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Materials and equipment Design PETR 350

DESCRIPTION
This is a multidisciplinary course aimed at: study of the materials selection process for equipment used in gas and oil operations Corrosion mechanisms and inhibition methods Codes, standards and applicable specifications presented along with their applications

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Learning Objectives
Learners will: become familiar with metals used in equipment in the oil and gas sector understand the differences in properties between carbon steels, stainless steels, alloys and superalloys know and understand the primary corrosion mechanisms and the conditions under which they occur become familiar with codes , standards and specifications as applied to oil and gas industry equipment
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recognize the criticality of material failures in equipment performance This course will provide the learner with the technical aspects of metallic and non-metallic materials and their properties. Material selection criteria and applications specific to the oil and gas industry will be covered. The course will include equipment design considerations along with codes, standards and specifications utilized in the oil and gas industry. Corrosion mechanisms and mitigation techniques will be covered.
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Resource Material
References: Specifications CSA for pipeline Specifications API for drill pipe, tubing and casing Chemical Engineering Design and Analysis, Duncan, T. Michael Journal of Petroleum Technology Oil and Gas Journal Introduction to the Canadian Natural Gas Industry, Canadian Energy Research Institute Energy Research Institute
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LECTURES
Lecturer: Ahmed Yusuf 8.00 9.30 am 8.00 9.30 am Location: B1 G02 Time: Sunday Activities:
Present new material Announce reading and homework Take Final Exam*

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Instructor: Times and Places:


Sun. Tue. 10:00 - 12.00 noon 10:00 - 12.00 noon

Purpose:
Discuss homework, quizzes, exams
Hand back graded quizzes, exams Discuss concepts from lecture

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LABORATORY SECTIONS
Instructor: Sondus Location: B4 Purpose: To learn more about materials by relating
lecture material with observations. Also to learn to properly formulate and write engineering reports and proposals.

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TEACHING ASSISTANTS
Name Office Tel.
X-XXXX

E-mail
_____

Eng. Sondus _ XXX

Teaching Assistants will


participate in tutorial sessions,

have office hours to help you with course material and problem sets.

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COURSE MATERIALS
Required text:
Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction W.D. Callister, Jr., 7th edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (2007).

Optional Material:
Chemistry Books Physical Metallurgy Books

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GRADING
Assignments in-tutorial Laboratory Reports
Based on core homework problems

10% 10%

Midterm #1

30%

Tentatively scheduled for: Material covered:

Final

50%

Tentatively scheduled for: Material covered:

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READING SCHEDULE
Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 Topic General Intro; Atomic Bonding Crystalline Structure; Imperfections Diffusion; Mechanical Properties Strengthening Mechanisms; Failure Phase Diagrams Kinetics & Phase Transformations Processing & Applications of Metals 7 Struc., Prop., Proc., Applic. of Ceramics 8 Struc., Prop. of Polymers; Composites 9 Corrosion; Elec. & Thermal Prop. 10 Magnetic & Optical Prop. Materials Selection; Econ. & Envir. Issues Chapter 1,2 3,4 5,6 7,8 9 10 11 12,13 15,16 17,18,19* 20*,21* 22*,23*
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Lectures: will highlight important portions of each chapter. *These chapters available at website www.wiley.com/college/callister.

Chapter 1 - Introduction
What is materials science? Why should we know about it? Materials drive our society Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age Now?
Silicon Age? Polymer Age?

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Example Hip Implant


With age or certain illnesses joints deteriorate. Particularly those with large loads (such as hip).

Adapted from Fig. 22.25, Callister 7e.

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Example Hip Implant


Requirements mechanical strength (many cycles) good lubricity biocompatibility

Adapted from Fig. 22.24, Callister 7e.

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Example Hip Implant

Adapted from Fig. 22.26, Callister 7e.

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Hip Implant
Key problems to overcome fixation agent to hold acetabular cup cup lubrication material femoral stem fixing agent (glue) must avoid any debris in cup Femoral Stem
Adapted from chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 22, Callister 7e.

Ball

Acetabular Cup and Liner

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Example Develop New Types of Polymers


Commodity plastics large volume ca. $0.50 / lb Ex. Polyethylene Polypropylene Polystyrene etc. Engineering Resins small volume > $1.00 / lb Ex. Polycarbonate Nylon Polysulfone etc. Can polypropylene be upgraded to properties (and price) near those of engineering resins?

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Structure, Processing, & Properties


Properties depend on structure
ex: hardness vs structure of steel
(d)

6 00

Hardness (BHN)

5 00 4 00 3 00 2 00
30 mm 30 mm

(c) (a) (b)


4 mm

30 mm
Data obtained from Figs. 10.30(a) and 10.32 with 4 wt% C composition, and from Fig. 11.14 and associated discussion, Callister 7e. Micrographs adapted from (a) Fig. 10.19; (b) Fig. 9.30;(c) Fig. 10.33; and (d) Fig. 10.21, Callister 7e.

100 0.01 0.1

1 10 100 1000 Cooling Rate (C/s)

Processing can change structure


ex: structure vs cooling rate of steel
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Types of Materials
Metals:
Strong, ductile high thermal & electrical conductivity opaque, reflective.

Polymers/plastics: Covalent bonding sharing of es


Soft, ductile, low strength, low density thermal & electrical insulators Optically translucent or transparent.

Ceramics: ionic bonding (refractory) compounds of metallic


& non-metallic elements (oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides) Brittle, glassy, elastic non-conducting (insulators)

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The Materials Selection Process


1. Pick Application
Determine required Properties
Properties: mechanical, electrical, thermal, magnetic, optical, deteriorative.

2. Properties 3. Material

Identify candidate Material(s)

Material: structure, composition.

Identify required Processing

Processing: changes structure and overall shape ex: casting, sintering, vapor deposition, doping forming, joining, annealing.

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ELECTRICAL
Electrical Resistivity of Copper:
6 5
Adapted from Fig. 18.8, Callister 7e. (Fig. 18.8 adapted from: J.O. Linde, Ann Physik 5, 219 (1932); and C.A. Wert and R.M. Thomson, Physics of Solids, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Company, New York, 1970.)

Resistivity, r

(10-8 Ohm-m)

4 3 2 1

-200

-100

T (C)

Adding impurity atoms to Cu increases resistivity. Deforming Cu increases resistivity.


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THERMAL
Space Shuttle Tiles:
--Silica fiber insulation offers low heat conduction.
Adapted from chapteropening photograph, Chapter 19, Callister 7e. (Courtesy of Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc.)

Thermal Conductivity of Copper:


--It decreases when you add zinc!
400 300 200

Thermal Conductivity (W/m-K)

100
0 0 10 20 30 40 Composition (wt% Zinc)

100 mm

Adapted from Fig. 19.4W, Callister 6e. (Courtesy of Lockheed Aerospace Ceramics Systems, Sunnyvale, CA) (Note: "W" denotes fig. is on CD-ROM.)

Adapted from Fig. 19.4, Callister 7e. (Fig. 19.4 is adapted from Metals Handbook: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous alloys and Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker, (Managing Editor), American Society for Metals, 1979, p. 315.)

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MAGNETIC
Magnetic Storage:
--Recording medium is magnetized by recording head.

Magnetic Permeability
vs. Composition:
--Adding 3 atomic % Si makes Fe a better recording medium!
Magnetization
Fe+3%Si Fe

Magnetic Field
Fig. 20.23, Callister 7e. (Fig. 20.23 is from J.U. Lemke, MRS Bulletin, Vol. XV, No. 3, p. 31, 1990.) Adapted from C.R. Barrett, W.D. Nix, and A.S. Tetelman, The Principles of Engineering Materials, Fig. 1-7(a), p. 9, 1973. Electronically reproduced by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

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OPTICAL
Transmittance:
--Aluminum oxide may be transparent, translucent, or opaque depending on the material structure.
single crystal polycrystal: low porosity polycrystal: high porosity

Adapted from Fig. 1.2, Callister 7e. (Specimen preparation, P.A. Lessing; photo by S. Tanner.)

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DETERIORATIVE
Stress & Saltwater...
--causes cracks!

Heat treatment: slows


crack speed in salt water!
crack speed (m/s)
10-8 as-is held at 160C for 1 hr before testing
Alloy 7178 tested in saturated aqueous NaCl solution at 23C

10-10

increasing load

Adapted from chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 17, Callister 7e. (from Marine Corrosion, Causes, and Prevention, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1975.)

Adapted from Fig. 11.20(b), R.W. Hertzberg, "Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials" (4th ed.), p. 505, John Wiley and Sons, 1996. (Original source: Markus O. Speidel, Brown Boveri Co.)

--material:
7150-T651 Al "alloy" (Zn,Cu,Mg,Zr)

4 mm

Adapted from Fig. 11.26, Callister 7e. (Fig. 11.26 provided courtesy of G.H. Narayanan and A.G. Miller, Boeing Commercial Chapter 1 - 25 Airplane Company.)

SUMMARY
Course Goals:
Use the right material for the job.

Understand the relation between properties, structure, and processing.


Recognize new design opportunities offered by materials selection.

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