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Sensitivity -the ability to receive weak signals with an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) - it is expressed in terms of the voltage or power at the antenna terminals necessary to achieve a specified signalto-noise ratio or some more easily measured equivalent.

Selectivity -the ability to discriminate against interfering signals.

Shape factor - the ratio between the bandwidths at 6 dB and 60 dB down for an ideal IF filter -should be as close as possible to 1.

Shape factor

SF =

60 6

SF = shape factor 60 = bandwidth at 60 dB down from maximum 6 = bandwidth at 6 dB down from maximum

Adjacent channel rejection -another way of specifying selectivity -commonly used w/ channelized systems such as CB radio -defined as the number of decibels by w/c an adjacent channel signal must be stronger than the desired signal for the same receiver output.

Alternate channel rejection -also used in systems, such as FM broadcasting ,where stations in the same locality are not assigned to adjacent channels Alternate channel -is two channels removed from the desired one ; also known as the second adjacent channel

For example

Figure 6.8 Adjacent and Alternate channels

Distortion Harmonic distortion -occurs when the frequencies generated are multiples of those in the original modulating signal Intermodulation -when frequency components in the original signal mix in a nonlinear device, creating sum and difference frequencies

Uneven frequency response -any unevenness w/in the IF passband will affect the audio frequency response Phase distortion -the signal at the receiver output will not be in phase w/ the input to the transitter.

Dynamic Range -the ratio between two signal levels, expressed in decibels Blocking -also called desensitization or desense -reduction in sensitivity to the desired signal Audio dynamic range -essentially the usable range of modulation depth w/ a given carrier level

Spurious Responses
Image Frequencies -is any frequency other than the selected radio frequency carrier that, if allowed to enter a receiver and mix w/ the local oscillator, will produce a cross-product frequency that is equal to the intermediate frequency

Assuming high-side injection, = so = + For the image, = therefore =

+ = = + 2 For low-side injection, = 2

Image rejection -the ratio of voltage gain at the input frequency to w/c the receiver is tuned to gain at the image frequency. = = 1 + 2 2
where Q= Q of the tuned circuit = voltage gain at image frequency = voltage gain at signal frequency


-hayla ^___^