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Overview

Basics of Satellites
Types of Satellites
Components of Satellites
Overview
Basics of Satellites
Types of Satellites
Components of Satellites
How do Satellites Work ?
Two Stations on Earth want to communicate through
radio broadcast but are too far away to use
conventional means.
The two stations can use a satellite as a relay station
for their communication
One Earth Station sends a transmission to the
satellite. This is called a Uplink.
The satellite Transponder converts the signal and
sends it down to the second earth station. This is
called a Downlink.
Transponder
Earth Station A
Earth Station B
Uplink Downlink
Multiple access capability,
point-to-point,
point-to-multipoint
multipoint-to-multipoint


A few reasons of satellite
revolution:
point-to-point,
point-to-multipoint
multipoint-to-multipoint
A few reasons of satellite
revolution:
Distribution capability (a particular case of point-to-
multipoint transmission), including:
TV program broadcasting and other video and multimedia applications.
Data distribution, e.g. for business services, Internet wideband
services, etc.;
A single satellite can provide coverage to over 30% of Earths surface.
It is ideal for broadcast applications.
Wide bandwidths (155 Mbps) are available now.
A few reasons of satellite
revolution:
Flexibility for changes in traffic and in network
architecture and also ease of operation and putting
into service.
It is scalable.
It can be rapidly deployed.
Depending on application, there is no need for the local loop.

Advantages of Satellites
The coverage area of a satellite greatly
exceeds that of a terrestrial system.
Transmission cost of a satellite is
independent of the distance from the
center of the coverage area.
Satellite to Satellite communication is
very precise.
Higher Bandwidths are available for use.
Coverage of Satellite
Disadvantages of Satellites
Launching satellites into orbit is costly.

Satellite bandwidth is gradually
becoming used up.

There is a larger propagation delay in
satellite communication than in
terrestrial communication.
Overview
Basics of Satellites
Types of Satellites
Components of Satellites
Due to Mass
mass Class
More than 1000kg
500 to 1000 kg
100 to 500 kg
10 to 100 kg
Less than 10 kg
Large satellite
Small satellite
Mini satellite
Micro satellite
Nano satellite
Due to Orbit Altitude
A) low earth orbits (LEO),
B) Medium earth orbits (MEO),
C) geostationary earth orbits (GEO).
Due to Missions
Telecommunication
Relay for telephone, TV, Internet
Visibility from everywhere in a country
Constellations for global earth coverage
Usually GEO orbits
Molniya orbits for high latitudes
high RF power
Earth observation
Imaging, topographic mapping
intensity measurements
images with good resolution
good optical payloads
civil and military applications
Usually LEO polar orbits
Weather
global coverage of a country
visible and IR
Atmosphere sounding
GEO or LEO
Navigation (GPS, GNSS)
Ranging, navigation signals
Global coverage
LEO
Constellations
Space Science
Astronomy, Space telescopes
All wavelength range (X to radio)
Usually far away orbits (minimise
earth perturbation), high eccentricity
Complex payload
high data rate
Space station, shuttle mission
Microgravity experiments
Presence of human, safety
Pressurised spacecrafts
Environment control

Due to Service Types
Fixed Service Satellites (FSS)
Example: Point to Point Communication

Broadcast Service Satellites (BSS)
Example: Satellite Television/Radio
Also called Direct Broadcast Service (DBS).

Mobile Service Satellites (MSS)
Example: Satellite Phones
Fixed-satellite services FSS
Broadcasting-satellite service (BSS)
Mobile-satellite service (MSS)
Overview
Basics of Satellites
Types of Satellites
Components of Satellites
Components of a Satellite System
Satellites
Ground
stations
Launcher
Satellite:
Launcher:
Used to bring the satellite on the
desired orbit
Ground station (s)
Commissioning of the satellite
Communication with the satellite
Prepare & Send telecommands
Receive Telemetry
process data
Distribute data to end users
Archive data
Satellite bus
Space segment
Collect and redistribute data
1
Modem
Pool
Dispatch
Subsystem
Routers
Switchboard
1
Manager WS
3
Printers
1
2 2
Fax
Checking
Information
Analysis and
Display WS
Planning and Ballistics Team Server Room Control Room
1 - Air-conditioner
2 - Talk-Back Equipment
3 - Telephone
2
2 2
Shift Flight
Director
WS
On-line
Control WS
Server
Cluster
Universal
Time System
2
2
Ballistic and
Navigation
Support WS
2
Mission
Planning WS
Payload
WS
2
2
Mission
Planning WS
Checking Information
Analysis and Display WS
(Flight Director WS)
2
General Engineering
Systems Specialist
3
Cabinet
2
Mathematical
Simulation WS
Exchange
Computers
1
Simulator
Checking
Information
Analysis and
Display WS
Exchange
Computer
Manager WS,
Server
Mission
Planning WS
Ballistic and
Navigation
Support WS
Checking Information
Mathematical
Simulation
Payload
WS
Ballistic and
Navigation
Support WS
Ground Station Components:
A Futuristic Network
Operations Center

Earth Station
Ground Stations
Main Subsystems of the satellite
Satellite
Payload
Module
Satellite Bus
(SM)
Structure
Mechanisms
Attitude &
orbit control
(AOCS)
Propulsion
Thermal
control
Power
Telemetry/
Telecommand
(TM/TC)
Data
Handling
(OBDH)
Instruments
Electronics
Telescopes
Antennas
Catia: Typical command breakdown
Catia: Typical command breakdown
Arabsat III-A
Arabsat III-A
Payload
SM
(Service Module)
Central tube
(Main structural element,
carbon fibre sandwich)
Radiator
Arabsat III-A
Propellant Tanks
(2 x 860 l)
Helium
pressurisation
Tanks (50 l)
14 x 10 N
Thrusters
Central tube
400 N Engine
Propulsion Module (UPS):
Arabsat III-A
One telecommunication panel on the Payload:
Honeycomb
Panel (Radiator)
Heat
pipes
Components
Wave-
guides
Harness
(not
shown)
Interface for
solar array
Arabsat III-A
Telecommunication payload:
Repeater accommodation
Arabsat III-A
Exploded view
Transmission
Antenna
Radiator
Reception
Antenna
Arabsat III-A
Stowed configuration
Arabsat III-A
Deployed Configuration
Arabsat III-A
Antenna deployment
Arabsat III-A
Preparation for TV test
Usage of Satellites

Public Public
Library/School Library/School
Telemedicine Telemedicine
Distance Distance
Learning Learning
Video Video
Conferencing Conferencing
Voice Voice
LAN LAN
Extension Extension
Business Access Business Access
PSTN Gateway PSTN Gateway
Internet Internet
Backbone Backbone
Access Access
Collaborative Collaborative
Computing Computing
Cellular Cellular
Backhaul Backhaul
Aviation Aviation Maritime Maritime
Corporate Enterprise Corporate Enterprise
Terrestrial Networks
Terrestrial Networks
Teledesic: Internet-in-the-Sky
Teledesic Proprietary Slide 2 of 91
What Is a Link Budget?

The carrier level received at the
end of the link is a
straightforward addition of the
losses and gains in the path
between transmitting and receiving
Earth stations.

Why we use Link Budget?
A link budget is used to predict performance
before the link is established.

Show in advance if it will be acceptable

Show if one option is better than another

Provide a criterion to evaluate actual performance
Link Budget Components
A satellite link budget should include the
following parts:
1. Uplink
2. Downlink
3. Combine 1 & 2
4. Define Performance Limit(s)
5. Compare calculated and actual
performance.
Link Budget Basic Question
Is the
operating
margin
large
enough?
It must be
positive to
account for
the items
listed in the
budget
Link Budget Evaluation
Important Factors are:
Satellite non-linearity (NPR)
Satellite transmit power for your signal
Interference (including CDMA if implemented)
Allowance for future (worse) conditions
Lifetime of the system under evaluation
How closely can it be maintained at the parameters
used in the budget

Link Budget Evaluation
Performance objectives for digital links consist
of:
BER for normal operating conditions
Link Availability, or percentage of time that the
link has a BER better than a specified threshold
level
Link Budget Calculations
The link equation in its general form is:
( ) ( ) ( )

+ =
|
.
|

\
|
) log( 10 kTB Gains Losses EIRP
N
C
dB dB dBW
dB
Effective
Isotropic
Radiated
Power
Free Space Loss
Waveguide Loss
Atmospheric Loss
Rain Attenuation
Tracking Errors
k= Boltzman const.
1.38*10-23
W/K/Hz
B= Noise B/W (Hz)
T=Abs. temp in K
(Sometimes
Equivalent temp)




Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP):
The gain of a directive antenna results in a more
economic use of the RF power supplied by the source.
Thus, the EIRP is expressed as a function of the
antenna transmit gain G
T
and the transmitted power P
T

fed to the antenna.

EIRP
dBW
= 10 log P
T dBw
+ G
T

dBi


e.g., transmit power of 6 W & antenna gain of 48.2 dB:

EIRP = 10 log 6 + 48.2 = 56 dBW
Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP):
Maximum power flux density at distance r from a
transmitting antenna of gain G:







2 2
4 4 r
P G
r
EIRP
T T
M
t t

= = +
Receiver Power Equation
2
2
2
2
4 4 4
4
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

= + = + =
r
P G G G
r
P G
G A P
T R T R
T T
R M eff M R
t

t
t

( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =

t r
P G G P
T R T
dB
R
4
log 20
Receiver
Antenna
Gain
Free
Space
Loss
Antenna Gain
The antenna gain, referred to an isotropic radiator,
is defined by:
G
dBi
= 10log()+20log(f)+20log(d)+20.4 dB

Where:
= antenna efficiency (Typical values are 0.55 - 0.75)
d = antenna diameter in m
f = operating frequency in GHz
Antenna Gain

Antenna Gain
D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

Gain Increases
with Diameter
Gain Increases
with Frequency!
Losses
generally consist of four components:

L = L
o
+ L
atm
+ L
rain
+ L
track


Where:
L
o
= free Space Loss
L
atm
= atmospheric losses
L
rain
= attenuation due to rain effects
L
track
= losses due to antenna tracking errors
Free Space Loss
The expression [4D/]
2
is known as the basic
free space loss L
o
. The basic free space loss is
expressed in decibels as:
L
o
= 20log(D) + 20log(f) + 92.5 dB
Where:
D = distance in km between transmitter and
receiver,
f = frequency in GHz
92.5 dB = 20 log {(4*10
9
*10
3
)/c}
Free Space Loss
Example:
ES to satellite is 42,000 km, is 6 GHz, what is L
o
?
L
o
= 92.5 + 20 log 42000 + 20 log 6 = 200.5 dB
Very large loss!!
Assume EIRP = 56 dBW, Rx antenna gain 50 dB
P
R
= 56 + 50 - 200.4 = -94.4 dBW = 355 pW
Depends on:
Distance and frequency
About 200 dB at C-band
About 206 dB at Ku-band


Table shows an example of the mean value of
atmospheric losses for a 10-degree elevation
angle.
Atmospheric Losses Due to Freq.
Atmospheric
Loss(dB)
Freq.
(GHz.)
0.25 2 < f < 5
0.33 5 < f < 10
0.53 10 < f < 13
0.73 13 < f
Atmospheric Losses Due to Elevation
Atmospheric Losses Due to Elevation
Atmospheric Losses
Contributing Factors:
Molecular oxygen Constant
Uncondensed water vapor
Rain
Fog and clouds Depend on weather
Snow and hail
Effects are frequency dependent:
Molecular oxygen absorption peaks at 60 GHz
Water molecules peak at 21 GHz
Decreasing elevation angle will also increase
absorption loss

Typical Losses (4/6 GHz)
A station which is located near the center of a
satellite beam (footprint), will have an
advantage in the received signal compared to
another located at the edge of the same beam
of the satellite.

The satellite antenna pattern has a defined
beam edge to which the values of the satellite
Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power
(EIRP), Gain-to-Noise Temperature ratio
(G/T), and flux density are referenced.

Geographical Advantage
7/04/0515M
Beam Peak 48. 7 dBW
e. i. r. p. Levels
47. 7 dBW
46. 7 dBW
45. 7 dBW
44. 7 dBW
43. 7 dBW
42. 7 dBW
41. 7 dBW
40. 7 dBW
Geographical Advantage
Thank You For
Attention

Any Questions?