Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 106

WCDMA Technology and Radio Fundamentals

Nokia Siemens Networks

Agenda
1. WCDMA Fundamentals Introduction WCDMA Network Architecture and Interfaces Basic Concepts: Spreading, Processing Gain WCDMA codes Radio Fundamentals : RSCP, Ec/Io WCDMA channels 2. WCDMA Network Dimensioning and Planning WCDMA Network Dimensioning Process Overview Cell Breathing Concept Input Planning Parameters Link Budget 3G Planning : Key Results analysis

Nokia Siemens Networks

What 3G can offer to End Users..

Nokia Siemens Networks

Drivers for 3G evolution and broadband mobile


Demand model Analogies from fixed broadband usage for both business and consumers Average DSL user consumes today 1-2 GB per month (data, voice, video) Drivers for 3G evolution Changing service & underlying technology mix Volume & ARPU shift from voice to data Circuit switched to packet data (VoIP, IMS) Internet as a major source for mobile services

Advances in acc. Tech. development


Flarion, WiMax, 3GPP2 camp, WLAN Technology politics (e.g., Korea-US-Japan-ChinaEurope) Spectrum and regulatory drivers Refarming

Price/performance of technology

Efficient use of spectrum

Improved broadband experience

New spectrum

Nokia Siemens Networks

GSM evolution to 3G
High Speed Circuit Switched Data Dedicate up to 4 timeslots for data connection ~ 50 kbps Good for real-time applications Inefficient -> ties up resources, even when nothing sent Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution GSM Uses 8PSK modulation HSCSD 9.6kbps (one timeslot) 3x improvement in data rate on short distances GSM Data Can fall back to GMSK for greater distances Also called CSD Combine with GPRS (EGPRS) ~ 384 kbps

GSM

GPRS EDGE

WCDMA

General Packet Radio Services Data rates up to ~ 115 kbps Max: 8 timeslots used at any one time Packet switched; resources not tied up all the time GSM / GPRS core network re-used by WCDMA (3G)

Nokia Siemens Networks

New services demand higher speed


Faster business connectivity Faster streaming Faster content download

Voice SMS

MMS WAP Download Presence Audio streaming

Web browsing Mobile intranet access Video streaming Video sharing

Video sharing Video telephony Real time IP Real time games High speed mobile intranet

GSM 10-40 kbps

GPRS 30-40 kbps

EDGE 80-160 kbps

WCDMA 128-384 kbps

HSPA 1-14 Mbps


Close to WLAN bit rates and high efficiency

Non-real time Interactive, medium Real time background and bit rate streaming, connections, narrowband business connectivityefficient business streaming connectivity

Nokia Siemens Networks

What can be done to meet Demands


EV-DO rev. A, Rev B NxEV-DO

CDMA

EDGE Evolution
GSM WCDMA UMTS-TDD WiMAX (802.16-2004) HSPA I-HSPA 3.9 G

WiMAX (802.16-2005)
Flarion Flash-OFDM WLAN (unlicensed) 05 06 10
9 Nokia Siemens Networks

07

08

09

Standardisation of 3G Cellular Networks

10

Nokia Siemens Networks

Standardisation of 3G cellular networks


ITU (Global guidelines and recommendations) IMT-2000: Global standard for third generation (3G) wireless communications

3GPP is a co-operation between standardisation bodies ETSI (Europe), ARIB/TTC (Japan), CCSA (China), ATIS (North America) and TTA (South Korea) GSM, EDGE UMTS WCDMA - FDD WCDMA - TDD

3GPP2 is a co-operation between standardisation bodies ARIB/TTC (Japan), CCSA (China), TIA (North America) and TTA (South Korea) CDMA2000 CDMA2000 1x CDMA2000 1xEV-DO

11

Nokia Siemens Networks

Structure of 3GPP
TSG STRUCTURE

12

Nokia Siemens Networks

UMTS Releases
UMTS Release 99
UMTS CN UTRAN & WCDMA

1999 2001

UMTS Release 4

Low chip rate TDD mode

2002

UMTS Release 5

High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) Wideband AMR Initial phase of the IP Multimedia Subsystem IP transport in the UTRAN etc. FDD Enhanced Uplink (HSUPA) IMS Phase 2 Wireless LAN/UMTS Inter-working Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS) 64 QAM modulation MIMO HSPA+ LTE

2005

UMTS Release 6
2007

UMTS Release 7
2008
13 Nokia Siemens Networks

UMTS Release 8

3G evolution performance

WCDMA R99 3GPP 5.0 MHz 100-200 ms 384 kbps 384 kbps

WCDMA HSPA 3GPP 5.0 MHz <50 ms

3.9 G estim. 3GPP 1.25-20 MHz <10 ms Up to 100 Mbps

Standard Bandwidth Network Latency Downlink peak rate Uplink peak rate Spectral efficiency, DL Spectral efficiency, UL

1.8-10.7 Mbps
1-4 Mbps 0.2-0.8 bps/Hz 0.25 bps/Hz

Up to 50 Mbps
1.6-2.5 bps/Hz 0.6-0.8 bps/Hz

0.16 bps/Hz
0.16 bps/Hz

15

Nokia Siemens Networks

Market Trends for 3G Technology

Nokia Siemens Networks

World Cellular Market

17

Nokia Siemens Networks

Global growth of UMTS HSPA Technology

18

Nokia Siemens Networks

UMTS HSPA Networks Worldwide

19

Nokia Siemens Networks

Technology Forecast

20

Nokia Siemens Networks

Subscriber Forecast

21

Nokia Siemens Networks

Data Rate Evolution

22

Nokia Siemens Networks

Future of 3G in India The Question!!!!!


3G Rollout in India has already been delayed due to various
reasons. Operators are taking time before committing themselves for such a Hugh investments. The way Indian Mobile Industry is growing, there is definitely need for a more spectrum efficient technology 3G is the right choice for that Tentative timeline for initial rollout looks like to be sometime this year then 2010 will be the year when many more rollout may take place.

23

Nokia Siemens Networks

Indian Wireless Market

GSM market share to increase from 73% in 2008 to 79% in 2013

24

Nokia Siemens Networks

Indian Subscriber growth and pattern

25

Nokia Siemens Networks

3G and BWA Subscribers in India

26

Nokia Siemens Networks

Application Usage Pattern

27

Nokia Siemens Networks

The Roads to 3G

2G

2.5G
IS-95B

3G

CDMA

CDMA IS-95A

1xRTT

1xEV-DO

1xEV-DV

CDMA2000 3xRTT

HSCSD

Focus of this Workshop

GSM

GSM

GPRS
EDGE

WCDMA
Multiple phases

28

Nokia Siemens Networks

WCDMA Network Architecture and Interfaces

Nokia Siemens Networks

UMTS NW Architecture
UTRAN
WCDMA BTS

Uu

RNC
WCDMA BTS

Iub User Equipment (UE)


WCDMA BTS

Iur

Iu

Core Network (CN)

RNC
WCDMA BTS

30

Nokia Siemens Networks

Interfaces of UMTS System


UTRAN
Uu UE Radio Network Subsystem (RNS) Iu-CS Iub

CN
Circuit MSC/VLR switched (cs) domain

RNC
Uu Iur UE packet switched (ps) domain

Iub

RNC

Iu-PS

SGSN

Radio Network Subsystem (RNS)

31

Nokia Siemens Networks

General UE Architecture

UMTS SIM

USIM

CU
Terminal Equipment
Mobile Equipment

ME

UTRAN

UE UU

32

Nokia Siemens Networks

General UTRAN Architecture

Node B
Radio Network Controller

Iu-cs
RNC

CN (MSC)

Node B

IUb IUr IUb

UE

Node B
Radio Network Controller

CN (SGSN)

Node B

RNC

UTRAN IU

Iu-ps

UU
33 Nokia Siemens Networks

Elements of UTRAN
Radio Network Controller

Owns and controls radio resources in its domain (BSC in GSM) Service Access Point for all services that UTRAN provides for the CN Note: Service RNC (SRNC) and Drift RNC (DRNC) are subsets

Node B Acts as the radio base station (BTS in GSM)

Converts the data flow between the Iub and Uu interfaces

34

Nokia Siemens Networks

Major Interfaces in UMTS


There are four major new interfaces defined in UMTS Iu The interface between UTRAN and
the CN

CN Iu
RNC Iur RNC

Iur
The Interface between different
RNCs

Iub
The interface between the Node B
and the RNC

Uu
The air interface

Iub NodeB Uu
UE

35

Nokia Siemens Networks

Iu - the Core Network to UTRAN Interface


There are two parts to the Iu interface Iu-ps connecting UTRAN to the PS Domain of the CN Iu-cs connecting UTRAN to the CS Domain of the CN No radio resource signalling, travels over this interface The Iu interface divides the UMTS network into the radio specific UTRAN and the CN.

CN Iu
RNC Iur RNC

Iub NodeB Uu
UE

36

Nokia Siemens Networks

Iur - the Inter-RNC Interface


The Iur interface allows soft handovers between Node-Bs attached to different RNCs It is an open interface to allow the use of RNCs from different manufacturers Its functions may be summarised: Support of basic inter-RNC mobility Support of Dedicated and Common Channel Traffic

CN Iu
RNC Iur RNC

Iub NodeB Uu
UE

37

Nokia Siemens Networks

Iub - the RNC to Node-B Interface


The Iub is an open interface to allow the support of different manufacturers supplying RNCs and Node-Bs Its major functions are: Carries dedicated and common channel traffic between the RNC and the Node-B Supports the control of the Node-B by the RNC

CN Iu
RNC Iur RNC

Iub NodeB Uu
UE

38

Nokia Siemens Networks

Uu - the Air Interface


Clearly the Uu must be standardised to allow multiple UE vendors to be supported by a network The major functions of the Uu are to: Carry dedicated and common channel traffic across the air interface Provide signaling and control traffic to the mobile from the RNC and the Node-B

CN Iu
RNC Iur RNC

Iub NodeB Uu
UE

39

Nokia Siemens Networks

WCDMA Services

Nokia Siemens Networks

UMTS QoS Classes


UMTS attempts to fulfil QoS requests from the user Four traffic classes have been specified Conversational Streaming Interactive Background Main distinguishing feature is delay sensitivity

41

Nokia Siemens Networks

QoS Classes

Videotelephony

Streaming video Streaming music Web browsing

Telephony

File downloading

Calender synchronisation Mail downloading

Teleshopping Teleworking

43

Nokia Siemens Networks

Conversational Class
Conversational pattern - symmetric Real time, Extremely delay sensitive Typically between peers Example Applications:
Voice Video telephony

44

Nokia Siemens Networks

Streaming
Highly asymmetric Real time, relatively low delay required Typically between server and client Example Applications
Web broadcast Video on demand Streaming multimedia

45

Nokia Siemens Networks

Interactive
Request response pattern Preserve data integrity Relatively delay sensitive but not real time Treated as non-real time packet based service Example applications:
Web browsing Location based services Database retrieval

46

Nokia Siemens Networks

Background
Destination is not expecting the data within a certain time Preserve data integrity Treated as non-real time packet based service Example Applications
Download of Emails File download

47

Nokia Siemens Networks

Basic Concepts of WCDMA- Radio

Nokia Siemens Networks

UMTS Air Interface Technical Aspects

49

Nokia Siemens Networks

Access Technology Explanation


Multiple Access means Many users share the same medium There are a number of different Multiple Access (MA) strategies : Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

51

Nokia Siemens Networks

TDMA

Timeslot Period

Frame Period

frequency time
User 1 User 1 Idealised TDMA (with no guard periods)
52 Nokia Siemens Networks

Available Frequency Band

FDMA

Frame Period (we may still need frames/timeslots for signaling) Channel Bandwidth

frequency
User 1
53 Nokia Siemens Networks

Idealised FDMA (with no guard bands)

time

CDMA - Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

frequency
54 Nokia Siemens Networks

code

Frame Period (we may still need frames/timeslots for signaling)

time

WCDMA Technology
Frequency
f 5 MHz

WCDMA Carrier
3.84 MHz

Users share same time and frequency

5+5 MHz in FDD mode 5 MHz in TDD mode

Direct Sequence (DS) CDMA

Time

WCDMA 5 MHz, 1 carrier

TDMA (GSM) 5 MHz, 25 carriers

55

Nokia Siemens Networks

UMTS & GSM Radio Network Planning

GSM900/1800:

3G (WCDMA):

56

Nokia Siemens Networks

Concepts of Spreading in WCDMA

57

Nokia Siemens Networks

Spreading

58

Nokia Siemens Networks

Bits, Chips and Spreading Factor

Spreading Code

Data Bit rate

chip rate

Each user data bit is multiplied with a sequence of 'x' code bits called CHIPS.
Data bits when spreaded with code sequence is known as chips

In order to distinguish between the information-carrying bits in the user data and the bits in the user spreading codes, we tend to use the term chips to refer to the bits in the spreading code

60

Nokia Siemens Networks

Bits, Chips and Spreading Factor


Spreading Code

Data Bit rate chip rate

Each user data bit is multiplied with a sequence of 'x' code bits called CHIPS. Data bits when spreaded with code sequence is known as chips
Example: Spreading code 1 = (1, -1) Data to spread = (1,0,1,1) Data after spreading = (1, -1).(1), (1,-1).(0), (1,-1).1, (1,-1).1 = (1,-1, -1,1,1-1,1,-1)

Spreading factor (SF) = Spreaded Signal BW / Unspreaded Signal BW = The number of chips per data

In the above example : SF= 8/4 = 2

61

Nokia Siemens Networks

Spreading and Despreading


Spreading Each user data bit is multiplied with a sequence of 'x' code bits called
CHIPS. This 'x' determines the SPREADING FACTOR!!!!

The resulting spread data is at a rate of 'x' times user data rate
Despreading The spread user data/chip sequence is multiplied with the same 'x' code
chips to recover the original data. Example: Spreading code 1 = (1, -1) Data to spread = (1,0,1,1) Data after spreading = (1, -1).(1), (1,-1).(0), (1,-1).1, (1,-1).1 = (1,-1, -1,1,1-1,1,-1)

Despreading : Multiply the received signal with same spreading code ( 1, -1, -1, 1, 1, -1, 1, -1).(1,-1)

1. Take first two chips = (1,-1).(1,-1) = 1+1 = 2 = +ve => 1 2. Take next two chips = (-1,1).(1,-1) = -1 -1 = -2 = -ve => 0 3. Take next two chips = (1,-1).(1,-1) = 1+1 = 2 = +ve => 1 4. Take next two chips = 1,-1).(1,-1) = 1+1 = 2 = +ve => 1

62

Nokia Siemens Networks

Spreading

63

Nokia Siemens Networks

Spreading & Processing Gain


Spreading Operation helps the signal resist interference and also enables the original data to be recovered if data bits are damaged during transmission

Power density (Watts/Hz)

User bit rate

Unspread narrowband signal

Spread wideband signal

Frequency

Bandwidth W (3.84 Mchip/sec)

Processing gain:

W G p dB R

64

Nokia Siemens Networks

Example
Voice user (R=12,2 kbit/s)
R

Power density (W/Hz)

Gp=W/R=24.98 dB

Frequency (Hz)

Packet data user (R=384 kbit/s)


R

Spreading sequences have a different length Processing gain depends on the user data rate

Power density (W/Hz)

Gp=W/R=10 dB

Frequency (Hz)
65 Nokia Siemens Networks

WCDMA Spreading and Scrambling Operation


In WCDMA two separate codes are used in the spreading operation Channelisation code (spreading code) Scrambling code scrambling Chanelization code code (SF)

Data Bit rate chip rate chip rate

66

Nokia Siemens Networks

WCDMA Codes
In WCDMA two separate codes are used in the spreading operation
Channelisation code Scrambling code

Scrambling code
DL: separates cells in same carrier frequency UL: separates users

Channelisation code
DL: separates different users within a cell UL: separates physical channels of one user

67

Nokia Siemens Networks

DL Spreading and Scrambling in WCDMA


CHANNELISATION codes:
Channlisation code 1

SCRAMBLING CODE

Node B

X
User 1 Signal

Channelisation Code 2

X
User 2 Signal

+
3.84 MHz RF carrier RF

Channelisation Code 3

X X
User 3 Signal

3.84 MHz bandwidth


68 Nokia Siemens Networks

UL Spreading and Scrambling in WCDMA


CHANNELISATION codes:
Scrambling Code 1 Channlisation code 1

RF X X
Node B
Scrambling Code 2

User 1 Signal

Channelisation Code 2

X
User 2 Signal

Scrambling Code 3 Channelisation Code 3

RF

X
User 3 Signal

69

Nokia Siemens Networks

DL Spreading and Multiplexing in WCDMA


Radio frame = 15 time slots

CHANNELISATION codes:
CODE 1

Pilot BCCH

P-CPICH Pilot X
CODE 2

User 1 User 2 User 3

BCCH

P-CCPCH
X
CODE 3

SUM

Time

User 1

DPCH1

CODE 4

+
SCRAMBLING CODE X RF 3.84 MHz RF carrier

User 2

X
CODE 5

DPCH2

User 3

DPCH3

3.84 MHz bandwidth


70 Nokia Siemens Networks

Property of the Chanalization (Spreading) Codes

Orthogonality
Two codes are said to be orthogonal when their inner product is zero.

Let: let S1 be one SF code & S2 another

Then : S1* S2 = 0
Eg:(1, 1, 1, 1) and (1, 1, -1, -1) are orthogonal: (1 * 1) + (1 * 1) + (1 * -1) + (1 * -1) = 0

71

Nokia Siemens Networks

Orthogonal spreading code Tree & Generation

Top sub-element
Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1) Cch,2,0 = (1,1)

Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1)
Cch,1,0 = (1)

Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1)
Cch,2,1 = (1,-1)

Bottom sub-element
SF = 1 SF = 2

Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1) SF = 4

72

Nokia Siemens Networks

Channelisation Code Tree


SF= 1 SF= 2 SF= 4
C4(0)=[1111 ] C2(0)=[11]

SF= 8
C8(0)=[11111111 ]

C4(1)=[11-11]
C0(0)=[ 1] C4(2)=[1-111] C2(1)=[11] C4(3)=[1-111]

.....] C16(1)=[....... .....] C16(2)=[....... C8(1)=[1111-1-1-1- .....] 1] C16(3)=[....... .....] C16(4)=[....... C8(2)=[11-1-111-1- .....] 1] C16(5)=[....... .....] C16(6)=[....... C8(3)=[11-1-1-1-111] .....] C16(7)=[....... .....] C16(8)=[....... C8(0)=[1-11-11-11- .....] C16(9)=[....... 1] .....] C16(10)=[....... C8(5)=[1-11-1-11-11] ....] C16(11)=[......... ..] C16(12)=[..... C8(6)=[1-1-111-1-11] ......] C16(13=[...... .....] C16(14)=[..... C8(7)=[1-1-11-111- ......] 1] C16(15)=[..... ......]

SF=1 6 C16(0)=[.......

...

SF=25 SF=51 6 2

73

Nokia Siemens Networks

Example
Spreading code 1 = (1, -1) Date to spread = (1,0,1,1) Data after spreading = (1, -1).(1), (1,-1).(0), (1,-1).1, (1,-1).1 = (1,-1, -1,1,1-1,1,-1) Spreading code 2 = (1,1) Date to spread = (0,0,1,1) Data after spreading = (-1,-1, -1,-1, 1,1, 1,1 ) Combined signal = (1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,1,-1) + (-1,-1,-1,-1,1,1,1,1) = (0,-2,-2,0,2,0,2,0) User 1 decodes it by simple vector multiplication (0,-2, -2,0, 2,0, 2,0) . (1,-1)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Take first 2 bits = (0,-2).(1,-1) = (0).(1) + (-2).(-1) = 0+ 2 = 2 => +ve => 1 Take next 2 bits = (-2,0).(1,-1) = (-2).(1) + (0).(-1) = -2+0 = -2 => -ve => 0 Take next 2 bits (2,0).(1,-1) = 2.1 + 0.-1 = 2 + 0 = 2 => =+ve => 1 Take next 2 bits (2,0).(1,-1) = 2 => +ve => 1

That way all 4 bits are retrieved at the receiver side.


74 Nokia Siemens Networks

Multipath and Rake Receiver

75

Nokia Siemens Networks

Multipath Propagation

Scramblin g code C1

C1+2

Scramblin g code C2

76

Nokia Siemens Networks

Operation in Multipath Environment


Radio propagation is characterized by multipath propagation which may result into attenuation of signal energy

77

Nokia Siemens Networks

Operation in Multipath environment/Rake reception Rake Reception


WCDMA requires some countermeasures against Fast fading!!!! The solution is RAKE RECEIVER!!!!! So what is a RAKE RECEIVER????

Fading ????!!!

Fingers??!!
Spreading/Despreading???!!!

79

Nokia Siemens Networks

Rake Receiver
A rake receiver is a radio receiver designed to counter the effects of
multipath fading. It does this by using several "sub-receivers" called fingers, each assigned to a different multipath component

Multipath components are delayed copies of the original transmitted wave


traveling through a different path, each with a different magnitude and timeof-arrival at the receiver

Since each component contains the original information, if the magnitude


and time-of-arrival (phase) of each component is computed at the receiver (through a process called channel estimation), then all the components can be added coherently to improve the information reliability. This could very

well result in higher signal-to-noise ratio (or Eb/N0) in a multipath environment

80

Nokia Siemens Networks

RAKE Receiver

81

Nokia Siemens Networks

RAKE RECEPTION
Operating Principle of Rake Receiver
Assign a RAKE finger to each time delay position where significant energy arrives. Within each correlation receiver track the fast changing phase and amplitude

Transmitted symbol Received signal at each time delay

Modified with channel estimate

Combined Symbol

finger1 finger2

finger3

82

Nokia Siemens Networks

UMTS Bearers

AMR 12.2 Transparent CS data 64 Non-transparent CS data 14.4, 57.6

NRT PS data 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 384 (UL/DL) (CELL_DCH)
NRT PS data 16 (UL), 32 (DL) (CELL_FACH) Streaming PS data 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 (DL) Lower AMR speech codecs: 7.95, 5.90, 4.75 , 12.65, 8.85, 6.6

83

Nokia Siemens Networks

Concepts of RSCP and Ec/No


Two Important Terms

RSCP Ec/No, Ec/Io

84

Nokia Siemens Networks

Scrambling Codes & CPICH

CPICH

The Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) is broadcast from every cell It carries no information and can be thought of as a beacon constantly transmitting the
Scrambling Code of the cell WCDMA cells are identified by their SC. Its like a BCCH in GSM

It is this beacon that is used by the phone for its cell measurements for network acquisition
and handover purposes (Ec, Ec/Io).
85 Nokia Siemens Networks

Total Received Power Io

Io
In a WCDMA network the User Equipment (UE) receives signals from many cells Io* = The sum total of all of these signals (dBm) *Note: Sometimes Io is referred to as No, RSSI

86

Nokia Siemens Networks

Received Power of CPICH : RSCP

RSCP 1

RSCP 2

RSCP

Using the properties of SCs the UE is able to extract the respective CPICH levels from the sites received

RSCP = The Received Power of a Particular CPICH (dBm) Ec = Energy per Chip

87

Nokia Siemens Networks

CPICH Quality (Ec/Io)

Io

RSCP

From the previous two measures we can calculate a signal quality for each CPICH (SC) received Ec/Io = (Energy per chip / Noise spectral density) = RSCP/RSSI *Note: Sometimes Ec/Io is referred to as Ec/No
88 Nokia Siemens Networks

Relation between Ec/Io and Eb/No

89

Nokia Siemens Networks

Handover Types
Intra-Frequency Handovers Softer Handover Soft Handover Hard Handover Inter-Frequency Handover Can be intra-BS, intra-RNC, inter-RNC

Decision algorithm located in RNC


Inter-RAT Handover Handovers between GSM and WCDMA

90

Nokia Siemens Networks

Handovers - Softer Handover


Handover between sectors of the same Node B (handled by BTS) No extra transmissions across Iub interface Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) is occurring in both the UL and DL

91

Nokia Siemens Networks

Handovers - Soft Handover


MS simultaneously connected to multiple cells (from different Node Bs) Extra transmission across Iub, more channel cards are needed (compared
to non-SHO) Mobile Evaluated Handover (MEHO) DL/UE: MRC & UL/RNC: Frame selection combining

92

Nokia Siemens Networks

Handovers - Inter frequency HO


Inter frequency handover occurs between two WCDMA carriers Will be used once operator deploys its second carrier

93

Nokia Siemens Networks

Handovers - Inter system HO


Inter system handover occurs between 3G and 2G sites As with all handovers, accurate adjacencies will be required

3G

2G

94

Nokia Siemens Networks

Handover types
Node B
Node B Node B
Sector 1
Sector 1 f1 Sector 2 f1

Frequency f1

Frequency f1

Sector 3 f1

Sector 3

Soft Handover Node B BTS

Softer Handover

RNC
UMTS

RNC
Iur

GSM900/1800

Node B

Node B

Inter-System Handover

Iub

Iub

Node B
Frequency f1 Frequency f2

Node B
Frequency f1

Frequency f1

Hard/Inter-Frequency Handover
95 Nokia Siemens Networks

Air Interface Channels

97

Nokia Siemens Networks

WCDMA Frame
Radio frame: A radio frame is a processing duration which consists of 15 slots.
The length of a radio frame corresponds to 38400 chips.

Slot: A slot is a duration which consists of fields containing bits. The length of a
slot corresponds to 2560 chips

10 11 12 13 14

10ms

98

Nokia Siemens Networks

Air Interface Access Stratum


Radio Resource Control RRC Control Plane Signalling

L3

User Plane Information

Radio Link Control RLC

L2
Medium Access Control MAC

Logical Channels

Transport Channels

L1

Physical Layer

Physical Channels

99

Nokia Siemens Networks

UMTS Channel Types and Functions


There are three types of channel across the air interface and access stratum that we are interested in: Logical Channels Between the RLC and MAC layers What kind of data is transmitted Transport Channels Between the MAC and Physical layers How data is transmitted characteristics of data transmission Physical Channels Between Physical Layers at the Node-B and UE Actual transmission/reception of data

100

Nokia Siemens Networks

Radio Interface Channel Organisation

Logical Channels
content is organised in separate channels, e.g. System information, paging, user data, link management

Transport Channels
logical channel information is organised on transport channel resources before being physically transmitted

Physical Channels (UARFCN, spreading code)

Frames Iub interface

101

Nokia Siemens Networks

Channel Mapping DL (Network Point of View)


Logical Channels Transport Channels Physical Channels P-CPICH
BCCH PCCH BCH PCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PICH CCCH FACH AICH P-SCH S-SCH DCCH HSDSCH HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH

DTCH

DCH

DPDCH
DPCCH

102

Nokia Siemens Networks

Channel Mapping UL (Network Point of View)


Logical Channels Transport Channels Physical Channels

CCCH

RACH

PRACH

DCCH

HS-DPCCH DTCH

DCH

DPDCH DPCCH

103

Nokia Siemens Networks

Logical Control Channels


The Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) is a downlink channel for broadcasting system control information The Paging Control Channel (PCH) is a downlink channel that transfers paging information The Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) is a point-to-point bi-directional channel transmitting control information between a specific UE and the UTRAN The Common Control Channel (CCCH) is a bi-directional channel transmitting control information between UEs and the UTRAN

P-CPICH
BCCH PCCH CCCH BCH PCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PICH AICH P-SCH S-SCH HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH DPDCH DPCCH

FACH
HSDSCH DCH

DCCH
DTCH
104 Nokia Siemens Networks

Logical Traffic Channels


The Dedicated Traffic Channel (DCH) is a point-to-point channel dedicated to a single UE for the transfer of user information P-CPICH BCCH PCCH CCCH FACH BCH PCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PICH

AICH P-SCH
S-SCH

DCCH
DTCH

HSDSCH DCH

HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH DPDCH DPCCH

105

Nokia Siemens Networks

Common Transport Channels


The Broadcast Channel (BCH) is a cell-wide channel that is used to broadcast system and cellspecific information. The BCH is always transmitted over the entire cell with a low fixed bit rate. The Paging Channel (PCH) is a cell-wide channel that is used to carry control information to a UE when the system does not know the location cell of the UE The Forward Access Channel (FACH) is a downlink channel that is used to carry control information to a UE when the system knows the location cell of the UE. May also carry short user packets. The Random Access Channel (RACH) is an uplink control channel from the UE. May also carry short user packets

P-CPICH

BCCH PCCH CCCH

BCH PCH FACH HSDSCH DCH

P-CCPCH

DCCH
DTCH
106 Nokia Siemens Networks

S-CCPCH PICH AICH P-SCH S-SCH HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH DPDCH DPCCH

Dedicated Transport Channels


The Dedicated Channel (DCH) is a channel dedicated to one UE used in uplink or downlink.
P-CPICH BCCH PCCH BCH PCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PICH CCCH AICH

FACH

P-SCH S-SCH

DCCH

HSDSCH DCH

HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH DPDCH DPCCH

DTCH

107

Nokia Siemens Networks

Common Physical Channels for UMTS


The Primary-Common Control Physical Channels (P-CCPCH) is used to carry broadcast information across the cell The Secondary-Common Control Physical Channels (S-CCPCH) is used to carry paging and forward access information across the cell The Primary-Synchronisation Channel (P-SCH) is used during cell search to provide timing information The Secondary-Synchronisation Channel (S-SCH) is used during cell search to provide information about the primary scrambling codes in use in the cell The Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) is used to provide the phase reference for downlink channels The Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) is used to acknowledge random access requests
P-CPICH BCCH PCCH BCH PCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PICH

CCCH
FACH

AICH P-SCH
S-SCH HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH DPDCH DPCCH

DCCH DTCH
108 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDSCH DCH

Common Physical Channels for UMTS


The Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) is used to enable discontinuous reception of the S-CPCCH The Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) is a contention based channel used for random access and to transmit small packets of information The Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) is an extension to the RACH used to carry larger packets of information on the uplink The Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel (AP-AICH) is used to indicate the reception of a preamble signature for Random Access

P-CPICH BCCH BCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PICH CCCH FACH AICH P-SCH S-SCH HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH DPDCH DPCCH
109 Nokia Siemens Networks

PCCH

PCH

DCCH DTCH

HSDSCH DCH

Dedicated Physical Channels for UMTS


The Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) is used to carry user information The Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) is used to carry dedicated control information regarding its associated DCHs

P-CPICH BCCH PCCH BCH PCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PICH CCCH FACH P-SCH S-SCH DCCH HSDSCH DCH HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH AICH

DTCH

DPDCH
DPCCH

110

Nokia Siemens Networks

DL Common Control Channel


Most common channel have fixed configuration and power

CPICH P-CCPCH P-SCH, S-SCH AICH

Setting the DL Common Control Channel Power is a trade off between:

cell coverage: all the channels must be decoded at the cell edge cell capacity: the common channel power consume resources from the
traffic channels

111

Nokia Siemens Networks

Pilot Channel Power Setting


By default the CPICH consumes 2 W of the Node B power (20 W PA)

For 40 W PA default is 4 W (10 %)


CPICH power is used to derive the power requirements of the other Common Control Physical Channels (CCPCH) The CPICH should be tuned on a per carrier per area basis as part of wide area parameter tuning following the radio network planning activity

Evaluate Ec/Io and RSCP performance


Identify Cells with poor coverage

Identify Cells with excessive coverage

Adjust CPICH transmit Power

112

Nokia Siemens Networks

DL Common Control Channel


DL Common Channels does not have a power control. The power of the common physical channels are set relative to the CPICH

113

Nokia Siemens Networks

Effect of CPICH Power modification

Less Power Available for traffic

Increased soft handover overhead


Too much power Late cell reselection /handout /handover too late

Reduced system capacity

Non- ideal traffic distribution

CPICH Transmit Transmit CPICH Power Power

Too little power

CPICH coverage holes


Unreliable scrambling code detection Unreliable channel estimation Early cell reselection /handout /handover too early

Reduced system coverage


Slow initial synchonisation Increased Eb/No requirement Non- ideal traffic distribution Reduced system capacity

114

Nokia Siemens Networks