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UML Diagrams

Computer Science I

Unified Modeling Language

Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized general-purpose modeling language in the field of software engineering. The standard is managed, and was created by, the Object Management Group. UML includes a set of graphic notation techniques to create visual models of software-intensive systems.

Structure Diagrams

Structure diagrams emphasize the things that must be present in the system being modeled. Since structure diagrams represent the structure they are used extensively in documenting the architecture of software systems.

Class diagram: describes the structure of a system by showing the system's classes, their attributes, and the relationships among the classes. Component diagram: describes how a software system is split up into components and shows the dependencies among these components.

Structure Diagrams

Composite structure diagram: describes the internal structure of a class and the collaborations that this structure makes possible. Deployment diagram: describes the hardware used in system implementations and the execution environments and artifacts deployed on the hardware. Object diagram: shows a complete or partial view of the structure of a modeled system at a specific time. Package diagram: describes how a system is split up into logical groupings by showing the dependencies among these groupings.

Structure Diagrams

Profile diagram: operates at the metamodel level to show stereotypes as classes with the <<stereotype>> stereotype, and profiles as packages with the <<profile>> stereotype. The extension relation (solid line with closed, filled arrowhead) indicates what metamodel element a given stereotype is extending.

Behavior Diagrams

Behavior diagrams emphasize what must happen in the system being modeled. Since behavior diagrams illustrate the behavior of a system, they are used extensively to describe the functionality of software systems.

Activity diagram: describes the business and operational step-bystep workflows of components in a system. An activity diagram shows the overall flow of control. UML state machine diagram: describes the states and state transitions of the system. Use case diagram: describes the functionality provided by a system in terms of actors, their goals represented as use cases, and any dependencies among those use cases.

Interaction Diagrams

Interaction diagrams, a subset of behaviour diagrams, emphasize the flow of control and data among the things in the system being modeled:

Communication diagram: shows the interactions between objects or parts in terms of sequenced messages. They represent a combination of information taken from Class, Sequence, and Use Case Diagrams describing both the static structure and dynamic behavior of a system. Interaction overview diagram: provides an overview in which the nodes represent interaction diagrams.

Interaction Diagrams

Sequence diagram: shows how objects communicate with each other in terms of a sequence of messages. Also indicates the lifespans of objects relative to those messages. Timing diagrams: are a specific type of interaction diagram, where the focus is on timing constraints.

Class Diagrams

The main building block in object oriented modeling They are used both for general conceptual modeling of the systematics of the application, and for detailed modeling translating the models into programming code The classes in a diagram represent both the main objects and/or interactions in the application and the objects to be programmed In the diagram these classes are represented with boxes which contain three parts

Class Diagrams

A class with three sections.

The upper part holds the name of the class The middle part contains the attributes of the class The bottom part gives the methods or operations the class can take or undertake

Class Diagrams

In the system design of a system, a number of classes are identified and grouped together in a class diagram which helps to determine the static relations between those objects With detailed modeling, the classes of the conceptual design are often split in a number of subclasses In order to further describe the behavior of systems, these diagrams can be complemented by state diagram or UML state machine Also instead of class diagrams, Object role modeling can be used if you just want to model the classes and their relationships

The class icon

Defines

Persistent system state System behavior


Name Attributes Operations

The class icon has


Its a rectangle divided into three compartments.

Steps followed

Draw class symbol in the editor and name it List the class attributes List the class operations/methods Make the links and associations Give notations

Structural Modeling: Core Elements


Construct Description
a description of a set of objects that share the same attributes, operations, methods, relationships and semantics. a named set of operations that interface characterize the behavior of an element. component a modular, replaceable and significant part of a system that packages implementation and exposes a set of interfaces. a run-time physical object that node represents a computational resource. class

Syntax

interface

Reference: OMG tutorial on UML by Cris Kobryn

Structural Modeling: Core Elements


(contd)
Construct Description
constraint a semantic condition or restriction.
{constraint}

Syntax

An extension mechanism useful for specifying structural elements.

Reference: OMG tutorial on UML by Cris Kobryn

Structural Modeling:
Core Relationships
Construct
association

Description

Syntax

a relationship between two or more classifiers that involves connections among their instances. A special form of association that aggregation specifies a whole-part relationship between the aggregate (whole) and the component part. generalization a taxonomic relationship between a more general and a more specific element. a relationship between two modeling dependency elements, in which a change to one modeling element (the independent element) will affect the other modeling element (the dependent element).
Reference: OMG tutorial on UML by Cris Kobryn

Structural Modeling:
Core Relationships
Construct
realization

(contd)

Description
a relationship between a specification and its implementation.

Syntax

Reference: OMG tutorial on UML by Cris Kobryn

Interfaces: Longhand Notation


StoreHome POSterminalHome POSterminal <<use>> POSterminal <<interface>> Store +getPOStotals(POSid) +updateStoreTotals(Id,Sales) +get(Item) Store -storeId: Integer -POSlist: List +create() +login(UserName, Passwd) +find(StoreId) +getPOStotals(POSid) +updateStoreTotals(Id,Sales) +get(Item)

Fig. 3-29, UML Notation Guide


Reference: OMG tutorial on UML by Cris Kobryn

Associations

An Association represents a family of links Binary associations (with two ends) are normally represented as a line, with each end connected to a class box Higher order associations can be drawn with more than two ends; in such cases, the ends are connected to a central diamond

Company

Job employer employee

Person

Job salary worker

boss 0..1

Manages

Person Account {X or} Corporation

Fig. 3-40, UML Notation Guide


Reference: OMG tutorial on UML by Cris Kobryn

Associations

An association can be named, and the ends of an association can be adorned with role names, ownership indicators, multiplicity, visibility, and other properties There are five different types of association; bi-directional and uni-directional associations are the most common ones

Company

Job employer employee

Person

Job salary worker

boss 0..1

Manages

Person Account {X or} Corporation

Fig. 3-40, UML Notation Guide


Reference: OMG tutorial on UML by Cris Kobryn

Aggregations

Aggregation is a variant of the "has a" or association

relationship; aggregation is more specific than association It is an association that represents a part-whole or part-of relationship. As a type of association, an aggregation can be named and have the same adornments that an association can However, an aggregation may not involve more than two classes

Aggregations

Aggregation can occur when a class is a collection or container


of other classes, but where the contained classes do not have a strong life cycle dependency on the containeressentially, if the container is destroyed, its contents are not In UML, it is graphically represented as a hollow diamond shape on the containing class end of the tree of lines that connect contained class(es) to the containing class

Composition

Composition is a stronger variant of the "owns

a" or association relationship; composition is more specific than aggregation It is represented with a solid diamond shape Has a strong life cycle dependency between instances of the container class and instances of the contained class(es): If the container is destroyed, normally every instance that it contains is destroyed as well Note that a part can (where allowed) be removed from a composite before the composite is deleted, and thus not be deleted as part of the composite The UML graphical representation of a composition relationship is a filled diamond shape on the containing class end of the tree of lines that connect contained class(es) to the containing class

Window scrollbar [2]: Slider title: Header body: Panel

Window 1 scrollbar Slider 2 1 1 title

1 Header

body

1 Panel

Fig. 3-45, UML Notation Guide

Reference: OMG tutorial on UML by Cris Kobryn

Generalization

Indicates that one of the two related classes (the subtype) is considered to be a specialized form of the other (the super type) and supertype is considered as 'Generalization' of subtype In practice, this means that any instance of the subtype is also an instance of the supertype An exemplary tree of generalizations of this form is found in binomial nomenclature: human beings are a subtype of simian, which are a subtype of mammal, and so on. The relationship is most easily understood by the phrase 'A is a B' (a human is a mammal, a mammal is an animal).

Shape Separate Target Style

Polygon

Ellipse

Spline

. ..

Shape

Shared Target Style

Polygon

Ellipse

Spline

...

Fig. 3-47, UML Notation Guide

Reference: OMG tutorial on UML by Cris Kobryn

Generalization

The UML graphical representation of a Generalization is a hollow triangle shape on the supertype end of the line (or tree of lines) that connects it to one or more subtypes. The generalization relationship is also known as the inheritance or "is a" relationship.

Shape Separate Target Style

Polygon

Ellipse

Spline

. ..

Shape

Shared Target Style

The supertype in the generalization relationship is also known as the "parent", superclass, base class, or base type. The subtype in the specialization relationship is also known as the "child", subclass, derived class, derived type, inheriting class, or inheriting type.

Polygon

Ellipse

Spline

...

Fig. 3-47, UML Notation Guide

Reference: OMG tutorial on UML by Cris Kobryn

Generalization

Note that this relationship bears no resemblance to the biological parent/child relationship: the use of these terms is extremely common, but can be misleading Generalization-Specialization relationship

Shape Separate Target Style

Polygon

Ellipse

Spline

. ..

Shape

Shared Target Style

A is a type of B E. g. "an oak is a type of tree", "an automobile is a type of vehicle"

Polygon

Ellipse

Spline

...

Generalization can only be shown on class diagrams and on Use case diagrams.
Reference: OMG tutorial on UML by Cris Kobryn

Fig. 3-47, UML Notation Guide

Dependencies

Dependency is a weaker form of relationship which indicates that one class depends on another because it uses it at some point of time It exists if a class is a parameter variable or local variable of a method of another class
Fig. 3-50, UML Notation Guide

ClassA

friend

ClassB friend instantiate

ClassD

operationZ()

call

ClassC refine

ClassC combines two logical classes

ClassD

ClassE

Reference: OMG tutorial on UML by Cris Kobryn

UML Class Diagram Examples

Reference: www.smartdraw.com

Object Diagram

A diagram that shows a complete or partial view of the structure of a modeled system at a specific time Focuses on some particular set of object instances and attributes, and the links between the instances

Object Diagram

A set of objects (instances of classes) and their relationships A static snapshot of a dynamic view of the system Represents real or prototypical cases Very useful before developing class diagrams Worth saving as elaborations of class diagrams

Instance Specifications

Each object and link is represented by an Instance

Specification

This can show an object's classifier (e.g. an abstract or concrete class) and instance name, as well as attributes and other structural features using slots Each slot corresponds to a single attribute or feature, and may include a value for that entity

Instance Specifications

The name on an instance specification optionally shows

an instance name, a ':' separator, and optionally one or more classifier names separated by commas

The contents of slots, if any, are included below the names, in a separate attribute compartment A link is shown as a solid line, and represents an instance of an association

Example

As an example, consider one possible way of modeling production of the Fibonacci sequence

Example

In the first UML object diagram, the instance in the leftmost instance specification

is named v1, has IndependentVariable as its classifier, plays the NMinus2 role within the FibonacciSystem, and has a slot for the val attribute with a value of 0

Example

The second object


is named v2, is of class IndependentVariable, plays the NMinus1 role, and has val = 1

Example

The DependentVariable object


is named v3, and plays the N role

Example

The topmost instance, an anonymous instance specification,


has FibonacciFunction as its classifier, and may have an instance name, a role, and slots, but these are not shown here

Example

The diagram also includes three named links, shown as lines Links are instances of an association

Example
After the first iteration, when n = 3, and f(n-2) = 1, and f(n-1) = 1, then f(n) = 1 + 1 = 2 At a slightly later point in time, the IndependentVariable and DependentVariable objects are the same, but the slots for the val attribute have different values The role names are not shown here

Example
After several more iterations, when n = 7, and f(n-2) = 5, and f(n-1) = 8, then f(n) = 5 + 8 = 13 In a still later snapshot, the same three objects are involved Their slots have different values The instance and role names are not shown here

Usage

If you are using a UML modeling tool, you will typically draw object diagrams using some other diagram type, such as on a class diagram An object instance may be called an instance specification or just an instance A link between instances is generally referred to as a

link

Other UML entities, such as an aggregation or composition symbol (a diamond) may also appear on an object diagram

More Examples

Object diagram Class diagram

More Examples

What does this object diagram tell us?

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What would the class diagram look like that goes along with this object diagram?

More Examples

Does this make sense to you?

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