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MARINE POLLUTION Definition Marine pollution is defined as, "The discharge of waste substances into the sea resulting

in harm to living resources, hazards to human health, hindrance to fishery and impairment of quality for use of sea water.

Source (causes) of marine pollution About half of the world population live nearer to coastal lines and gain many benefits from the coastal zones and oceans. The coastal zones contains rich heritage, coral reefs, wetlands and sea grass beds.

Benefits of coral reefs: The coral reefs which are the most productive eco-systems offer many benefits to people. Reefs support more than one millions species. They provide feeding, breeding and nursery areas to fish and shell fish. They offer medicines. They act as buffer to ocean waves and protect coastal lines from storms and so on.

Factors affecting coral reefs The coral reefs are threatened by The sediment from deforestation carried by the runoffs. The agricultural and industrial chemicals reaching through river discharges. The boat anchors and the careless divers. Rising ocean temperatures.

Types of Marine Pollution Sedimentation Agricultural runoff (herbicides, pesticides and nutrients) Energy (thermal and light) Sewage (Faecal Coli form and nutrients) Solid Waste Chemicals, Metals and Radioactive Substances Oil Biological

Major Marine Pollutants Worldwide 10 billion tonnes of ballast water with invasive Est. 10,000 million gallons of sewage annually 3.25 million metric tonnes of oil annually Millions of tonnes of Solid waste

Major Marine Pollutants Metals Introduced dangerous metals include mercury, lead, and copper Heavy Metals are a great concern because they enter the food chain Fuel combustion, electric utilities, steel and iron manufacturing, fuel oils, fuel additives and incineration of urban refuse are the major sources of oceanic and atmospheric contamination by heavy metals Copper is dangerous to marine organisms and has been used in marine anti-fouling paints Mercury and lead poisoning cause brain damage and behaviour disturbances in children Contaminated land runoff, rain of pollutants from the air, and fallout from shipwrecks pollute the ocean with dangerous metals Human activities release 5 times as much mercury and 17 times as much lead as is derived from natural sources.

Sources of Pollution From Land 80% of non-biological marine pollution comes from land based activities Most obvious inputs via pipes discharging directly into marine waters( sewage, industrial, chemical and food processing wastes) Riverine flows into the sea carry pollutants from the entire catchment area. From Air Global atmospheric inputs to the sea from air Discharges

Maritime Oily discharges from ballast water and bilge water during routine ship operations and illegal dumping of solid waste Designated dumping grounds at sea (dredged spoil, old munitions, sewage sludge, fly ash, oil based drilling muds) Accidental spills from Ships carrying hazardous substances, oil, gas etc.

Impacts of Marine Pollution Generally marine pollution affects ecosystem health, public health, recreational water quality and economic viability in the following ways: Mechanical Eutrophication Saphrogenic Toxicity Mutagenic and Carcinogenic

Effects of Marine pollution The presence of heavy metals and-organic pollutants cause more damage in birds as thinning of egg shell and tissue damage of egg. Oil pollution cause damage to marine fauna and flora including algae, fish, birds, invertebrates. About 50,000 to 2,50,000 birds are killed every year by oil. Oil spilling in sea water causes abnormally low body temperature in birds resulting in hypothermia. Nearly 150 rare species of bald eagles also became victims when they ingested oil during Exxon Valdez accident. Oil films are able to retard significantly the rate of oxygen uptake by water.

Cost of Marine Pollution 3.25 million metric tons of oil wasted vs. 3.4 million tons used by Jamaica annually 100,000 mammal and 2 million bird deaths annually Reduction of GDP by decreasing fishery resource (11.9k tonnes 7.7k landed 1960-97) and decreased tourism earnings Loss of bio-diversity and potential life saving medicines (for AIDS &Cancer)

Solutions to Pollution Two main methods Correction costly and time intensive Prevention requires attitude changes Coastal Scientists believe that prevention is better than cure since the effects of marine pollution maybe irreversible and we may therefore be creating everlasting damage to the marine ecosystem. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure

Control Measures of Marine- Pollution Plants for conserving marine biodiversity must be taken into account of human needs. People should be educated about marine ecosystems and the benefits offered by them. Local communities must be involved in protecting and managing their coastal resources. Social and economic incentives must be offered for conserving and sustainable use of marine resources. The fact that all the oceans in the world are connected must be reflected in the policies. Governments must manage their own waters while extending cooperation to the neighboring states)

Physical Methods (i) Skimming the oil off the surface with a suction device appears to be the simplest method. (ii) The floating oil can be absorbed using a suitable absorbing material like polyurethane foam. Chopped straw and saw dust can also be used to absorb oil from the sea water. (iii) Chemicals can be used to coagulate the oil. Chemical Methods (i) Dispersion. (ii) Emulsification. (iii) Using chemical

NOISE POLLUTION Definition Noise pollution is defined as, "the unwanted, unpleasant or disagreeable sound that causes discomfort for all living beings." Noise level Normal conversation sound ranges from 35 dB to 60 dB. Impairment of hearing takes place due to exposure to noise of 80 dB or more. Noise above 140 dB becomes painful.

What is noise? In simple terms, noise is unwanted sound. Sound is a form of energy which is emitted by a vibrating body and on reaching the ear causes the sensation of hearing through nerves.

A noise problem generally consists of three inter-related elements the source, the receiver and the transmission path.

Noise may be continuous or intermittent. Noise may be of high frequency or of low frequency which is undesired for a normal hearing.

The differentiation between sound and noise also depends upon The habit and interest of the person/species The ambient conditions Impact of the sound

Types and sources (causes) of noise

It has been found that environmental noise is doubling every 10 years. Generally noise is described as, 1.Industrial noise. Highly intense sound or noise pollution is caused by many machines 2. Transport noise. The main noise, comes from transport. It mainly includes road traffic noise, rail traffic noise and air craft noise The number of road vehicles like motors, scooters, cars, motor cycles, buses, trucks and particularly the diesel engine vehicles have increased enormously in recent years. 3. Neighborhood noise. This type of noise includes disturbance from household gadgets and community. Common noise makers are musical instruments, TV, VCR, radios, transistors, telephones, and loudspeakers etc.,

Impacts of noise Why bother about noise?

Annoyance Physiological effects Loss of hearing Human performance Nervous system Sleeplessness Damage to material

Effects of Noise Pollution Noise Pollution affects human health, comfort and efficiency. It causes contraction of blood vessels, makes the skin pale, leads to excessive secretion of adrenal in hormone into blood stream which is responsible for high blood pressure. Blaring sounds have known to cause mental distress, heart attacks neurological problems, birth defects and abortion.

Control of Noise Pollution The techniques employed for noise control can be broadly classified as Control at source Control in the transmission path Using protective equipment.

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