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PHOTON INTERACTION WITH MATTER

Photoelectri c Compton Click to edit Master subtitle style SYAZWANI AFIQAH BINTI Scattering MOHD NOH
ZULAIKHA BINTI MOHD DZAHER SITI ADIBAH BINTI MISRAN FARAH NOR SHAHIRAH 3/22/13 BINTI AMIN

Photon Interaction With Matter

Photons are electromagnetic radiation with zero charge & mass velocity = the speed of light (3x10 m/s) Neutral do not lose energy via coulombic interactions with atomic 3/22/13 electrons, as do charged particles.

Photon Interaction With Matter

Photons travel some distance before undergoing a more catastrophic interaction leading to partial or total transfer of the photon energy to electron energy These electrons will ultimately deposit their energy in the medium.
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PHOTOELECTRIC

Discovered by Albert Einstein in 1905 Occurs when energy of incident photon is equal or slightly greater than electron binding energy It transfers all the energy to the electron in one of the shell As complete absorption occur, e ejected as photoelectron kinetic energy

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PHOTOELECTRIC

Photoelectric increases contrast in 3/22/13 radiographic image

Characteristics of material that affect the probability of photoelectric interactions

Probability decreases as E increases Probability increases as Z number of absorber increases As Z number of material increases
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more electrons per atom

Characteristics of photoelectric interactions


PRO

CONS

No scatter radiation

Contributes film fog

Enhances Radiation dose thus kVp contrast must be adjusted carefully to images produce desirable images but minimized dose to pt

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COMPTON

Energy range 30 keV to 10 MeV A higher-energy photon within the range ejects an outer shell electron Only a portion of total energy is consumed in the process The photon ejected away from original direction - results in lower-

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COMPTON

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SCATTER RADIATION

The greater scattering angle, the lower the energy of scatter Lowest energy at 180 - back scatter As E increases, energy of scatter radiation increases At 10 keV, probability of photon being scattered forward and back scattered almost equal
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At 1MeV, probability of scattering at

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Difference between Scattered Radiation and Secondary Radiation

Scattered radiation photons undergo a change in direction after interacting with atom Secondary radiation radiation emitted from an atom after it has absorbed a photon and included:
Characteristics x-rays aka fluorescence Although scattered radiation may be Ejected photoelectrons (result of considered under secondary radiation, not all photoelectric interaction) secondary radiation is scattered radiation

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Compton-scattered/recoil electrons

Features of Compton Scattering

As x-ray energy increases:

Increased penetration through tissue without interaction Increased Compton scattering relative to photoelectric effect

As Z number of absorber increases No effect on Compton scattering


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As mass density of absorber

The probablility of the Compton effect is inversely proportional to energy (1/E)and independent of atomic number Some of the radiation after entering the tissue will scatter back toward the surface backscatter radiation

Compton effect reduces contrast in an x-ray 3/22/13 image.

CONCLUSION

In diagnostic energy range, Photoelectric absorption & Compton scattering are the most important methods Compton scattering is the primary mode of interaction of diagnostic xrays in tissue The different shades in radiograph are the result of varying degrees and types of interactions occur 3/22/13