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What have we covered so far?


Airfoil Angle of Attack Camber Chord Yaw Delta Mean Camber Average Chord Pitch Roll Swept Longitudinal Axis Lateral Axis Vertical Axis Elevator Symmetrical Airfoil CLMAX Swept & Tapered Relative Wind Complex Delta Cropped Delta Pitch Angle Angle of Incidence Aspect Ratio Wing Area Rudder Upper Camber Aileron CG Empennage Wing Span Thrust Lift Lower Camber Elliptical Wing Planform View Forward Swept Leading Edge Trailing Edge

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What causes LIFT ?

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What causes lift?

Airflow (Relative Wind) bends around wing Viscosity and Coanda Effect Bernoullis theory Force on airflow causes it to bend Newtons 1st Law Shear forces of adjacent wind Downward deflection of air Newtons 3rd Law: equal & opposite reaction

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Viscosity

measure of its internal friction or stiffness

the resistance of a liquid to flow; a

http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Kr-Ma/Liquids.html

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Coanda

Effect: a fluid flowing over a curved surface will follow the curve of the surface
Viscosity dependent Sharper curve cause acceleration

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AvLwqRCbGKY

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Bernoulli: relationship between velocity of fluid and pressure

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Where is lift at maximum? At the point where airfoil shape (camber), or Angle of Attack causes greatest deflection or bending of the air. www.aquaphoenix.com/lecture/ideas-flow/page2.html

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Newtons Contribution: Equal & Opposite Reaction

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Wing

shapes:

http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aerojava/Wing31.htm

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What causes lift (review)


Newtons 1st Law (object in motion) Coanda effect (viscosity) + shear forces of adjacent wind Bending causes reduced pressure (Bernoulli) Pressure differential causes vortices (downward deflection of air) Equal and opposite reaction to downward deflection of air is LIFT.

Newton + Coanda + Bernoulli + Newton = Lift

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Wing develops lift by transferring momentum to the air and deflecting it downward.

Momentum = Mass x Velocity Move more air = more lift Move air faster = more lift Move more air faster = lots more lift

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What happens to air as you increase altitude?


1.

Air becomes less dense Less dense = less mass; harder to create lift

Think of effect of trying to take off at Denver vs. taking off at sea level. What happens?

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Higher density altitude means that there are fewer molecules of air per unit of volume, or less total air to move.
Engine performance will suffer as engine takes in less air. Takeoff roll will increase as propeller (or turbine) is moving less air for thrust. Climb out will be slower for same reasons.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Airspeed Measurement
Indicated A/S (what you are reading on gauge) Calibrated A/S (Indicated corrected for position
error)

(what is position error?) True A/S (IAS corrected for non-standard temp &
pressure) wind)

Groundspeed (speed over ground affected by

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How much lift is produced?

Depends on amount of air diverted and velocity of that air Helicopter as an example

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How to measure lift?

L = ( V2) S CL
1/2 ( V 2 ) = density velocity2 (or q)

S = surface area of the wing CL = Coefficient of Lift

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S
= Surface Area of Wing (Wingspan x Average Chord)

http://www.geversaircraft.com/ac/telescopicwing.htm

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C L = Coefficient of Lift,

which is a function of the shape of the airfoil. Each airfoil to the right has its own unique coefficient of lift (CL)

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How can pilot adjust amount of lift produced?

L = q S CL

Go faster

(change q)

Change angle of attack

(change CL )

Increase area of wing (change S) See B-727 Wing for Flaps

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Lift as a function of airfoil camber (Coefficient of Lift)

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How does designer adjust the amount of lift produced?

Shape of airfoil (camber) determines CL Wingspan and average chord determines

S (surface area)

The type of Lift devices installed determine

if S or CL can be changed in flight

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Lift Augmenting devices allow for higher AoA before reaching

CL max

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Dramatic camber changes can significantly alter

CL max

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Effect of high lift devices on

CL max

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Questions?