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Training on WELDING AND INSPECTION Presentation on Welding application , Symbol, Inspection

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Trainers background info 15Years in Welding Inspection by Visual and NDT Heavy Equipment Fabrication Construction equipment Trainer in Manufacturing Quality, QMS, Six sigma Green Belt, TPM Facilitator, Quality Circle Team Leader, Welding Quality, NDT Ultrasonic testing and Quality concept.
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Welding is joining two pieces of materials. Solid+solid Welding = Solid state bonding Liquid+Liquid welding=Fusion Welding Solid+Liquid Welding=Braze Welding Oxy-Aceteline=Gas Welding Thermit = Atomic hydrogen=

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FCAW CAW SMAW GMAW GTAW SW PAW

-Flux cored Arc Welding -Carbon arc Welding -Shielded metal arc Welding -Gas metal arc Welding -Gas Tungsten arc Welding -Stud Welding -Plasma Arc Welding
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SMAW CURRENT RANGE THICKNESS RANGE DEPOSITION RATE JOINTS TYPES 75 - 300 A 2MM ^ 1 - 6 Kg\ hr ALL

POSITION OF WELDING ALL ELECTRODE DIA. FLUX COAT MATERIAL APPLICATION ADVANTAGE LIMITATION SAFETY EQUIPMENT 1.5 - 8 MM 1 - 5 MM ferrous alloy only structural,ship,repair,hardface low cost m/c. skill operator,slow flux chipping emits visible,UV ,hi open circt volt AC or DC

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SAW CURRENT RANGE THICKNESS RANGE DEPOSITION RATE JOINTS TYPES 350 - 2000 A 5 MM ^ 7 - 30 Kg / hr butt & T- Joint

POSITION OF WELDING B/J,F,T,h,v ELECTRODE DIA. FLUX COAT MATERIAL APPLICATION ADVANTAGE LIMITATION SAFETY EQUIPMENT 2 - 6 MM COIL Copper coat CS, corrosion resist steel& some alloys pr.vessel,cem plant,structural engg,ship high dep.rate, surface finish, Xray weld,flux shieldarc Regular weld line, fitup,low impact strength,less position minor problem with flux dust DC, upto 2000A

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MIG CURRENT RANGE THICKNESS RANGE DEPOSITION RATE JOINTS TYPES 60 - 500 A 0.5 MM ^ 1 - 10 Kg/hr ALL+SPOT

POSITION OF WELDING Dip ,pulsed arc ELECTRODE DIA. FLUX COAT MATERIAL APPLICATION ADVANTAGE LIMITATION SAFETY EQUIPMENT 0.6 -1.6MMspool Copper coat steel,al alloys and other metal that can be wire form light&heavy vehicle,high rate production continuous process,less finall dressing no independent filler addition control, action limited to wire feed

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MIG CURRENT RANGE THICKNESS RANGE DEPOSITION RATE JOINTS TYPES 60 - 500 A 0.5 MM ^ 1 - 10 Kg/hr ALL+SPOT

POSITION OF WELDING Dip ,pulsed arc ELECTRODE DIA. FLUX COAT MATERIAL APPLICATION ADVANTAGE LIMITATION SAFETY EQUIPMENT 0.6 -1.6MMspool Copper coat steel,al alloys and other metal that can be wire form light&heavy vehicle,high rate production continuous process,less finall dressing no independent filler addition control, action limited to wire feed

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BRAZE CURRENT RANGE THICKNESS RANGE DEPOSITION RATE JOINTS TYPES 0.5 MM ^ Upto 2 Kg/hr lap,fillet,butt

POSITION OF WELDING flat,verticle ELECTRODE DIA. FLUX COAT MATERIAL APPLICATION ADVANTAGE LIMITATION SAFETY EQUIPMENT Steel,CI, Copper ventilation,cast iron repair Slow,corrosion,limited material poisenous flux 1.6 - 6 MM,

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Spot Welding. Seam Welding. Projection welding. Flash butt Welding. Electro slag Welding. Stud Welding.
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Induction Pressure Welding. Induction Brazing.

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Friction Welding. Ultrasonic Welding, High freq sound waves. Explosive Welding.

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Electron Beam Welding.

Laser Welding .

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Absorption or loss Moisture Cracking & descaling covering Contamination Oxidation of the cored wire Formation of deposits on the surface

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Porosity in weld metal. Excessive Projection. Spattering arc instability. Visual worsening of seam surface. Scouring / Blistering in cellulose coating. Difficulty in removing slag. Cracking caused by hydrogen.
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Absorption or loss Moisture. Cracking & descaling covering.

Contamination.
Oxidation of the cored wire.

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ROLE OF WELDING OPERATOR.

ENSURING GOOD WELDING QUALITY ALL TIMES


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Crack. Bead shift. Burn through. Porosity. Pin holes. Waviness. Under cut. Weld appearance.
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Weldments - Symbols and Drawing Practices

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Primary Reference ISO 2553:1992

Secondary References AWS A2.4:1998

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Contour Symbols are not used much in the past.


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Reference lines and weld symbol details remain the same regardless of which end the arrow is on.

Reference lines and weld symbol details remain the same regardless of which end the arrow is on.

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Appropriate weld symbols above and below reference lines. Dashed line not required where the weld joint is exactly symmetric.

More than one weld type. Size specified individually for each.

Required minimum weld size dimension (mm)


z = leg dimension a = throat dimension

Required minimum throat dimension (mm) No direct measurement requires destructive test and evaluation

ISO vs AWS (App 2) Size convention is the same Number and length of segments Spacing between segments vs AWS ctr to ctr method

Same weld symbol and dimensions both sides Dashed line not required Anchor welds at each end

Usually specified to avoid weld distortion or interference Offset dimension specified in detail vs default Anchor welds standard shop practice

Z denotes staggered intermittent weld

If necessary, start location must clearly be identified Weld size Number and length of segments Spacing between segments (chord dimension)

Simplified details Exactly the same joint conditions and welds all the way around

Testing methods
Visual inspection
Destructive Mechanical, Chemical, Testing

Ultrasonic Testing

DP Testing , MPT,ECT, X-RAY AET,LEAK, NRT,

Right Welding parameter at any time

Setting With error proof interlock (Poka yoke)

WELDING SOUNDNESS

No Adjustment

Monitering For right welding at first Time and any time

Welding parameter entry Trend Chart

GOAL

Check

TIME

RESULT EVALUATION

Set alingment

ACTION PLAN
Action Name Date

REPAIR, IDENTIFY

100%

PARETO ANALYSIS

CURRENT Wire feed VOLTAGE

Setting

Alingment

WIRE POSITION

Input Quality, Good Fittment, Job position,

DIFT

TIME

GOOD WELDING CONTRIBUTION

METHOD 27% OTHERS 9% MATERI AL 14%

MACHIN E 34%

WELDER 16%

Flux baking FITUP GAP Spool quality

Check incoming component Clean and remove rust,oil Ensure proper welding.

Rollequality

CHECK POINTS

RUST

Torch setting

Key Decisions Made


Ensure proper welding parameter Set appropriate Time Correct and monitor the process

Alingnment Input material Quality

Machine truness

Weld width

Weld appearance Weld cap angle (Abtuse angle) Uniform weld bead Uniform reinforcement

Leading Consultants for 6 and Cycle time Reduction Clients:Citicorp, PwC, ICI, 3M, Telstra

TO ACHIVE
Meet spec
Penetration

Side wall fusion

Quantum Improvement in terms of Quality Cost Cycle time

Six Sigmas definition of Defect

SMAW CURRENT RANGE 75 - 300 A THICKNESS RANGE 2MM ^ DEPOSITION RATE 1 - 6 Kg\ hr JOINTS TYPES ALL POSITION OF WELDING ALL ACCESS GOOD PORTABILITY GOOD ELECTRODE DIA. 1.5 - 8 MM FLUX COAT 1 - 5 MM MATERIAL APPLICATION ADVANTAGE

SAW 350 - 2000 A 5 MM ^ 7 - 30 Kg / hr butt & T- Joint B/J,F,T,h,v GOOD FAIR 2 - 6 MM COIL Copper coat CS, corrosion resist steel& ferrous alloy only some alloys structural,ship,repair pr.vessel,cem ,hardface plant,structural engg,ship high dep.rate, surface finish, Xray w eld,flux shieldarc

MIG 60 - 500 A 0.5 MM ^ 1 - 10 Kg/hr ALL+SPOT Dip ,pulsed arc FAIR FAIR 0.6 - 1.6 MM spool Copper coat steel,al alloys and other metal that can be w ire form light&heavy vehicle,high rate production

TIG 10 - 400 A 0.1 MM ^ 0 - 2 Kg/hr ALL+SPOT ALL GOOD FAIR -

BRAZE 0.5 MM ^ Upto 2 Kg/hr lap,fillet,butt flat,verticle GOOD EXECLENT 1.6 - 6 MM,

Most metal SS-nuclear,Ni.alloy aircraft,Al.alloy food indus. Steel,CI, Copper ventilation,cast iron repair Slow ,corrosion,li mited material poisenous flux

LIMITATION SAFETY EQUIPMENT

continuous process,less finall low cost m/c. dressing Wide range of material no independent filler addition skill operator,slow Regular w eld line, fitup,low control, action limited to w ire flux chipping impact strength,less position feed skill operator,slow er than MIG. emits visible,UV ,hi open circt volt minor problem w ith flux dust emits visible & ultraviolet radiation. AC or DC DC, upto 2000A

NDE

Circumferentia l Butt Weld Inspection

All welds shall be inspected. A weld subject to inspection shall be acceptable if inspection shows: (a) No surface cracks (b) No Visible lack of fusion between welds and base metal (c) No craters (d) Uniform Weld profiles (e) That frequency of visible porosity in fillet welds does not exceed one in each 100 mm of length and the maximum diameter does not exceed 2.4 mm That groove welds have no visible porosity. (g) Undercut is not more than 0.5 mm deep.

Repairable