Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 225

CLOCKWISE

Rules
+10 on all direct questions. Infinite pounce and infinite bounce. +10/-5 on all pounce. Pounces close on a rough count of 10. No part points on pounce. Its all or nothing.

1
Iran's nuclear facilities were hit by a bizarre attack which forced nuclear plant workstations to pump the song X by heavy metal band Y through the speakers at full volume. The Iranian scientists say that they believe the attackers used Metasploit, a common hacking tool which provides a variety of ways to penetrate supposedly secure networks. "There was also some music playing randomly on several of the workstations during the middle of the night with the volume maxed out," says the scientist. "I believe it was playing 'X' by Y.

While the US military has used heavy metal music as a weapon in the past it seems unlikely that a stealth attack would announce its presence with a few blasting power chords, suggesting the hit was more likely the work of a thrill-seeking hacker. The Iranians say they have been unable to verify any details of the attack. What is the Song and Band?

Answer

2
Clifford Christopher Cocks was a mathematician and cryptographer at Government Communications Headquarters in Britain. He invented the X algorithm, used today for almost everything over the Internet, about three years before Adi Shamir, Leonard Adleman and Ronald Rivest independently developed it at MIT. At GCHQ, Cocks was told about James H. Ellis' "non-secret encryption" and that no one had been able to find a way to actually implement the concept. Cocks was intrigued, and hence invented X. Although GCHQ appears not to have used the idea, it treated X as classified information and hence Cocks' prior achievement remained unknown until 1997. What am I talking about?

Answer
RSA Algorithm. It is an internet encryption and authentication algorithm.

3
In September 1983, 14 trucks containing around 10 million unwanted X Y showed up at the Alamogordo landfill. They dumped their cargo there and went along their way. The company had an year that was far worse than expected, largely because it had staked so much on two pivotal releases: its home console version of "Pac-Man" and a game based on the blockbuster film, "E.T." Both titles hit so far below company and public expectations that around 5 million copies of each were returned to the company. Stuck with millions of the games, X opted to bury them. The company had the landfill owners crush the Y with a steamroller, and the whole pile was paved over with concrete. X Y?

Answer
Atari Cartridges

4
As a student in Holland, X was expelled from the Utrecht Technical School for a prank committed by another student. Even after receiving a doctorate, his lack of a diploma initially prevented him from obtaining a position at the University of Wurzburg. He even was accused of having stolen the discovery of Y by those who failed to observe them. When asked what his thoughts were at the moment of his discovery, he replied "I didn't think, I investigated.

Nevertheless, X was a brilliant experimentalist who never sought honours or financial profit for his research and donated the money he received from the Nobel Prize to his University. He refused to take out any patents in order that the world could freely benefit from his work. At the time of his death, X was nearly bankrupt from the inflation that followed World War I.

Answer
William Roentgen

Answer
The phantom settlement that appeared on Google Maps and Google Earth which does not actually exist.

6
The picture shown on the next slide is titled Lifting a Dreamer by Yiying Lu. It was created by her as a sweet greeting to her overseas friends. The minds of a particular company found it on iStockphoto and used this image by slightly modifying it. What is its current use?

Answer
Twitters Fail Whale.

7
It began with victims complaining of a sore throat. They were then afflicted with hallucinations and madness before their bodies ultimately locked up. While sufferers appeared to be asleep, they were actually fully conscious but unable to move. Many died during this stage, but for those who recovered, the nightmare was far from over. Survivors of the disease suffered horrifying behavioural problems for the rest of their lives, becoming excessively violent. On top of all this, they became emotionally indifferent, unable to recognize things such as the beauty of art. Scientists hypothesise that the bacteria/virus that caused the sore throat triggers an immune response that also destroys parts of the brain. What disease?

Answer
Sleepy Sickness or Encephalitis Lethargica

8
________, in business jargon, is a private telephone number that is handled at a higher priority than a public line. _______often has some or all of the following properties: It gets answered outside of working hours It does not make the caller wait on hold or navigate through cumbersome voice menus The line rings straight through to high-level management or technicians without having to be transferred from front lines. The number is only given to selected people Shields technical personnel from receiving irrelevant calls _______are common in many industries. The phone numbers are typically given to key customers so that they may reach important individuals in case of emergencies or critical situations. They can also provide direct access to politicians or notable people. FITB

Answer
Batphone The name is derived from Commissioner Gordons secure line to the Batphone in the TV series.

9 I Aim at the Stars (1960) is a biopic of X who is generally


credited as the father of the US space program. Film concentrates on the later part of Xs life when he was brought to the US after World War II in a rocket race with the Russians. The movie barely mentions the V-2 rocket that X designed and helped build for to strike London and Brussels indiscriminately during the war. The movie doesnt mention at all that X was a member of the Nazi Party and an officer in the notorious Waffen SS, a Nazi military unit condemned at the Nuremberg Trials as a criminal organization. Nor does it talk about the concentration camp inmates, some selected by X himself, who served as slave laborers in building the rockets. According to some, more people died making the V-2s than ever were killed by them. Whose biopic?

Answer
Wernher Van Braun.

10
The X effect can refers to a set of research results that indicate that listening to X's music may induce a short-term improvement on the performance of certain kinds of mental tasks known as "spatial-temporal reasoning. Popularized versions of the hypothesis, which suggest that "listening to X makes you smarter", or that early childhood exposure to classical music has a beneficial effect on mental development. The term was first coined by Alfred A. Tomatis who used X's music as the listening stimulus in his work attempting to cure a variety of disorders. The approach has been popularized in a book by Don Campbell, and is based on an experiment published in Nature suggesting that listening to X temporarily boosted scores on one portion of the IQ test. As a result, the Governor of Georgia, Zell Miller, proposed a budget to provide every child born in Georgia with a CD of X music.

Answer
Mozart Effect.

11
X is a discontinued version of the Unix operating system, licensed by Y from AT&T Corporation. Y purchased a license for Version 7 Unix in 1979, and announced on August 25, 1980 that it would make it available for the microcomputer market. The Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) later acquired exclusive rights to X, superseded it with SCO UNIX. X varied from its 7th Edition origins by incorporating elements from BSD and soon possessed the most widely installed base of any Unix version due to the popularity of the inexpensive x86 processor. Y did not sell X directly, but licensed it to OEMs such as Intel, Tandy, Altos and SCO. ID X and Y.

Answer
X Xenix Y - Microsoft

12
The company Temmler produced _________ under the trademark Pervitin and so did the German and Finnish militaries. It was also dubbed "Pilot's chocolate" or "Pilot's salt". It was widely distributed across rank and division, from elite forces to tank crews and aircraft personnel, with many millions of tablets being distributed throughout the war. Its use by German Panzer crews also lead to it being known as "Panzerschokolade" ("Panzer chocolate" or "tankers' chocolate"). From 1942 until his death in 1945, Adolf Hitler may have been given intravenous injections of _________ by his personal physician Theodor Morell. It is possible that it was used to treat Hitler's speculated Parkinson's disease, or that his Parkinson-like symptoms that developed from 1940 onwards resulted from using _________. In Japan, __________ was sold under the registered trademark of Philopon by Dainippon Pharmaceuticals for civilian and military use.

Answer
Methamphetamine

ANTICLOCKWISE

Rules
+10 on all direct questions. Infinite pounce and infinite bounce. +10/-5 on all pounce. Pounces close on a rough count on 10. No part points on pounce. Its all or nothing.

1
In 1684 X came to visit him at Cambridge. After they had been some time together, X asked him what he thought the curve would be that would be described by the planets supposing the force of attraction towards the sun to be reciprocal to the square of their distance from it. Y replied immediately that it would be an ellipse. The Doctor, struck with joy and amazement, asked him how he knew it. Why, saith he, I have calculated it. Whereupon X asked him for his calculation without any farther delay. Y looked among his papers but could not find it, but he promised him to renew it and then to send it him A quote by Abraham De Moivre about X and Y. Who be they?

Answer
X Dr. Edmund Halley Y Sir Isaac Newton

Others taunt me with having knelt at well-curbs Always wrong to the light, so never seeing Deeper down in the well than where the water Gives me back in a shining surface picture Me myself in the summer heaven godlike Looking out of a wreath of fern and cloud puffs. Once, when trying with chin against a well-curb, I discerned, as I thought, beyond the picture, Through the picture, a something white, uncertain, Something more of the depthsand then I lost it. Water came to rebuke the too clear water. One drop fell from a fern, and lo, a ripple Shook whatever it was lay there at bottom, Blurred it, blotted it out. What was that whiteness? Truth? A pebble of quartz? For once, then, something.

The previous slide featured a poem titled For Once, Then, Something written by Robert Frost. Whose works is Robert Frost referring to?

Answer
Throughout his life, Frost was drawn to science. As a boy, he sold magazine subscriptions to earn a telescope. He subscribed to the Scientific American. When he taught at Amherst, he knew Nobelist Niels Bohr and wrote a poem about his atomic wave and particle theories.

3
X is a term associated with paranoia and conspiracy theories. A well-constructed X would approximate a Faraday cage, reducing the amount of (typically harmless) radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation passing through to the interior of the structure.
There was a viral YouTube which popularized X.

Ive got my X on Hip hip hip hooray My X will shield me From your mind-controlling ray Ive got my X on To insulate my brain As long as I have got my X on, Ill be sane Naughty little voices chanting Naughty little thoughts implanting Aluminium will strike them dumb Wear a X Aliens and goblins Were watching me in bed Until I took some ______ And wrapped it round my head Now Ive got my X on My mind cannot be soiled Ive got my X on And their evil plans are foiled

Answer
Tinfoil Hat

4
X's flower clock was was intended to take advantage of the fact several plants that open or close their flowers at particular times of the day to accurately predict the time. X termed it specifically the Horologium Florae, and proposed the concept in the 1751 publication Philosophia Botanica. He may never have planted such a garden, but the idea was attempted by several botanical gardens in the early 19th century, with mixed success. Many plants exhibit a strong circadian rhythm, and a few have been observed to open at quite a regular time, but the accuracy of such a clock is diminished because flowering time is affected by weather and seasonal effects. The flowering times recorded by X are also subject to differences in daylight due to latitude with measurements are based on flowering times at the university where he taught at. Identify X who proposed this concept, but was obviously more famous for a more telling and lasting contribution.

Answer
Carl Linnaeus

5
1. Vint Cerf 2. Famed MIT tech guru Neal Gershenfeld 3. Psychology professor and dolphin researcher Diana Reiss 4. "Shock the Monkey" musician and techie Peter Gabriel Whats the big idea?(images on the next slide)

Answer
Interspecies Internet To facilitate communication between humans and animals using the internet.

6
Identify the artists and the album name.

Answer
Artists - Snoop Dogggg/Lion + Buzz Aldrin (aka Doc Rendezvous) Album Rocket Experience

7
The term X when translated to Greek means "purple pigment". People suffering from X gums recede to give the appearance of fangs, their skin bubbles and boils when exposed to sunlight and they can only be treated with injections of blood. It has been theorized that X sufferers contributed to the vampire legend. X is caused when heme, a part of hemoglobin, isn't produced properly. Scientists state that this could be because of a mutation in the DNA, but that doesn't explain why alcohol, drugs, infections and even oestrogen could trigger attacks of certain types of X. Scientists note that they've identified a gene mutation that's associated with having the disease in 20% of people. They also note that 80% of cases have no such mutation.

Answer
Porphyria

//Program YX def main(): X. fly() if __name__ == '__main__': main() //End of program This is the first implementation of a popular module X on the Google App engine on April 7th, 2008. The Google App engine version of the X module is more elaborate than the original module in a certain language. It has a 10% chance of redirecting to a certain website, else it renders the text of the comic into HTML. Put Funda or give Y X.

Answer
YX Import AntiGravity Funda It is the easter egg import gravity that appeared in Python 3 after it was introduced in an xkcd comic.

9
The ______________ is a communications protocol for controlling, monitoring, and diagnosing coffee pots. It is specified in RFC 2324, published on 1 April 1998 as part of an April Fools prank. The wording of the protocol made it clear that it wasn't entirely serious; noting, for example, that "there is a strong, dark, rich requirement for a protocol designed espressoly for the brewing of coffee". Despite the joking nature of its origins, the protocol has remained as a minor presence online. The editor Emacs includes a fully functional implementation of it, and a number of bug reports exist complaining about Mozillas lack of support for the protocol.

Answer
Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol

10
X found himself attracted to Mina Miller, whose father was a co-founder of Chautauqua, a devout Methodist, and quite different in his religious views from X, who never attended church -- his deafness providing a plausible excuse. In a diary which X kept during these days, he wrote: "My conscience seems to be oblivious of Sundays. It must be encrusted with a sort of irreligious tartar." X taught Mina the Morse code, and they enjoyed communicating secretly by tapping out messages on each other's hands. X claims that he proposed and was accepted in this manner.

Answers
Thomas Alva Edison

11
XY resembles a cauliflower, but is of a light green colour and the inflorescence (the bud) has an approximate selfsimilar character, with the branched meristems making a logarithmic spiral. In this sense the Y's shape approximates a natural fractal; each bud is composed of a series of smaller buds, all arranged in yet another logarithmic spiral. This self-similar pattern continues at several smaller levels. The number of spirals on the head of XY is a Fibonacci number. In computer graphics, its pattern has been modelled as a recursive helical arrangement of cones. What vegetable is this?

Answer
Romanesco Broccoli

12

_______________ (or WoZ) was a company founded in 2001 by Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak. WoZ made wireless hardware for keeping track of the physical location of enabled objects. The licensable technology consisted of three components: Smart Tag A - Tag containing GPS that could be attached to various objects, such as a brief case or pet. "Acceptable areas" could be pre-programmed, such that the tag would signal the Tag Detector when it was moved outside them. The tag communicated over a wireless network was named WoZNet" and leveraged GPS techniques to transmit the tag's position over extreme distances with very little power. Tag Detector - This was a handheld device that could monitor a collection of Smart Tags, and provide a distance and direction to help locate them when they were lost. It also communicated with the WoZ Service when a Smart Tag was lost. WoZ Service - An internet based service that could provide the locations of the various Smart Tags, as well as send an email or SMS notification when a Smart Tag moved outside of its "acceptable area.

Answer
Wheel of Zeus

Differential

Rules:
Differential Scoring Rules apply. Write down your answers Scoring Pattern: <3 teams - +10 3-6 teams - +5 >6 teams - +2.5

Answer
Neil deGrasse Tyson in Superman

Answer
Duke (Mascot of Java)

Answer
Nikola Tesla as the Night Machine in Earth-616

Answer
AIMs Running Man Logo.

Answer
Carl Sagan in Atomic Robo

Answer
Adobe Creative Suite CS3

Answer
Isaac Newton in SHIELD (Earth-616)

Answer
Darwin (for MacOS)

Answer
Richard Feynman in Manhattan Projects.

10

Answer
Plan 9 from Bell Labs

11

Answer
Freudian Psychoanalysis (Freud will do). Jung.

12

Answer
Leonardo Da Vinci in SHIELD (Earth-616)

LVC

Rules:
Stakes on each slide. No Maximizers. List is Monty Exhaustive.

Slide 1 Stakes - +350/-250

No, were just kidding

Set 1
+40/-20

Set 2
+30/-15

+20/-10

Set 4
+5/0

ANSWER

iOS Codenames
iOS 1.0 Alpine iOS 1.1 Little Bear iOS 1.1.1 Snowbird iOS 1.1.2 Oktoberfest iOS 2.0 Big Bear iOS 2.1 Sugarbowl iOS 2.2 Timberline iOS 3.0 Kirkwood iOS 3.1 Northstar iOS 3.2 Wildcat iOS 4.0 Apex iOS 4.1 Baker iOS 4.2 Jasper iOS 4.2.5 Phoenix

Stage 3 - The Ultimate Stage

6 Stages, 3 questions each Stage. Points break up

Write Bro Stylz +60/-30 after 1st stage +50/-25 after 2nd stage +40/-20 after 3rd stage +30/-15 after 4th stage +20/-10 after 5th stage +10/-0 after 6th stage

1st Stage
3 questions +5 each +20/-10 on 2nd slide +10/-0 on 3rd slide

1
Although several Nobel Prizes were awarded for research related to the concepts of the ____ , X Einstein statistics and XEinstein condensate. X himself was not awarded the Nobel Prize. Xs work on particle statistics, which clarified the behaviour of photons and opened the door to new ideas on statistics of Microsystems that obey the rules of quantum theory, was one of the top ten achievements of 20th century science and could be considered in the Nobel Prize class. However, when asked about the omission, X himself said: I have got all the recognition I deserve.

2)

3)+20/-0

Anyone going for the ultimate stage raise your hands


Stakes are +60/-30

2nd stage
3 questions +5 each +20/-10 on 2nd slide +10/-0 on 3rd slide

1)
ID

2)+30/-15
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the X graph is a symmetric bipartite cubic graph with 16 vertices and 24 edges

3)+20/-0

Anyone going for the ultimate stage raise your hands


Stakes are +50/-25

3rd stage
3 questions +5 each +20/-10 on 2nd slide +10/-0 on 3rd slide

1)
X created the world's first _______ vaccine, based on oral administration of attenuated ________ virus. In researching a potential _______ vaccine, he had focused on live viruses that were attenuated (rendered non-virulent) rather than on killed viruses. X viewed the live vaccine as more powerful, since it entered the intestinal tract directly and could provide lifelong immunity. Also, administering a vaccine by mouth is easy, whereas an injection requires medical facilities and is more expensive. X's vaccine was taken by the first child on February 27, 1950, and within 10 years was being used on four continents.

2a)
ID the gentleman on the left

2b)

3)

Anyone going for the ultimate stage raise your hands


Stakes are +40/-20

4th stage
3 questions +5 each +20/-10 on 2nd slide +10/-0 on 3rd slide

1)
X had possessions stolen from his castle, so he suspected his servants. He devised a plan to see which of his servants stole from him. He had a jet black cock (cockerel or rooster) which he then coated in soot and placed in a darkened room. He then told the servants that the rooster knew if the hands petting him were thieving hands. He then instructed his servants to go in and pet him. The one servant with clean hands had a dirty conscience.

2
X was the most innovative clock and scientific instrument maker of his time. Among his major horological inventions were the cross-beat escapement, and the remontoire, two mechanisms which improved the accuracy of mechanical clocks of the time by orders of magnitude. This allowed for the first time clocks to be used as scientific instruments, with enough accuracy to time the passing of stars and other heavenly bodies in the crosshairs of telescopes to start accurately charting stellar positions. Working as an instrument maker for the court of William IV in Kassel he played a pivotal role in developing the first astronomical charts. He invented _______s as a working tool for himself for his astronomical calculations, but as a "craftsman/scholar" rather than a "book scholar" he failed to publish his invention for a long time.

3)

Anyone going for the ultimate stage raise your hands


Stakes are +30/-15

5th Stage
3 questions +5 each +20/-10 on 2nd slide +10/-0 on 3rd slide

1)
The X was a digital mechanical calculator invented by German mathematician ____________ around 1672 and completed in 1694. The name comes from the translation of the German term for its operating mechanism; staffelwalze meaning 'stepped drum'. It was the first calculator that could perform all four arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Its intricate precision gearwork, however, was somewhat beyond the fabrication technology of the time; mechanical problems, in addition to a design flaw in the carry mechanism, prevented the machines from working reliably. Two prototypes were built; today only one survives in the National Library of Lower Saxony in Hannover, Germany.

2)+30/-15
Coat of arms of whom ??

3) +20/-0

A recently rediscovered papers of ______ revealed his secret interest in alchemy and that he wrote extensively about his experiments. ______'s alchemical studies were kept secret during his lifetime.

Anyone going for the ultimate stage raise your hands


Stakes are +20/-10

6th stage
3 questions +5 each +20/-10 on 2nd slide +10/-0 on 3rd slide

1)

2)

3)
X considered the ideas in Y's paper to be essentially the same as his own, there were differences. Y appeared to have envisioned _______ as a kind of feedback mechanism keeping varieties adapted to their environment. They point to a largely overlooked passage of Y's famous 1858 paper: The action of this principle is exactly like that of the centrifugal governor of the steam engine, which checks and corrects any irregularities almost before they become evident; and in like manner no unbalanced deficiency can ever reach any conspicuous magnitude, because it would make itself felt at the very first step, by rendering existence difficult and extinction almost sure soon to follow.

Anyone going for the ultimate stage raise your hands


Stakes are +10/-0

Answers

1st Stage
3 questions +5 each +20/-10 on 2nd slide +10/-0 on 3rd slide

1
Although several Nobel Prizes were awarded for research related to the concepts of the ____ , X Einstein statistics and XEinstein condensate. X himself was not awarded the Nobel Prize. Xs work on particle statistics, which clarified the behaviour of photons and opened the door to new ideas on statistics of Microsystems that obey the rules of quantum theory, was one of the top ten achievements of 20th century science and could be considered in the Nobel Prize class. However, when asked about the omission, X himself said: I have got all the recognition I deserve.

Answer
S. N. Bose

2)

Answer
Higgs Theory

3)+20/-0

Answer
Higgs Boson/God Particle

2nd stage
3 questions +5 each +20/-10 on 2nd slide +10/-0 on 3rd slide

1)
ID

Answer
Johann Benedict Listing

2)+30/-15
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the X graph is a symmetric bipartite cubic graph with 16 vertices and 24 edges

Answer
Mobius-Kantor Graph

3)+20/-0

Answer
Mobius Snail

3rd stage
3 questions +5 each +20/-10 on 2nd slide +10/-0 on 3rd slide

1)
X created the world's first _______ vaccine, based on oral administration of attenuated ________ virus. In researching a potential _______ vaccine, he had focused on live viruses that were attenuated (rendered non-virulent) rather than on killed viruses. X viewed the live vaccine as more powerful, since it entered the intestinal tract directly and could provide lifelong immunity. Also, administering a vaccine by mouth is easy, whereas an injection requires medical facilities and is more expensive. X's vaccine was taken by the first child on February 27, 1950, and within 10 years was being used on four continents.

Answer
Hilary Koprowski

2a)
ID the gentleman on the left

2b)

Answer
Jonas Salk

3)

Answer
Density of people having polio

4th stage
3 questions +5 each +20/-10 on 2nd slide +10/-0 on 3rd slide

1)
X had possessions stolen from his castle, so he suspected his servants. He devised a plan to see which of his servants stole from him. He had a jet black cock (cockerel or rooster) which he then coated in soot and placed in a darkened room. He then told the servants that the rooster knew if the hands petting him were thieving hands. He then instructed his servants to go in and pet him. The one servant with clean hands had a dirty conscience.

Answer
John Napier

2
X was the most innovative clock and scientific instrument maker of his time. Among his major horological inventions were the cross-beat escapement, and the remontoire, two mechanisms which improved the accuracy of mechanical clocks of the time by orders of magnitude. This allowed for the first time clocks to be used as scientific instruments, with enough accuracy to time the passing of stars and other heavenly bodies in the crosshairs of telescopes to start accurately charting stellar positions. Working as an instrument maker for the court of William IV in Kassel he played a pivotal role in developing the first astronomical charts. He invented _______s as a working tool for himself for his astronomical calculations, but as a "craftsman/scholar" rather than a "book scholar" he failed to publish his invention for a long time.

Answer
Joost Burgi

3)

Answer
Napiers Bones

5th Stage
3 questions +5 each +20/-10 on 2nd slide +10/-0 on 3rd slide

1)
The X was a digital mechanical calculator invented by German mathematician ____________ around 1672 and completed in 1694. The name comes from the translation of the German term for its operating mechanism; staffelwalze meaning 'stepped drum'. It was the first calculator that could perform all four arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Its intricate precision gearwork, however, was somewhat beyond the fabrication technology of the time; mechanical problems, in addition to a design flaw in the carry mechanism, prevented the machines from working reliably. Two prototypes were built; today only one survives in the National Library of Lower Saxony in Hannover, Germany.

Answer
Leibnitz

2)
Coat of arms of whom ??

Answer
Coat of arms of Newton

3) +20/-0

A recently rediscovered papers of ______ revealed his secret interest in alchemy and that he wrote extensively about his experiments. ______'s alchemical studies were kept secret during his lifetime.

Answer
Newtons silver to gold alchemical experiments

6th stage
3 questions +5 each +20/-10 on 2nd slide +10/-0 on 3rd slide

1)

Answer
Voyage of the HMS Beagle

2)
X considered the ideas in Y's paper to be essentially the same as his own, there were differences. Y appeared to have envisioned _______ as a kind of feedback mechanism keeping varieties adapted to their environment. They point to a largely overlooked passage of Y's famous 1858 paper: The action of this principle is exactly like that of the centrifugal governor of the steam engine, which checks and corrects any irregularities almost before they become evident; and in like manner no unbalanced deficiency can ever reach any conspicuous magnitude, because it would make itself felt at the very first step, by rendering existence difficult and extinction almost sure soon to follow.

Answer
Wallace and Darwin/ Natural Selection

3)

Answer
Darwin and Wallace Medal

Anyone going for the ultimate stage raise your hands


Stakes are +10/-0

The ultimate stage is


Similar discoveries are made by scientists working independently of each other. 1st Stage - Higgs boson, Englert, Brout; Higgs; Guralnik, Hagen, and Kibble. 2nd Stage - Mobius strip, Mobius and Listing 3rd Stage - Polio vaccine, Koprowski, Salk, Sabin. 4th Stage - logarithms, Napier and Joost Brgi 5th Stage - Calculus, Newton and Leibnitz 6th Stage - Natural selection, Darwin, Wallace