies either as grant, or soft loan or grant cum loan Management of Revolving Fund Monitoring physical and financial progress of sanctioned projects Monitoring implementation of reform as entered into MoA

MANDATORY REFORMS AT STATE LEVEL

Implementation of Seventy Fourth Constitution Amendment Act Enactment of public disclosure law Enactment of community participation law Assigning or associating elected ULBs with city planning function. Repeal of Urban Land Ceiling and Regulation Act. Reform of Rent Control Laws balancing the interests of landlords and tenants. Rationalisation of Stamp Duty to bring it down to no more than 5% within next five years.

MANDATORY REFORMS AT ULB LEVEL


Accrual-based double entry system of accounting Introduction of system of e-governance using IT applications like, GIS and MIS for various services provided by ULBs. Reform of property tax with GIS, so that it becomes major source of revenue Levy of reasonable user charges (Full recovery of 100% O&M charges) Internal earmarking within local body budgets for basic services to the urban poor Provision of basic services to urban poor including security of tenure at affordable prices, improved housing, water supply, sanitation and ensuing delivery of other already existing universal services of the Government for education, health and social security.

OPTIONAL REFORMS

Revision of bye-laws to streamline approval process for construction of buildings, development of sites etc Simplification of legal and procedural frameworks for conversion of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes Introduction of Property Title Certification System Earmarking at least 20-25% of developed land in all housing projects (both Public and Private Agencies) for EWS/LIG category with a system of cross subsidization Introduction of computerized process of registration of land and property Revision of bye-laws to make rain water harvesting mandatory in all buildings and adoption of water conservation measures Bye-laws for reuse of recycled water Administrative reforms Structural reforms Encouraging Public Private Partnership

MOA FOR REFORMS

Tripartite MOA to be executed by the State Governments and Urban Local Bodies with Central Government Signing of MOA to be a necessary condition to access funds under the Mission MOA would, inter-alia, indicate milestones, commitment, and actions to be taken to implement mandatory and optional reforms at the State & ULB level

Note: Any two optional reforms to be implemented each year by State/ULB/Parastatal

NATIONAL STEERING GROUP


To steer the mission objectives , a National Steering Committee was constituted

Minister of Urban Development - Chairman Minister of UEPA - Co Chair person Secretary UEPA - Member Secretary Planning Commission - Member Secretary Expenditure - Member National Technical Advisor - Member Secretary Urban Development - Member Convener APPRAISAL AGENCY

Detailed Project Reports will be scrutinised by the technical wing of the Urban Development Department

SANCTION OF PROJECTS
Central Sanctioning and Monitoring Committee (CS&MC)
Secretary (UD) Secretary (UEPA) Secretary, Ministry of Finance (Department of Expenditure) Principal Advisor (HUD),Planning Commission Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forest Joint Secretary &FA, Min of UD Chief Planner, TCPO Advisor, CPHEEO CMD,HUDCO Secretary of Information Technology Secretary, Home affairs Chairman Member Member Member Member Member-Convenor Member Member Member Member Member

OUTCOMES OF JNNURM REFORM AGENDA

Modern and transparent budgeting, accounting, financial management systems, designed and adopted for all urban services and governance functions City-wide framework for planning and governance will be established and become operational All urban residents will be able to obtain access to a basic level of urban services Financially self-sustaining agencies for urban governance and service delivery will be established, through reforms to major revenue instruments Local services and governance will be conducted in a manner that is transparent and accountable to citizens e-Governance applications will be introduced in core functions of ULBs resulting in reduced cost and time of service delivery processes

TOOLKIT FOR SWM UNDER JNNURM


Rules and guidelines applicable for the management of MSW Waste quantification and characterization Primary elements of municipal solid waste management Ways to organize solid waste management in city

Project financing
Private sector participation in solid waste management Performance standards in solid waste management

Community participation and role of information education and


communication activities in SWM projects Capacity building in municipal solid waste management

CRITICISM OF JNNURM

Lack of Peoples Participation in decision making/ formulating CDP and CIP, Projects Mandatory reforms interference in State government jurisdiction (anti-74CAA) Social sectors neglected Increased Indebtedness of local government Predominance of Private Sector and Consultants Infrastructure v/s Poverty (Engineering Solutions) ULBs reduced to mere implementation of schemes formulated by others

PROJECT PREPARATION
Project development cycle comprises the following: (a)Identification of urban infrastructure/ basic services to urban poor projects and their prioritisation.(CDP) (b) Project scoping. (c) Preparation of a detailed project report. (d) Finalisation of the arrangements for implementation. (e) Sanction of JNNURM assistance. (f ) Achievement of financial closure. (g) Execution of a Memorandum of understanding (MoA) and other agreements for implementation.

NGO,CBO IN SWM SECTOR

INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SWM


Governmental Organisations Central and State Government agencies Non Governmental Organisations NGOs/CBOs - Concept - Scope - Methods and Applications in SWM Joint Venture of Community and ULBS Role of rag Pickers Public Awareness

GOVERNMENT

Government refers to the legislators, administrators, and arbitrators in the administrative bureaucracy who control a state at a given time, and to the system of government by which they are organized The Government of India has three independent branches namely the executive, the legislature and the judiciary Based on the distribution of powers between the Central Government and the State Government there are three lists Union list, State list and Concurrent list (powers entertained by both center and state) India has adopted parliamentary system of government.

Union list
Concurrent list State list

- 97 subjects
- 47 subjects - 66 subjects

The country has a federal structure with elected Governments in

GOVERNMENT
Government of India: The Government of India , officially known as Union Government or sometime referred to as Central Government, is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states, 6 Union Territories (administered directly by the Central Government) and a national capital territory (NCT-Delhi). In spite of having a federal structure and a clear division of powers and an independent judiciary there is a strong bias towards making the Central Government more powerful than the state governments. The President of India is the executive head. He has all the constitutional powers but exercises them only on the advice of the real executive i.e. the Prime Minister and his council of ministers.

GOVERNMENT - Legislatures
Government of India: India is a bicameral parliament consisting of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States). The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the citizens of India. (Total Members 545). Each Lok Sabha is formed for a term of five years after which it is automatically dissolved and fresh elections are held. The members of Rajya Sabha are elected indirectly i.e. the legislatures of the states and union territories elect 238 members and the President appoints another 12 members who are experts in fields of science or arts. The elected members of the Rajya Sabha serve 6-year term, with one-third up for elections every 2 years.

GOVERNMENT- Administrative

Administrative set up in India is perfectly planned into different administrative divisions at central and state level. These administrative units comprises of a nested hierarchy of country sub divisions. Union Executive: The Union executive includes the President, the Vice-President, and the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as the head to aid and advice the President. Cabinet Secretariat: The Cabinet Secretariat is under the direct charge of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet Secretary is the administrative head. The Secretariat assists in decision-making in Government by ensuring Inter-Ministerial coordination, ironing out differences amongst Ministries/Departments. Management of major crisis situations in the country and coordinating activities of various Ministries in such a situation is also

GOVERNMENT- Administrative

Ministries of the Government The Government consists of a number of Ministries/Departments, On 15 August 1947, the number of Ministries at the Centre was 18. Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Urban Development, Central Public Health Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO) Public Services Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) recruits officers for the most important three kinds of public services in the country. Indian Administrative Service (IAS) Indian Police Service (IPS) Indian Forest Service (IFS) These officers are recruited and trained by the Central Government, and then allotted to different State cadres. There are now 24 State cadres including three Joint cadres, namely, (i) Assam and Meghalaya, (ii) Manipur and Tripura, and

GOVERNMENT- Administrative

Constitutional bodies Constitutional Bodies in India are formed by the Constitution which helps the Government to run properly. Each of these permanent or semi-permanent organizations is responsible for the administration of specific functions (Planning Commission, Thirteenth finance Commission etc.,)

GOVERNMENT- Judiciary

The third branch of the government i.e. the judiciary is followed both at national and state level. The Supreme Court of India at national level. The High Courts at the state level, and District and Session Courts at the district level. The Supreme Court of India has original, appellate and advisory jurisdiction. Its exclusive original jurisdiction extends to any dispute between the Government of India and one or more states, or between the Government of India and any state or states on one side and one or more states on the other, or between two or more states. The High Court stands at the head of a State's judicial administration. There are 21 High Courts in the country, three having jurisdiction over more than one state. The Union Territories come under the jurisdiction of different State High Courts. Each High Court comprises a Chief Justice and such other Judges as the President may, from time to time, appoint.

Government of Tamilnadu State government is headed by a Governor. He enjoys nominal powers. The real power is enjoyed by the Chief Minister who is assisted by a council of ministers Normally every state assembly consisting of the Assembly and Council. (TamilNadu does not have any Legislative council) The members of the Legislative Assembly are directly elected by the citizens of TamilNadu. (Total Members 234). Each Legislative Assembly is formed term of five years after which it is automatically dissolved and fresh elections are held. State government's legislature is bicameral in 6 states and unbicameral in the rest. Lower house is elected with 5 years term, while upper house if exists 1/3 of the members elected every 2 years with 6 year term Cabinet size can be maximum of 15% the number of legislators in lower house Judiciary has High Court which has jurisdiction of the whole state

GOVERNMENT - Organisations
Departments
Organisations AIDS Control Society Agriculture Chennai Metro Water Supply & Sewerage Board Chief Electoral Office Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) Cooperative Chennai Museum Commercial Taxes Electricity Licencing Board (TNELB) Employment Electricity Regulatory Commission Environment Industrial & Technological Consultancy Organisation of Fire and Rescue Services TN (ITCOT) Forests Khadi and Village Industries Board Forensic Sciences National Informatics Centre- TN Unit Geology and Mining Non-formal and Adult Education- State Resource Centre (SRC) Government Examinations Regional Passport Office Handloom, Handicrafts, Textiles and Slum Clearance Board Khadi Sports Development Authority Health and Family Welfare State Institute of Rural Development Highways State Transport Authority Municipal Administration & Water Tamil Nadu State Aids Control Society (TNSACS) Supply Tamil Nadu State Council for Science and Technology Pension Tamil Nadu State Hajj Committee Police Tamil Nadu Uniformed Services Recruitment Board Prison Teachers Recruitment Board Registration TWAD Board - Rain Water Harvesting Technical Education Tamil Nadu Rural Bazar State Planning Commission, Third State Finance Commission are some of the constitutional bodies

NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS

A Non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted organization created that operates independently from any

government. The term originated from the United Nations (UN) in 1945 with provisions in Article 71 of Chapter 10 of the United Nations Charter for a consultative role for organizations which are neither governments nor member states.

Used to refer to organizations that do not form part of the government and are not conventional for-profit business

In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization

NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS

The UN introduced the term "NGO" to distinguish between the participation of international private organizations and intergovernmental specialized agencies. According to the UN, all kinds of private organizations that are independent from government control can be recognized as "NGOs. NGOs also need to be non-criminal and non-profit An NGO as "an independent voluntary association of people acting together on a continuous basis for some common purpose other than achieving government office, making money or illegal activities. Two main types of NGOs are recognized according to the activities they pursue: - Operational NGOs - Campaigning NGOs.

OPERATIONAL NGO

Operational NGOs seek to "achieve small scale change directly through projects. They mobilize financial resources, materials and volunteers to create localized programs in the field. They hold large scale fundraising events, apply to governments and organizations for grants and contracts in order to raise money for projects They operate in a hierarchical structure; with a main headquarters staffed by professionals who plan projects, create budgets, keep accounts, report, and communicate with operational fieldworkers who work directly on projects They deal with a wide range of issues, but are most often associated with the delivery of services and welfare, emergency relief and environmental issues. (Categorized into relief-oriented versus development-oriented) They can be community-based, national or international. The defining activity of operational NGOs is implementing projects

NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS

NGO type can be understood by orientation and level of co-operation. NGO type by orientation Charitable orientation; Service orientation; Participatory Empowering orientation; NGO type by level of co-operation Community- Based Organization; City Wide Organization; National NGOs; International NGOs

COMPAIGNING NGO ADVOCACY NGO

Campaigning NGOs need an efficient and effective group of professional members who are able to keep supporters informed, and motivated. They must plan and host demonstrations and events that will keep their cause in the media. The Campaigning NGOs seek to "achieve large scale change promoted indirectly through influence of the political system. They must maintain a large informed network of supporters who can be mobilized for events to garner media attention and influence policy changes. The defining activity of campaigning NGOs is holding demonstrations. Campaigning NGOs often deal with issues relating to human rights, women's rights, children's rights. The primary purpose is to defend or promote a specific cause. As opposed to operational project management, these organizations typically try to raise awareness, acceptance and knowledge by

COMMUNITY BASED ORGANISATIONS

Community based organizations (CBO's) are nonprofit groups that work at a local level to improve life for residents that operate within a single local community. The focus is to build equality across society in all streams - health care, environment, quality of education, access to technology, access to spaces and information for the disabled CBO's are typically, and almost necessarily, staffed by local members - community members who experience first hand the needs within their neighborhoods. Besides being connected geographically, the only link between staff members and their interests is often the desire and willingness to help These "bottom-up" organizations are more effective addressing local needs than larger charitable organizations

NGO ON ENVIRONMENT ASPECT

International NGO" (INGO) is first given in resolution 288 (X) of ECOSOC on February 27, 1950: it is defined as "any international organization that is not founded by an international treaty". The vital role of NGOs and other "major groups" in sustainable development was recognized in Chapter 27 of Agenda 21, leading to intense arrangements for a consultative relationship between the United Nations and non-governmental organizations.

MILLINEUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Goal 1:- Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger


Target 1:- Halve proportion of people income less than $1 a day during 1990-2015 Target 2:- Halve between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

Goal 2:- Achieve Universal Primary Education


Target 3:- Ensure that by 2015,children will be able to complete full course of primary schooling

Goal 3:- Promote gender equality and empower women


Target 4:- Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005 and all levels of education by 2015

Goal 4:- Reduce Infant Mortality


Target 5:- Reduce by 2/3 between 1990 and 2015, the under five mortality rate

Goal 5:- Improve maternal Health


Target 6:- Reduce by 3/4 between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio

Goal 6:- Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases


Target 7:- Have halved by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Target 8:- Have halved by 2015 and began to reverse the incidence of Malaria &other major diseases

MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Goal 7:- Ensure Environmental sustainability Target 9 :- Reverse loss of environmental resources
Target 10:- Halve proportion people without safe drinking water by 2015 Target 11:- Improve lives of 100 Million slum dwellers

Goal 8:- Develop a Global partnership for development


Target 12-18 :- Develop further an open, rule based, predictable, non discriminatory trading and financial system (includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction etc.,

POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES


The National Rural Employment Guarantee (NREGS): Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana(SGSY):

Scheme

(restructuring of the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)

Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana(SJSRJ): - provide gainful employment to the urban unemployed and underemployed poor, by encouraging the setting up of selfemployment ventures and also by providing wage employment by utilizing their labour for creation of useful public assets. i) The Urban Self-Employment Programme (USEP). ii) The Urban Women Self-help Programme (UWSP) which targets urban poor women self-help groups. iii) Skill Training for Employment Promotion iv) The Urban Wage Employment Programme (UWEP). v) The Urban Community Development Network (UCDN).

POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES

Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana(SJSRJ)


Under SJSRY, the Community Based Organisations include - Neighbourhood Groups (NHGs), RCVs - Neighbourhood Committees(NHCs) (Association of women from NHGs in same ward) - Community Development Society (CDS) - (Association of all NHCs at town level

Basic Services for Urban Poor(BSUP)

KUDUMSHREE CBO in Kerala


(Prosperity of the family)

Innovative poverty reduction initiative with community participation Partnership of the State Government, Central Government, Local Government, the national Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development(NABARD) and community A three tier CBO to implement urban Based services, Urban basic Activities Services for the Poor programmes HR Development Community Health - Neighbourhood Group (NHG) Solid Waste management Education - Area Development Society (ADS) Balasabha - Community Development Society (CDS) Micro finance Destitute rehabilitation-Ashraya Supported by UNICEF

Bhavanashree- housing scheme Lease land farming

KUDUMSHREE in Solid Waste Management


Initiated innovated enterprises Clean Kerala Business Women from the poor families become members are engaged for door to door collection of MSW and transportation to the transit points Solid Waste Collection enterprises is highly beneficial- as a means of livelyhood to the urban poor and finally solve environmental problems For Collection of waste from a household they charge Rs.30/month Every women member earning around Rs.6000/- per month 121 Kudumbashree solid waste management groups in operation in 18 ULBs of Kerala state Fill up the existing gap of solid waste collection and segregation without any additional financial burden

SEWA - CBO in Gujarat


Country's first co-operative of ragpickers founded by the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) The co-operative, popularly known as Saundarya Safai Mandli (SSM), felicitated its founder and president of Gujarat state women's Sewa co-operative federation, Lalita Krishnaswami. They also identified their problems and sought to find suitable and durable solutions Shri Mahila Sewa Sahakari Bank - SEWA Bank, a separate bank of poor self-employed women workers was established at the initiative of 4,000 self-employed women workers in the year 1974. The bank is owned by the self-employed women and policies are made by their own elected board. Today it has 51,000 depositors and working capital of Rs.10 crores.

SEWA - GUJARAT

The Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) was born in December 1971, and after a long-drawn official battle SEWA was registered as a trade union in April 1972. The SEWA Bank was established in 1974 as a separate bank of the poor, self-employed women workers at the initiative of 4,000 self-employed women workers. These self-employed women workers included rag pickers,hawkers, vendors and home-based workers Under Slum Networking programme in Ahmedabad, SEWA workers engaged in collection of solid waste from the households SEWA workers engaged in recycling business in Gujarat

Exnora International is a non-governmental environmental service organization started in 1989 in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, It focuses on preserving nature and preventing environmental degradation. The name Exnora is derived from excellent, novel and radical ideas in solving environmental problems by involving those who caused the problem-community. Activities The organization provides street cleaning services through about 17,000 street beautifiers. The street cleaning service includes collection of garbage at homes, sorting at pickup, composting organic waste, and generating income for the "street beautifiers" through the sale of recyclables. Environmental Training Institute conducts training programmes for school teachers on biodiversity, climate change, and solid,

EXNORA- TAMILNADU

EXNORA- TAMILNADU
Clean Beach

ExNoRa INTERNATIONAL (N G O) is a Voluntary Non-governmental, Nonpolitical, Non-profit 'GLOBAL HEAD ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION'. 'EXNORA INNOVATORS CLUB' (NGO's Branch) are situated in various towns and villages. Community based organizations the 'CIVIC EXNORA' (CBO) are located in different Streets and Areas. The service at the grass root level is carried out by a miniature 'Home Based Organization', the home grass root chapters 'HOME EXNORA' (HBO) at dwellings (House, flat etc,)

EXNORA GREEN PAMMAL- TAMILNADU

A Joint Venture with NGO & Public by ULB

EXNORA GREEN PAMMAL (EGP)- TAMILNADU

SUSTAINABLE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN PAMMAL MUNICIPALITY

About EGP
A Non-Governmental Voluntary Organization Established in 1994 It is registered under the Societies Registration Act 1860 and donations to the Centre are exempt from income-tax under section 80G of the Income Tax Act.

Manpower at EGP
Staffs 1. Administration 2. Accounts 3. Programme Managers 4. Field managers 5. Supervisors 6. Extension 7. Security 8. Gardner's 9. Field workers Research Partners : (2) (2) (6) (10) (20) (4) (4) (3) (626) MCRC, Anna University

External support and advisors(3) (HR,Audit & legal)


International partners (EWB, Australia) (1)

Exnora Green Pammal is service provider to Pammal Municipality


EGP Focus Areas 1. Energy

2.

Environment

3. Bioresources and Biodiversity 4. Empowering of Women 5.Livelihood Promotion

Primary Collection

Secondary Collection

Example of Primary and Secondary Collection in Pammal Municipality


Ward No 3

No of Streets
No of Workers (with cycle rickshaw)

36
5

Truck Driver
Cleaner Secondary Collection points

1
1 2

Action Plan of Primary and Secondary Collection in Pammal Municipality


Meeting Point : Water Tank Starting point Oom parasakthi St. Starting point Annipesent St. Anantha Raman St NSK st Barathithasan st. Kasthuri Bai St. Starting point Cheethalai Chathanar St. Suriamman Kovil st.

Kanagi st.

Sivaji St.

Anna Salai Main Road Kanchi Munusami st Kulothunken st Thiruvaluvar st Secondary Collection Point Sunderavadivalu st Arumugam st

Balaji st

T.R. Mani st. Periyar St.

Chearan st. Aravinder st. Ending poin Nethaji St. Ending Point Pallavan st. Ending Point

Route Map
Green Ambassadors Meeting point

Secondary Collection points

Vermi Compost Canter


VISVESAPURAM SHED PAMMAL MUNICIPALITY

Vermi Compost Centre


Pre Curing the Organic waste Vermi Compost Process

Various Stage in Manual Production

ExOrCo Product

Plastic Segeregation

Plastic shredders and products made out of waste plastic

Plastic recycling

Energy
WASTE TO ENERGY

1.Solid Waste Generation

into

Biogas

For

Power

2.Biomass Charcoal Briquettes for alternative fuel

Biogas to Power Generation


EGP -Methodology Collection of food, slaughter & municipal solid wastes Grinding of waste

Anaerobic digester (25m3 )


Producer gas CH4, CO2 For lightning For cooking

Organic manure for agriculture

Collection of different solid, domestic wastes

Overview of Biogas reactors

Domestic waste feeding, Anaerobic predigester, Bio-reactor and digested slurry

Biogas engine, Scrubber and Gas collector

Individual Bio Gas

WASTE to ENERGY
Methane for Lightning Methane for Cooking

Conclusion
1. The plant, with its capacity of 250kgs of organic waste per day, is expected to produce 25cum of biogas per day. 2. The generator has a capacity of 5kW per day. 3. In practical terms, it should be possible to run up to 50 street lights for approximately 6 hours per day.

4. Additionally, some extra gas will be available to


use for cooking purposes.

Drying- sun drying

Sorting out

Fabrication of kilns
A portable cylindrical structure with the top cut out to place the chimney. The drum size is about 100 cm height and 150 cm width made

Carbonization process

Char collection process

Binder preparation & mixing

Starch boiling

Carbonized char

Binder mixing with Carbonized char

Briquetting Machines

Briquette type: Cylindrical Production : 5 kg/hr

Briquette type: Cylindrical Production : 12kg/hr

Briquettes production Through Machine

Charcoal pouring

Briquettes outlet

Briquettes drying

Briquettes

Dried briquettes
Charcoal briquettes

1. Long cooking time


2. High-end product 3. High calorific value 4. Consistent quality 5. Very long burn

6. Made with natural components

Value added product on Sambirani (Incense ) pellets

Table showing the particulars of the SWM activities in Pammal


Population Covered Average Total Waste (Kg/per day) Bio degradable (Kg/per day) 100,000 25,110 12,500

Average Recyclables (Kg/per day)


Average Compost Produced (Kg/per day) Average Dry leaves Converted into Briquettes (Kg/per day) Average Food Waste used for producing Bio gas (Kg/per day)

1,200
1200 1,000 250

Average waste dumped (Kg/per day)


Average waste diverted (Kg/per day) % of total waste not land filled Per capita waste (Kg/per day)

6660
18450 70% 0.25%

Total Corbon emission reduced

Bio Gas

96 tons

Other Recyclable :

5182 tons

KULITHALAI MODEL

SUSTAINABLE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


an effort by Kulithalai Municipality

Profile Extent : 11.61 sq km Population : 26161 No of Households :6950 No of wards : 24 Total Qty of MSW : 9 MT Sanitary workers : 70

KULITHALAI MODEL

MUNICIPALITY OR PEOPLE TO BLAME?

SMALL INITIATIVES.

BRIEFING THE PLAN TO THE COUNCILLORS AND SANITARY STAFF

LAUNCHING OF THE SUSTAINABLE SWM PROGRAMME

SWM INFORMATION CARD

LINK VOLUNTEERS

ROUTE MAP WITH PARTICIPATORY APPROACH

BEHAVIOURIAL CHANGE!!!

GREEN SQUAD

AWARENESS TO THE RESIDENTS

AWARENESS TO SCHOOL STUDENTS

PLEDGE BY THE RESPONSIBLE CITIZENS

PRE-PROCESSING WITH SPRAYING OF BIO INOCULUMS

WINDROW COMPOSTING

VERMICOMPOSTINGTANK, HEAP & BRICK METHOD

WASTE IS WEALTH!!!

SEGREGATION. SALE OF RECYCLABLES

SEGREGATION SALE OF RECYCLABLES

SEGREGATION SALE OF RECYCLABLES

INNOVATIVE GIMMICKS

HAND IN HAND- TAMILNADU

Hand in Hand - in the year 2002 with an initial focus on child labour elimination, education, and the empowerment of women. The organisation has been in operation since 1988, initially working in Kancheepuram District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu Hand in Hand is currently involved in implementing an Integrated Community Development Project for poverty reduction with five interconnected and interdependent sectors: Child labour elimination and education with 70 transit schools Self Help Groups and Microfinance for enterprise and job creation. By June 2008, 310,428 poor women have been organized and trained. Citizens Centres to strengthen democracy on a grassroots level. 1022 centres with libraries and IT facilities are up and running Medical camps and awareness campaigns to improve health levels. Programs include medical camps, facilitation of household latrines. Environmental protection via solid waste management include

SUKUKI EXNORA INTERNTIONAL -ANDRAPRADESH

Sukuki Exnora is a Hyderabad based NGO associated with Solid Waste Management Activity since 1998. Promoting the idea of Decentralized Zero Waste Management including methods of composting and recycling. Implemented projects of Zero Waste Management at BHEL, AMR-APARD(Andhra Pradesh Academy of Rural Development), GHM (Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation). They have been invited to make presentations at ASCI (Administrative Staff College of India), ESCI(Engineering Staff College of India), IIIT(Indian Institute of Information Technology), APNGC(Andhra Pradesh National Green Corps), GHMC and a number of corporate entities. Organizing events Clean India and Green Leaf Awards since 2007 with the objective of promoting efficient methods of Solid Waste Management.

Bhagidari Scheme- Delhi The Delhi Government instituted the Bhagidari Scheme for ensuring close cooperation of the Residents Welfare Association (RWAs), civic agencies and the government from January 1, 2004.. The Municipal Commissioner of Delhi announced a system by which segregated garbage from homes would be transported to municipal bins Bangalore Agenda Task Force (BATF)- Bangalore SWM has been outsourced to private agencies who provide the infrastructure right from workers, their uniforms and caps, bins, trolleys and vehicles. The Workers have been given strict instructions not to collect the waste from households if it is not segregated. Their areas of responsibility are clearly demarcated along with their

SWM IN OTHER CITIES

SWM IN OTHER CITIES Individual effort - Maharashtra


A 39 year old bank cashier, Ms. Asha Shivajirao Bhise, left her job and took up vermi-composting in a big way during 2004 with an investment of Rs. 15 lakhs and harvested 20 tonnes of compost in 40 days, which was picked up by farmers within days. Mumbai Initiative Clean Mumbai Foundation has taken up solid waste management with the help of corporate sector. A Ward comprising (Cuffe Parade, Nariman Point, Strand / Colaba, Museum, Paltan Road Bora Bazar, Ballard Estate and Churchgate / Marine Drive) has been selected and collection system has been organised and the wet garbage is taken to selected sites in parks that would have composting pits. As there are high rise residential buildings without any space for garbage disposal, the residents provided funds for making rectangular brick tanks around trees on the lane pavements. Wet kitchen waste deposited and covered.The waste turns into compost by the aerobic process and provides essential manure to the trees.

RAG PICKERS
Dumpyard in Guwahati

Delhi dumpsite

RAG PICKERS

Ragpicker on the Yamuna River

Ghazipur dump yard

RAG PICKERS- RECYCLERS

A man removes metal from circuit boards in a workshop

RAG PICKERS

RAG PICKERS

Rag picker , a person who collects reusable or recyclable materials thrown away by others to sell or for personal consumption About 300,000 ragpickers in Delhi and 3,00,000 in Mumbai of which around 1,20,000 are under the age of 13 , the base of a large recycling pyramid, handling between 9 to 15 % of the MSW generated There are a range of material which are picked up and recycled by this sector. (plastics, paper, glass, and metals) For every hundred residents of Delhi, there is one person engaged in recycling. Ragpickers mostly live either in slums (usually the shop of a kabari), on footpaths or inside dustbins. Their access to basic amenities are poor, and few essential services are provided for them The informal sector has an important role because it is able to undertake recycling of most recyclable materials, which the municipality cannot.

RAG PICKERS

The countrys rag pickers have expressed absolute happiness in having found mention in a rule notified by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), the first time they have been recognised under Plastic Waste (M&H) Rules,2011 There are an estimated 15 lakh men and women who are living through garbage and landfill sites looking for material they can sell to small, unorganised scrap dealers who then recycle them. As they are unorganised, their main complaint is that authorities often bar them from landfill sites and garbage collection areas, which for them means a loss of income and livelihood. The ragpickers associations from 17 cities across India have now formed an alliance in Pune. About 200 ragpickers from the Alliance of Indian Waste pickers (AIW) gathered near Ahmedabad for the first national conference