Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 49

Sean DeHart Smriti Chopra Hannes Daepp


DC Motors (Brushed and Brushless) Brief Introduction to AC Motors Stepper Motors Linear Motors

Sean DeHart

Electric Motor Basic Principles

Interaction between magnetic field and current carrying wire produces a force Opposite of a generator

Sean DeHart

Conventional (Brushed) DC Motors

Permanent magnets for outer stator Rotating coils for inner rotor Commutation performed with metal contact brushes and contacts designed to reverse the polarity of the rotor as it reaches horizontal

Sean DeHart

2 pole brushed DC motor commutation

Sean DeHart

Conventional (Brushed) DC Motors

Common Applications: Small/cheap devices such as toys, electric tooth brushes, small drills Lab 3 Pros: Cheap, simple Easy to control - speed is governed by the voltage and torque by the current through the armature Cons: Mechanical brushes - electrical noise, arcing, sparking, friction, wear, inefficient, shorting

Sean DeHart

DC Motor considerations
Back EMF - every motor is also a generator More current = more torque; more voltage = more speed Load, torque, speed characteristics

Shunt-wound, series-wound (aka universal motor), compound DC motors

Sean DeHart

Brushless DC Motors

Essential difference - commutation is performed electronically with controller rather than mechanically with brushes

Sean DeHart

Brushless DC Motor Commutation

Commutation is performed electronically using a controller (e.g. HCS12 or logic circuit) Similarity with stepper motor, but with less # poles Needs rotor positional closed loop feedback: hall effect sensors, back EMF, photo transistors

Sean DeHart

BLDC (3-Pole) Motor Connections

Has 3 leads instead of 2 like brushed DC Delta (greater speed) and Wye (greater torque) stator windings



Sean DeHart


Brushless DC Motors
Applications CPU cooling fans CD/DVD Players Electric automobiles Pros (compared to brushed DC) Higher efficiency Longer lifespan, low maintenance Clean, fast, no sparking/issues with brushed contacts Cons Higher cost More complex circuitry and requires a controller

Sean DeHart


AC Motors
Two main types of AC motor, Synchronous and

Induction. Synchronous motors supply power to both the rotor and the stator, where induction motors only supply power to the stator coils, and rely on induction to generate torque.

Sean DeHart


AC Induction Motors (3 Phase)

Use poly-phase (usually 3) AC current to create a rotating magnetic field on the stator This induces a magnetic field on the rotor, which tries to follow stator - slipping required to produce torque Workhorses of the industry - high powered applications

Sean DeHart


AC induction Motors
Induction motors only supply current to the stator,

and rely on a second induced current in the rotor coils. This requires a relative speed between the rotating magnetic field and the rotor. If the rotor somehow matches or exceeds the magnetic field speed, there is condition called slip. Slip is required to produce torque, if there is no slip, there is no difference between the induced pole and the powered pole, and therefore no torque on the shaft.
Sean DeHart

Synchronous AC Motors
Current is applied to both the Rotor and the Stator.
This allows for precise control (stepper motors), but

requires mechanical brushes or slip rings to supply DC current to the rotor. There is no slip since the rotor does not rely on induction to produce torque.

Sean DeHart


Stepper Motor
A stepper motor is an electromechanical device which converts electrical pulses into discrete mechanical movements. The shaft or spindle of a stepper motor rotates in discrete step increments when electrical command pulses are applied to it in the proper sequence.

Smriti Chopra

Main features
The sequence of the applied pulses is directly related to the direction of motor shafts rotation.

The speed of the motor shafts rotation is directly related to the frequency of the input pulses.
The length of rotation is directly related to the number of input pulses applied.

Smriti Chopra

Stepper Motor Characteristics

Open loop
The motors response to digital input pulses provides open-loop control, making the motor simpler and less costly to control.

Very reliable since there are no contact brushes in the motor. Therefore the life of the motor is simply dependant on the life of the bearing.

Incremental steps/changes
The rotation angle of the motor is proportional to the input pulse.

Speed increases -> torque decreases

Smriti Chopra

Torque vs. Speed

Torque varies inversely with speed.

Current is proportional to torque.

Torque means Current , which leads to motor damage. Torque thus needs to be limited to rated value of motor.
Smriti Chopra

Disadvantages of stepper motors

There are two main disadvantages of stepper motors:
Resonance can occur if not properly controlled.
This can be seen as a sudden loss or drop in torque at certain speeds which can result in missed steps or loss of synchronism. It occurs when the input step pulse rate coincides with the natural oscillation frequency of the rotor. Resonance can be minimised by using half stepping or microstepping

Not easy to operate at extremely high speeds.


Working principle
Stepper motors consist of a permanent magnet rotating shaft, called the rotor, and electromagnets on the stationary portion that surrounds the motor, called the stator.
When a phase winding of a stepper motor is energized with current, a magnetic flux is developed in the stator. The direction of this flux is determined by the Right Hand Rule.
Smriti Chopra

At position 1, the rotor is beginning at the upper electromagnet, which is currently active (has voltage applied to it). To move the rotor clockwise (CW), the upper electromagnet is deactivated and the right electromagnet is activated, causing the rotor to move 90 degrees CW, aligning itself with the active magnet. This process is repeated in the same manner at the south and west electromagnets until we once again reach the starting position.
Smriti Chopra

Understanding resolution
Resolution is the number of degrees rotated per step.
Step angle = 360/(NPh * Ph) = 360/N
NPh = Number of equivalent poles per phase = number of rotor poles. Ph = Number of phases. N = Total number of poles for all phases together. Example: for a three winding motor with a rotor having 4 teeth, the resolution is 30 degrees.
Smriti Chopra

Two phase stepper motors

There are two basic winding arrangements for the electromagnetic coils in a two phase stepper motor: bipolar and unipolar.

Smriti Chopra


Main difference
A unipolar stepper motor has two windings per phase, one for each direction of magnetic field. In this arrangement a magnetic pole can be reversed without switching the direction of current.
Bipolar motors have a single winding per phase. The current in a winding needs to be reversed in order to reverse a magnetic pole. Bipolar motors have higher torque but need more complex driver circuits.
Smriti Chopra

Stepping modes
Wave Drive (1 phase on) A1 B2 A2 B1
(25% of unipolar windings , 50% of bipolar)

Full Step Drive (2 phases on) A1B2 B2A2 A2B1 B1A1 (50% of unipolar windings , full bipolar windings utilization) Half Step Drive (1 & 2 phases on) A1B2 B2 B2A2 A2 ---(increases resolution)

Microstepping (Continuously varying motor currents)

A microstep driver may split a full step into as many as 256 microsteps.
Smriti Chopra

Types of Stepper Motors

There are three main types of stepper motors:
Variable Reluctance stepper motor Permanent Magnet stepper motor Hybrid Synchronous stepper motor

Smriti Chopra

Variable Reluctance motor

This type of motor consists of a soft iron multi-toothed rotor and a wound stator. When the stator windings are energized with DC Current, the poles become magnetized. Rotation occurs when the rotor teeth are attracted to the energized stator poles.

Smriti Chopra

Permanent Magnet motor

The rotor no longer has teeth as with the VR motor.
Instead the rotor is magnetized with alternating north and south poles situated in a straight line parallel to the rotor shaft.
These magnetized rotor poles provide an increased magnetic flux intensity and because of this the PM motor exhibits improved torque characteristics when compared with the VR type.
Smriti Chopra

Hybrid Synchronous motor

The rotor is multi-toothed like the VR motor and contains an axially magnetized concentric magnet around its shaft.
The teeth on the rotor provide an even better path which helps guide the magnetic flux to preferred locations in the air gap.

Smriti Chopra

Stepper motors can be a good choice whenever controlled movement is required. They can be used to advantage in applications where you need to control rotation angle, speed, position and synchronism.

These include printers plotters medical equipment fax machines automotive and scientific equipment etc.

Smriti Chopra

Linear Motors
Hannes Daepp

Basics of Linear Motors [1],[4]

Analogous to Unrolled DC Motor

Force (F) is generated when the current (I) (along vector L) and the flux density (B) interact F = LI x B
Hannes Daepp

Linear Motors in Action

Hannes Daepp

Analysis of Linear Motors [1],[5]

Analysis is similar to that of rotary machines Linear dimension and displacements replace angular ones Forces replace torques Commutation cycle is distance between two consecutive pole pairs instead of 360 degrees

Hannes Daepp

Benefits of Linear Motors [2]

High Maximum Speed
Limited primarily by bus voltage, control electronics

High Precision
Accuracy, resolution, repeatability limited by feedback device, budget Zero backlash: No mechanical transmission components.

Fast Response
Response rate can be over 100 times that of a mechanical

transmission faster accelerations, settling time (more throughput)

No mechanical linkage, stiffness depends mostly on gain & current

Modern linear motors have few/no contacting parts no wear
Hannes Daepp

Downsides of Linear Motors [2]

Low production volume (relative to demand) High price of magnets Linear encoders (feedback) are much more expensive than rotary

encoders, cost increases with length

Higher Bandwidth Drives and Controls

Lower force per package size Heating issues
Forcer is usually attached to load I2R losses are directly coupled to


No (minimal) Friction
No automatic brake
Hannes Daepp

Components of Linear Motors

Forcer (Motor Coil)
Windings (coils) provide current (I) Windings are encapsulated within core

material Mounting Plate on top Usually contains sensors (hall effect and thermal)

Magnet Rail
Iron Plate / Base Plate Rare Earth Magnets of alternating


polarity provide flux (B) Single or double rail

Hannes Daepp

lI x B

Types of Linear Motors [1],[2],[3]

Iron Core
Coils wound around

teeth of laminations on forcer

Ironless Core
Dual back iron

separated by spacer Coils held together with epoxy

Coil and back iron

held together with epoxy

Hannes Daepp

Linear Motor Types: Iron Core [1],[2]

Distinguishing Feature

Copper windings around forcer laminations over a single magnet rail Highest force available per unit volume Efficient Cooling Lower cost High attractive force between forcer & magnet track Cogging: iron forcer affects thrust Laminated forcer force as it passes over each assembly and mounting magnet (aka velocity ripple)
plate Coil wound Around Forcer lamination Hall effect and thermal sensors



Hannes Daepp

Rare earth magnets

Iron Plate

Top View Linear Motor Types: Ironless [1],[2]

Distinguishing Feature

Forcer constructed of wound coils held together with epoxy and running between two rails (North and South) Also known as Aircore or U-channel motors


No attractive forces in forcer No Cogging Low weight forcer - No iron means higher accel/decel rates


Low force per package size Lower Stiffness; limited max load without improved structure Poor heat dissipation
Higher cost (2x Magnets!)

Front View Forcer Mounting Plate Winding, held Rare by epoxy Earth Magnets Hall Effect and Horseshoe Thermal Shaped Sensors in coil backiron

Hannes Daepp

Linear Motor Types: Slotless [1],[2] Side View

Distinguishing Feature

Mix of ironless and iron core: coils with back iron contained within aluminum housing over a single magnet rail

Advantages over ironless:

Front View Thermal sensor Coil Back assembly iron Mounting plate

Lower cost (1x magnets) Better heat dissipation Structurally stronger forcer More force per package size

Advantages over iron core:

Lighter weight and lower inertia forcer Lower attractive forces Less cogging
Hannes Daepp

Rare Earth Magnets

Iron plate

Linear Motor Types: Slotless [2],[3] Side View


Some attractive force and cogging Less efficient than iron core and ironless - more heat to do the same job
Thermal sensor

Front View Coil Back assembly iron Mounting plate

Rare Earth Magnets

Hannes Daepp

Iron plate

Linear Motor Type Comparison [2]

Linear Brushless DC Motor Type Feature Attraction Force Cost Iron Core Most Medium Ironless None High Slotless Moderate Lowest

Force Cogging
Power Density Forcer Weight

Highest Heaviest

Medium Lightest

Medium Moderate

Hannes Daepp

Components of a Complete Linear Motor System [3]

Motor components 2. Base/Bearings 3. Servo controller/feedback elements
Typical sensors include Hall

Effect (for position) and thermal sensors

4. Cable management

Hannes Daepp

Sample Pricing
Trilogy T1S Ironless linear

motor 110V, 1 pole motor Single bearing rail ~12 travel magnetic encoder Peak Velocity = 7 m/s Resolution = 5m

Hannes Daepp

Applications [3],[5],[6]

Small Linear Motors Packaging and Material Handling Automated Assembly Reciprocating compressors and alternators Large Linear Induction Machines (3 phase) Transportation Materials handling Extrusion presses

Hannes Daepp

[1] S. Cetinkunt, Mechatronics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken 2007. [2] J. Barrett, T. Harned, J. Monnich, Linear Motor Basics, Parker Hannifin Corporation, http://www.parkermotion.com/whitepages/linearmotorarticle.pdf [3] Trilogy Linear Motor & Linear Motor Positioners, Parker Hannifin Corporation, 2008, http://www.parkermotion.com/pdfs/Trilogy_Catalog.pdf [4] Rockwell Automation, http://www.rockwellautomation.com/anorad/ products/linearmotors/questions.html [5] J. Marsh, Motor Parameters Application Note, Parker-Trilogy Linear Motors, 2003. http://www.parkermotion.com/whitepages/ Linear_Motor_Parameter_Application_Note.pdf [6] Greg Paula, Linear motors take center stage, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1998.

References (continued)

http://www.physclips.unsw.edu.au/jw/electricmotors.ht ml http://www.speedace.info/solar_car_motor_and_drivet rain.htm http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_2/chpt_13/1.html http://www.tpub.com/neets/book5/18d.htm single phase induction motor http://www.stefanv.com/rcstuff/qf200212.html Brushless DC motors https://www.geckodrive.com/upload/Step_motor_basic s.pdf http://www.solarbotics.net/library/pdflib/pdf/motorbas .pdf