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Guide Name Basics of Microwave Communication

Contents

What Is Microwave Communication?


Technologies and Terms Learned from a Quotation How Far Can Microwave Reach? Future of Microwave Communication

3ms Link Problem Feedback


If you find any problem in this document or any suggestions, please feedback to xiaojun 55794 or renpeiqi 36995email: xiaojun1980@huawei.com or renpeiqi@huawei.com

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

2013/3/26

Security Level:

Basics of Microwave Communication

By Transmission Network Marketing Support Dept.


www.huawei.com

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Contents
1 2 3 4

What Is Microwave Communication? Technologies and Terms Learned from a BOQ How Far Can Microwave Reach? Evolution Trend of Microwave Communication

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Huawei Confidential

Page 3

Microwave: A Tiny and Invisible Electromagnetic Wave


1mm 1m

Microwave communication

Microwave oven

Radio music

radial X radial

ultraviolet radiation

Visible Light

infrared ray

Microwave

Microwave: a tiny member of electromagnetic wave family


The wavelength of microwave ranges from 1 mm to 1 m. Microwave is tiny when it is compared with other members of the family. The frequency of microwave ranges from 300 MHz to 300 GHz. Therefore, the microwave is invisible to human eyes.

Microwave transmission: Microwave, like water waves, will be blocked.


Microwave can be blocked by objects which size are similar or greater than microwave length. Wavelength = Velocity of light / Frequency

Microwave usually refers to microwave communication


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Microwave Communication Is One of Transmission Modes


Microwave Fibers cables Satellite

Microwave communication Definition: a means of signal transmission using microwave as the signal carrier Frequency: a part of microwave frequency are used for microwave communication Usually band: 3 GHz to 42 GHz E-band: 71 GHz to 86 GHz Transmission mode: sight transmission

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Microwave VS. Fibers


Microwave's advantages
Regional communications, suitable for mountainous areas, forests, cities, and other regions Resistance to natural disasters, fast restoration Low investment, short construction period

Fibers' advantages
Large transmission capacities, strong networking capabilities Stable transmission quality, resistance to the effects of climate and terrains Long transmission distances

Large transmission capacity

secrecy

Fibers

Microwave
Microwave's disadvantages
Service is affected by climate and terrains Limited frequency resources, requirements for frequency licenses Smaller transmission capacities (compared with fibers)

Short construction period

Fibers' disadvantages
Long construction period, high costs on laying fibers, especially on complex terrains Occupation of a large land area

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Appearances and Features of Microwave Equipment


Full indoor microwave equipment
RF unit RF/IF and baseband unit

Full outdoor microwave equipment

Split microwave equipment

Antenna RF unit

Signal processing unit

IF cable Multiplexer Service and power cable IDU

High cost, large transmission capacity, stable transmission quality Applications to longdistance trunk transmission

No requirement for space in telecommunications rooms, unstable transmission quality, transmission of limited types of services Applications to metropolitan short-distance transmission

Convenient installation and maintenance, fast network construction Most widely-applied microwave equipment, applications to transmission medium distances, and short distances

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Microwave Transmission: Convert Baseband Signal to RF Signal


IDU ODU
Waveguide or RF cable IF cable (separate Mounted) No feeder needed (directly mounted) IF signal

Antenna

Baseband signal

RF signal

IF amplification

Power amplification

Up Converter Frequency

Modulation

IDU: indoor unit

Receives signals (FE/GE/STM1/E1) from the user side. Cross-connects the received signals (like what the optical transmission equipment does). Converts basebase signals to IF signals by means of modulation and amplification.

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Cross-connection

Filtering

Electromag netic wave

The signal conversion process in the receive direction is reverse to that in the transmit direction.

ODU: outdoor unit

Antenna

Converts IF signals to RF
signals by means of frequency translation, power amplification, and filtering. ODU is the essential part of microwave equipment.

Converts RF signals to
electromagnetic wave.

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Applications of Microwave Communication


Private Networks
Railway and expressway Water conservancy electricity Petroleum, harbors Radio and television, finance

Telecom Operators
Backup and supplementary communication resources of fiber links Backhaul transmission of base station services in mobile communication Comprehensive service transmission at the tail of fixed networks

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Contents
1 What Is Microwave Communication? 2 Technologies and Terms Learned from a BOQ 3 How Far Can Microwave Reach?

4 Evolution Trend of Microwave Communication

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Technologies and Terms Learned from a BOQ


7

Item
3 1 8G STM-1 1+1SD 0.6m With RTN610_620(16E1 (75 ohm) )
4 15G 1+0 0.6m With RTN605(1E_ 2*FE/2*GE/16*E1 ) 5 2 8G 400M 1+0 XPIC 0.6m With RTN910( 2*FE/2*GE ) 6 13G 200M 3+0 0.6m With RTN950(1*(4FE(RJ45)+2GE(RJ45)) 1*16*E1 )

Price(per hop) Quantity


3 1 2 1

Total Price

Total Price

8G STM-1 1+1SD 0.6m With RTN610_620 (16E1 (75 ohm) ) Service interface16E1 (75 ohm) Equipment TypeRTN610_620 Antenna Size0.6m RF Configuration1+1SD Radio Interface CapacitySTM-1 Frequency Band8G
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8G STM-1 1+1SD 0.6m With RTN610_620(16E1 (75 ohm) )

8G: One of the Operating Frequency Bands (for Long-Distance Transmission)


3.3
Long-distance trunk transmission

11

Mediumdistance/Shortdistance transmission

18

23City short-distance
transmission

5 6 7 8

11 13 15

18 23 26

38 42GHz

The ITU-R recommendations specify the following common frequency bands for microwave communication: 4/5/6/7/8/11/13/15/18/23/26/28/32/38/42 GHz. Frequency band is the necessary information for selecting ODU and antenna.

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1 8G

STM-1 1+1SD 0.6m With RTN610_620(16E1 (75 ohm) )

Frequency Arrangement Principles


Bandwidth of the frequency band

Frequency band of the low station


T/R spacing

f0

Frequency band of the high station


T/R spacing
Channel spacing Edge protection margin

n: number of channels in the frequency band

f0: center frequency

Channel spacing

f1

f2

fn

f1

f2

fn

For example: 8 GHz 8 GHz 7725--8275 f0 (MHz) 8000 T/R Spacing Channel Spacing Number of Working

(MHz)
311.32

(MHz)
14

Channels (n)
8

Channel spacing: difference between the center frequencies of Adjacent channels, for example, 3.5/7/14/28/56 MHz. Channel spacing is specified depending on services. High/Low station: A high station and a low station must be used in pairs. The station with a higher transmit frequency is a high station and the station with a lower transmit frequency is a low station. difference between the transmit frequency and receive frequency of an ODU.
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T/R spacing:

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8G

400M 1+0 XPIC 0.6m With RTN910( 2*FE/2*GE

400M: Radio Interface Capacity (Determined by Channel Spacing and Modulation Mode)
radio interface Capacity : service transmission capacity in the air

400 Mbit/s: channel spacing is 56 MHz modulation scheme is 256QAM The radio interface can transmit 400 Mbits services

Transmit end

Receive end

Customer services

256QAM modulation

Channel spacing

Services of a total rate of 400 Mbit/s

Channel spacing 56 Mbit/s

A greater channel spacing , a higher modulation scheme then a higher radio interface capacity
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8G

400M 1+0 XPIC 0.6m With RTN910( 2*FE/2*GE

Modulation Principles
The RF signals converted from digital baseband signals can be indicated Digital by the following formula:

A*COS (Wc*t+
Amplitude Frequency Phase

microwave communication usually adopts PSK and QAM modulation schemes. Demodulation is the reverse process of modulation.

Modulation Scheme

Carrier modulated Parameters

Carrier unmodulatled Parameters

QAM PSK ASK PSK

A, A
Page 15

Wc A, Wc Wc , A, Wc

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8G

400M 1+0 XPIC 0.6m With RTN910( 2*FE/2*GE

Common Microwave Modulation Schemes


QPSK signal vectors (binary code)
01 11

PSK

PSK: Digital information is represented by the phase changes of carriers. The common PSK modulation schemes include 2PSK, 4PSK, and 8PSK. 4PSK is also QPSK.K

00

10

Reference phase

The highest PSK modulation scheme is 8PSK. For more efficient bandwidth utilization, QAM modulation schemes are adopted.

16QAM signal vectors (quaternary code)


0010 0011 0110 0111 1110 1111 1010 1011

QAM

The QAM modulation schemes fully utilize the signal plane by combining amplitude and phase modulation. In QAM modulation

schemes, the signal vectors are well distributed on the signal plane.
The common QAM modulation schemes include 4QAM, 16QAM, 32QAM, 64QAM, 128QAM, and 256QAM.

0001 0000

0101 0100

1101 1100

1001 1000

The QAM modulation schemes achieve high bandwidth utilization efficiency. The 256QAM functions in octonary code.

Tips: In quaternary code, one point represents four bits. That is, 1 MHz can carry 4 Mbit/s traffic. (Service is less than 4 Mbit/s due to redundant bits.) The 16QAM modulation schemes is so called because the fourth power of two is 16. Do you understand why 256QAM is so called?
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8G

400M 1+0 XPIC 0.6m With RTN910( 2*FE/2*GE

Adaptive Modulation (AM)


Adaptive modulation (AM): By using the AM function, the microwave transmission system automatically changes the modulation scheme according to weather conditions. This function ensures the most effective service transmission in any weather conditions.

data Voice

256QAM

...

64QAM...QPSK...64QAM ...

256QAM

IF Module Data Source Tx Path Change Command AM Engine Quality Indicator Data Sink Rx Path

IF Module Rx Path Data Sink

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Working principles

Quality Indicator
AM Engine Change Command Tx Path Data Source

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15G 1+0 0.6m With RTN605(1E_ 2*FE/2*GE/16*E1 )

0.6 m: Antenna Diameter

0.6m

Commonly used in microwave communication

Parabolic antenna

Cassegrain antenna

Microwave antennas include parabolic antenna and Cassegrain antenna. The parabolic antenna is commonly used. The common diameters of microwave antennas are 0.3 m, 0.6 m, 0.9 m, 1.2 m, 1.8 m, 2.4 m, 3.0 m, and 3.7 m. Within one frequency band, N channels can be supported by one antenna.

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15G 1+0 0.6m With RTN605(1E_ 2*FE/2*GE/16*E1 )

Antennas Main parameters

Antenna gain:

Antenna gain indicates the concentricity of the energy radiated by an antenna. Antenna gain is the ratio of the power of the antenna at a point in space to the power of an ideal antenna (directionless) at the same point. The measurement unit is dBi. GdB = 20lgf(GHz) + 20lgD(m) + 10lg + 20.4dB In this formula, (antenna efficiency) = Antenna radiation power / Antenna input power If the frequency is specified, the antenna gain increases by 6 dB when the antenna diameter doubles. If the antenna diameter is specified, the antenna gain also increases by 6 dB when the frequency doubles.

3dB beam bandwidth angle:

Deviated from the center of the main lobe to one of the two sides, the halfpower (3 dB) point appears when the detected power is reduced by half. The angle between the two half-power points is called 3dB beam bandwidth angle. 3dB
Main Lobe

3dB beam bandwidth angle indicates the directivity of antennas. Larger antenna diameter ,smaller 3dB beam bandwidth angle, better directivity, and higher antenna gain. -3dB

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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8G STM-1 1+1SD 0.6m With RTN610_620(16E1 (75 ohm) )

1+1 SD: Anti-Fading Diversity Technology


The diversity technology is used to offset the effects of fading. To be specific, the system transmits the same information over two or more paths and selects or combines the signals from the receiver.

SD: Space Diversity

FD: Frequency Diversity


f1

f2

Inter-antenna distance H: 100 times of wavelength to 200 times of wavelength


Application scenarios: Areas prone to fading, such as rivers and lakes. Working principle: One antenna transmits signals and two antennas receive signals. There is a low probability that both receive antennas are interfered simultaneously. Note: The distance between two receive antennas is determined by frequency bands. Application scenarios: Areas where the weather changes frequently Working principle: Two frequencies are used to transmit the same service. There is a low probability that both frequencies are interfered simultaneously. Note: Frequency spacing needs to be increased to reduce the correlation of different frequencies.

Space diversity is more cost-effective and efficient that frequency diversity. Therefore, SD is used more often than FD. FD applies when more channels are available.
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8G STM-1 1+1SD 0.6m With RTN610_620(16E1 (75 ohm) )

Microwave Protection Schemes


Link-level protection RF protection: 1+1 FD, SD Service protection: LAG, N+1

Network-level protection TDM: SNCP, MSP ETH: ERPS, MSTP

Site 5
Ch4 7km Ch5 6km
Network management center

Site 2 Site 1
Ch1 6 km Ch2 5 km

Site 4
Ch3 2 km

Site6
Equipment-level equipment 1+1HSB,System control unit 1+1Cross-connect and clock unit Input power 1+1

Site 3
Ch8 6km

Ch7 5km

Site 7

Microwave equipment supports multiple protection schemes: link-level protection, equipmentlevel protection, and network-level protection. A combination of multiple protection schemes ensures 99.999% reliability of microwave equipment.
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8G 400M 1+0 XPIC 0.6m With RTN910( 2*FE/2*GE )

XPIC: Cross-Polarization Interference Cancellation


Vertical polarization The transmit end transmits two electromagnetic waves whose polarization directions are orthogonal to each other. The receive end cancels interference between the two electromagnetic waves by means of the XPIC function, thus retrieving the two original signals. The XPIC technology improves the utilization of frequency spectrum resources and thus doubles the transmission capacity.

Horizontal polarization

CCDP: Co-Channel Dual-Polarization

6 GHz channel configuration without the XPIC

6 GHz channel configuration with the XPIC

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13G 200M

3+0

0.6m With RTN950(1*(4FE(RJ45)+2GE(RJ45)) 1*16*E1

3+0: RF Configuration Mode


RF Configuration Meaning
A: number of configuration groups > 0 N: number of main links > 0 M: number of standby links 0

Required Channels

Number of ODUs

Ax(N+M)

N+M

Ax(N+M)

The commonly used configuration modes are N+0/1+1/N+1.

1+1
3+0
1+1 protection schemes include 1+1 HSB/FD/SD. The above figure shows 1+1 HSB/FD.

2+1
N+1 protection refers to the protection configuration that N microwave working channels in a microwave direction share one microwave protection channel. Page 23

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Hop: Units of Radio Links


One hop of radio link

Hop: One hop of radio link includes the equipment at the two ends, and the equipment may be comprised of multiple IDUs, ODUs, and antennas. Microwave equipment is quoted and sold by hop. The tree, chain, and ring topologies of microwave networks are all comprised of hops. Networked microwave requires two hops of communal IDUs, which are called combined stations. Combined stations help reduce the redundant IDUs.

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Contents

1 2 3

What Is Microwave Communication?


Technologies and Terms Learned from a BOQ How Far Can Microwave Reach? Evolution Trend of Microwave Communication

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Page 25

Factors That Affect Microwave Transmission Distances


2
Antenna gain

2 1
Space loss

Antenna gain

Transmissi on distance

Feeder loss

Feeder loss

4
Transmit end

Transmit power

Receive

sensitivity

Receive end

The microwave transmission distances ranges from 1 km to 100 km and the microwave transmission capacity reaches the GE level. Major factors: space loss, antenna gain, line loss, transmit power, and receive sensitivity Space loss is determined by the nature. Antenna gain, feeder loss, transmit power, and receive sensitivity are determined by the microwave equipment. (Transmit power Receive sensitivity + Antenna gain Feeder loss) - Space loss > 0 Network design reserves 30 dB as fade margin. Frequency bands, weather, terrains, equipment gain, and feeder loss affect microwave transmission distances. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 26

Major Factors That Affect Space Loss


Space loss

Free space loss

Obstacle and terrain

Weather (rain, snow, fog)

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Free Space Loss

Natural factors

Equipment factors

Free space Loss Ls (dB) = 92.4 + 20logF + 20logD


F: transmit frequency (unit: GHz) D: transmission distance (unit: km) For example: loss of transmission of 13 GHz signals over 20 km: Ls = 92.4 + 22.3 + 26 = 140.7 (dB)
The attenuation of electromagnetic waves due to spreading in free space is called free space loss. Free space is the ideal vacuum space where electromagnetic waves do not generate reflection, refraction, scattering, and other physical phenomena.

Higher frequency band, lager Free space loss

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Example: Loss of Signals at Different Frequencies in Air


Loss in air (dB/Km)
1.0 23GHz

Temperature = 40oC Humidity = 80%


0.4 Temperature = 30oC Humidity = 50% Frequency (GHz) 0 25 50

Page 29

Obstacle and Terrain


Straight line
Impacts of obstacles

Natural factors

Equipment factors

Straight line

Reflection
Poor transmission quality!

Reflection
Good transmission quality!

Category D Large-area water surface Category C Plains

Impacts of terrains

Category B Hills Category A Mountains or cities with dense buildings

The terrains whose reflection coefficient is lower are more suitable for microwave transmission.

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Increasing reflection coefficient

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Weather (Snow, Rain, Fog)

Natural factors

Equipment factors

Rain, snow, and fog are the major weather factors that affect microwave transmission. Raindrops or ice causes scattering loss of microwave signals. Rain has the greatest impact on microwave transmission. Microwave signals at frequencies lower than 10 GHz can hardly be affected by rain. Microwave signals at frequencies higher than 10 GHz can be affected by rain; the higher the frequency, the greater the rain fading.

Snow and fog cause loss of about 0.5 dB/km for microwave signals.

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Equipment Factors That Affect Microwave Transmission


Antenna gain
The greater the antenna gain, the longer the transmission distance.

Natural factors

Equipment factors

Feeder loss
The lower the feed line loss, the longer the transmission distance

Transmit power
The higher the transmit power, the longer the transmission distance.

Receive sensitivity
The lower the receiver sensitivity, the longer the transmission distance.

Antenna gain
The lower the frequency band, the larger the antenna diameter, and the higher the antenna gain.

Feeder loss Transmit power


The lower the frequency band, the shorter the feeder, and the lower the feeder loss. The lower the frequency band and modulation scheme, the higher the transmit power. The lower the frequency band and modulation scheme, the smaller the channel spacing, and the lower (better) the receive sensitivity. With the given channel spacing, the smaller the service capacity, the better the receive sensitivity.

Receive sensitivity

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Contents

1 2 3

What Is Microwave Communication?


Technologies and Terms Learned from a BOQ How Far Can Microwave Reach? Evolution Trend of Microwave Communication

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Page 33

History of Microwave Transmission


Capacity
>1G 400M 155M 34/140M 2/4/6/8M 30-1920K

Analog microwave

Digital microwave E_BAND IP TDM PDH


2000s

SDH
2010s

Small capacity Analog microwave 1970s 1950s In 1947, Bell Telephone Laboratories (BTL) built the first analog microwave circuit (TD-X) between New York and Boston. This circuit adopted the frequency modulation (FM) mode. In 1950, the 4 GHz TD-2 microwave system was used for the first time to provide commercial telephone services. In the late 1960s, the first digital microwave system was built to improve the voice quality. In 1988, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) internationalized Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) of U.S.A as Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) transport network standards. The SDH microwave system developed rapidly in the 1990s. In 2007, equipment vendors launched the IP radio (Hybrid/Packet radio) equipment that provided higher transmission efficiency. 1990s 1980s

Analog microwave

Digital microwave TDM

Digital microwave IP Digital microwave E_BAND

In accordance with the LTE deployment, equipment vendors started the R&D efforts on E-BAND products in 2010. These products will be put into wide commercial use in 2012.
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TDM Radio and IP Radio


TDM radio PDH/SDH
Application scenario: 2G, majority of TDM services, small capacity Frame structure: Radio interfaces transmit TDM services. Ethernet services are mapped to TDM services

IP radio Hybrid
Application scenario: 2G/3G hybrid transmission, majority of E1 services Frame structure: Radio interfaces transmit Ethernet and TDM services in Native mode.

Packet
Application scenario: 3G/4G applications, majority of ETH services Frame structure: Radio interfaces transmit Ethernet services. TDM services are encapsulated into Ethernet packets.

eliminated gradually

Now mainstream

mainstream in future

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What Is E-Band Radio?


ITU-R Radio-Frequency Channel Arrangements
10 20 30 40 50 60 70

e-band
80 90

6L/6U 7/8 1113 15

18

23

26

38 42

55 58 (TDD)

71GHz - 86GHz

Traditional Radio Link

Full Outdoor Ethernet DC

Native Ethernet traffic in air

Frequency band: 71-76 GHz, 81-86 GHz Native data transmission: a maximum transmission capacity of 1500 Mbit/s Typical transmission distance: 1-1.5 km Full outdoor solution

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Thanks!

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