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LTE Advanced Description

Contents
Summary on single site studies COMP Classification Positioning of COMP technologies Requirements on the X2 Enabling technologies Efficient feedback
Feedback compression Discrete feedback: Best companion

Receivers: SIC and IRC Pilot design and concepts Summary and way forward Outlook: ARTIST-4G project proposal

2 | Advanced LTE Description | June 2009

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Recent single site studies on R8


Downlink study for 6 sectors versus 3 sctors Same number of users per site, same number of antenna elements Spectral efficiency increased by 50 to 60 % for 6 sectors 6 sectors were evaluated for 30,35,40 deg. Of hor. Beam width Cell edge data rates decreases with beam width Cell edge data rate stays equal in best case

Downlink Study of Closed loop TX diversity vs. Open loop SFBC At low velocities
CL wins : Spectral efficiency is increased by 20% and cell edge thpt. by 40%

At high velocities 30 km/h to 250 km/h


CL wins for the cell edge data rate ( it is equal or better ) OL wins for the spectral efficiency (slight gain at 30km/h, 50% gain at 250 km/h)

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LTE Advanced

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Targets for LTE, LTE advanced


LTE
(3GPP,) Peak data rate DL Peak data rate UL Peak spectrum efficiency DL Peak spectrum efficiency UL 100Mb/s @20MHz 1Gb/s (low mobility) (2RX) 100 Mb/s (high mobility) 50 Mb/s (1TX) 5 bit/s/Hz (2RX) 2.5 bit/s/Hz (2RX)
3 ..4 times R6 1.69 bits/Hz (2x2 ant)
2 ..3 times R6 0.028 bits/Hz (1x2 ant) 2 .. 3 times R6 0.05 bits/Hz (1x2 ant)

LTE advanced

LTE-A:
High spectrum flexibility, e.g. spectrum allocations up to 100 MHz Service: 60 VoIP channels / MHz Backward compatibility to LTE
Performance targets in 3GPP TR 36.913 v8.0.0 Requirements for Further Advancements for E-UTRA (LTEAdvanced), June 2008

500 Mb/s 30 bit/s/Hz (8x8 ant) 15 bit/s/Hz (4x4 ant)

Average spectrum efficiency DL


Average spectrum efficiency UL Cell edge spectrum efficiency DL

3.7 bit/s/Hz (4x4 ant)


2 bit/s/Hz (2x4 ant) 0.12 bit/s/Hz (4x4 ant)

Cell edge spectrum efficiency UL


5 | Advanced LTE Description | June 2009

2 .. 3 times R6 0.028 bits/Hz (1x2 ant)

0.07 bit/s/Hz (2x4 ant)


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How to reach LTE-A targets? Following the Cellular paradigm

Alternative: increase sectorization

Increase the re-use of spectrum per km (using smaller cells) => Move the traffic from the air into the fixed part
But there are economic constraints: Base station sites are expensive ( Mainly OPEX for acquisition, backhaul, maintenance, energy ) The approach does not improve the situation at cell edge
6 | Advanced LTE Description | June 2009 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2009

Options within one cell

Keep the number of antennas: Improve the bits / Hz for single link Improve receivers, channel feedback, link adaptation, scheduling Introduce layered transmission (RDMA) Increase the number of antennas Improve the link budget ( by Beamforming ) Increase the re-use of spectrum per km (using MU MIMO / SDMA) Take contribution from SU MIMO operation (for UEs in good radio conditions)
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Multi-cell situation: two approaches


Interference avoidance Network MIMO

Reduce / Avoid inter-cell interference (using space and frequency) Interference co-ordination Coordinated scheduling Use beamforming Use signals from neighbor cell constructively Network MIMO
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8 | Advanced LTE Description | June 2009

Candidate Technologies for Performance Improvements with LTE Advanced


Enabling Technology Lower Backhauling Latency Candidate Technology for LTE Advanced
Coordinated multi-point transmission and reception Mobility enhancements
Accelerated Procedures (Access, HO)

Additional Standardized Measurements

Collaborative MIMO/ Network MIMO

Beamforming/ Spatial Component ICIC

Time/Freq. Dynamic ICIC

SON Management

Dynamic Spectrum Access

Larger Bandwidths

Support of wider bandwidth up to 100 MHz

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KPIs used for assessments


Performance: Net cell throughput and cell-edge rate (5%)
Reference signal and signalling overhead to be subtracted (e.g., dedicated versus common RS) CSI overhead (Quantized PMI, Channel magnitude and Phase) to be subtracted

Cost: Backhaul requirements (bit rate, latency) Computational complexity Preferred antenna configuration; No Sectors: 3,6,12; number of TX and RX Synchronization and calibration requirements
Other aspects Sensitivity to practical impairments Scalability of the solution ( can it be extended over the network?) Central or distributed processing not a KPI

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Selection process for COMP methods

1 Fundamental phase
Prioritize MIMO and COMP options, eliminate options as far as possible according to their complexity and performance. using basic considerations and fundamental calculations for performance assessment.

2 Real-world asessment phase


First analysis to rank the options Include real-world aspects like:


amount of pilot and signalling overhead required Influence of real-world receivers: channel estimation errors .. Cost of opportunity : e.g. HARQ gain is reduced or HARQ not useable, constraints for backhauling and antenna deployments.

System simulations to focus on winning options Use NGMN compliant system simulation Use results for decisions and standardization inputs ( Work Item )

3 Standardisation phase.
Include status in standardization Re-adjust models according to decisions already taken in 3GPP. Further assess solutions in comparison to other options in 3GPP.

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COMP/ Network MIMO

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Classification of COMP schemes / 3GPP for LTE


Downlink
High potential gains -pilot overhead - Backhaul requirements

Uplink

backhaul requirements

Joint processing coherent combining

(bandwidth, latenmcy)

Joint processing coherent superposition


(Radio samples or softbits)

spectral efficiency

Joint processing non-coherent combining

Collaborative MIMO : Lower potential gains than coherent

High gains - Backhaul requirements!

Coordinated scheduling (per sector or per beam) Efficient interference reduction


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Coordinated scheduling

13 | Advanced LTE Description | June 2009

Network MIMO: Potential performance gains under ideal conditions


30 Throughput (bps/Hz/base) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Factor of 3

Uplink: Users to Bases [V07]

Downlink: Bases to Users [KFV06]


Factor of 5

(1,1)

(2,2)

(4,4)

(1,1)

(2,2)

(4,4)

Conventional: SU MIMO, no coordination

(Base antennas, terminal antennas)

Hexagonal cellular network with coordination up to 4 rings of cells. Uplink: MMSE detection among coordinating bases Downlink: DPC transmission among coordinating bases Eliminate 10% of users with lowest SINR; maximize minimum rate supported by remaining users. Equal rate criteria for a given channel realization. Ideal assumptions: perfect channel knowledge, synchronization, etc.

Network MIMO
14 | Advanced LTE Description | June 2009 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2009

DL Network MIMO (coherent case) What is needed to make it real?


Large gains for large coordinated areas (e.g. 4 rings/ 182 sectors) Multiple TX sites increase delay spread - long CP costs 20% of resources CSI: data to be compressed and transferred with low delay and a minimum of uplink resources. Requires large number of DL pilots (orthogonal in code, time and/or freq) LTE R8:17% DL resources for 4 orthogonal pilots Requires dedicated pilots per stream

Synchronization between eNB required

traffic CSI backhaul

Strong increase of backhaul traffic

CSI: Amount of DL channels to be estimated explodes for increasing number of coordinated cells.
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15 | Advanced LTE Description | June 2009

Enabler for DL Network MIMO Robust multi-cell channel estimation* (HHI)


* Volker Jungnickel et al, Multi-Cell Channel Estimation using Virtual Pilots, in IEEE 67th Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC2008-Spring, Singapore, May 2008.

cell planning

Common pilots are scrambled with cell-specific sequence in time domain (low mobility). Sequence design exploits partical correlation (e.g. Hadamard, DFT). Closer cells are identified by sequences which can be orthogonalized already using shorter correlation window, distant cells by sequences which need a larger window.

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Enabler for DL Network MIMO Calibration of distant antennas


Basic principle: Distribute optically RF carrier to neighboring sites
Required phase jitter: 50 ps Jitter due to polarization mode dispersion: 2 ps for 20 km link

Case 2 : (C)WDM multiplex for digital & clock

Central Unit
Reference oscillator

Remote Radio Head


RF modulation D/A digital in

WDM link clock+radio data

Analog E/O transmitter Digital baseband Digital E/O transmitter

System is static for ~ 1s


17 | Advanced LTE Description | June 2009 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2009

Summary on DL Network MIMO


Situation today Highest theoretical gains among all DL COMP methods
For Downlink FDD: Theoretical gains of the method are consumed by impairments
e.g. Uplink is consumed by Channel state signalling Pilots consume large part of Downlink

We need further progress on enablers Synchronization and antenna calibration Principles are established Pilots First proposals Efficient channel feedback ideas for single sector, to be extended We think that coherent COMP will not be available in the next 3 years!

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Coordinated scheduling simple approach

Coordination area
around every cell is defined a coordination area with the cell in the center a cell coordinates only with cells within its coordination area

Establish data basis for interference estimation


correlation matrix describing every channel between every BS antenna and UE antenna within a given coordination area around each cell
requires knowledge of inter-cell channels BS measures all inter-cell channels within its coordination area
BSa ca2 ca1 UE1 cell 1 UE2

Coordinated uplink sounding

cell 2 BSb cb2 cb1

Optimize scheduling & beamforming/Tx power per UE within coordination area


1. select UEs with lowest mutual interference to be scheduled on same resource and 2. balance their SINR/throughput by adapting Tx power/beam pattern/direction

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Coordinated scheduling simple approach


1-tier coordination Distributed computation by prioritization of cells
cell includes results from higher priority cells within its coordination area as constraints to own optimization (B includes 3xA, C includes 3xB & 3xA)
prevents conflicting results in the overlap of coordination areas fairness among cells achieved by permuting priority assignments over time
B A C B A C B A C A C C B A C B A C B A C B A B A C B

3A 2B 1C 2C 3B 4A 4B 5A 3C

0 1 2

Our View Stable algorithm This approach with scheduling coordination has been pursued for WiMAX 802.16m

0A 4C 5B

3
4 5

5C 1A 0B
1B 0C 2A

20 | Advanced LTE Description | June 2009

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multiple sub-frames scheduled according to computation

Optimize for a number of sub-frames, not for single allocations in order to reduce communication load time

Coordinated scheduling Combination with SDMA using 4x2 Grid-of-fixed beams


1000 900 1x2 SIMO 2x2 SU-MIMO (TxDiv + PARC) 4x2 Grid-of-fixed-beams 4x2 SDMA (GoFB) 4x2 SDMA (GoFB) + intra-site Coop

5-percentile throughput [kbps]

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0

0.5

1 1.5 2 spectral efficiency [bit/s/Hz]

2.5

+ Inter-Node B Co-ordination + Intra-Node B BF co-ordination

7x3 cells with wrap around, av. 10 users per cell 10 MHz BW Control and pilot overhead considered Score based proportional fair scheduling NGNM case 1 parameter set: 500m ISD, 3km/h, 20 dB Penetr. loss
21 | Advanced LTE Description | June 2009

SDMA w/o BF co-ordination

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COMP in Uplink / Macro diversity


Single sector

Reception in 2 sectors

Inter-site
COMP

Simpler situation than DL: single point of transmission


Forwarding of radio samples Forwarding of softbits ( soft combining ) Forwarding of data (selection combining)

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UL COMP Reception over 2 sectors (result from Uni Stuttgart)

Results: Joint Link Adaptation (II)


Case II: Proportional-Fair scheduler, with HARQ (baseline)
Spectral Efficiency
Average Spectral Efficiency [bit/s/Hz/sector]

Cell-Edge Throughput
400
5 % Cell Edge Throughput [kbps]

1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 LMMSE LMMSE-SIC Joint detection only Joint detection & link adaptation No cooperation

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Joint detection only Joint detection & link adaptation No cooperation

+17% +21%

+19%+26%

+21% +22%

+24%+30%

LMMSE

LMMSE-SIC

As before, additional gains relatively small compared to gains due to joint detection alone and gains generally significantly smaller than for (dumb) RR scheduling
March 4, 2009

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COMP in Uplink - (Distributed RRH case)


(Berlin set-up)
Remote Radio Head

Princple

Simulation results for 1x4 antenna

configuration

(QPSK 1/3, near-uncorrelated antennas)


Block Error Rate
Normalized Throughput
100 90 80
Throughput (kbps)

Remote Radio Head

(1st transmission, with 95% confidence interval)

100,0%

10,0%
BLER

70 60 50 40 30 20
AWGN 2 Rx PedB3 4 Rx PedB3 2 Rx AWGN 4Rx

1,0%

SM fibre, 1,25 Gb/s

10

0,1% -8,0 -3,0 2,0 7,0

0 -8,0 -3,0 2,0 7,0

actual avg. SNR [dB]

actual avg. SNR [dB]

Smart NodeB Central Unit

for frequency-selective channel

Up to 4.5 dB SNR gain

especially on cell edge

Throughput gain

Clear improvement of Uplink throughput for UEs at cell edge Improved fairness Candidate for LTE advanced

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Classification of COMP schemes and backhaul requirements


Downlink
X2 Backhaul Additional BW at coordinator1 8- 14 Gbps (samples or CSI, in) 11 or 6 Gbps (IQ samples+, out) Latency < 1 ms*

Uplink
High gains - pilot overhead (-TDD only) - backhaul requirements! High gains - backhaul requirements

Joint processing coherent combining


Additional BW2 30 Mbps (CSI, in) 45 Mbps (user data, out)3 Latency < 3 ms*

backhaul requirements (bandwidth)

Joint processing coherent superposition


X2 Backhaul

Additional BW4 5 Mbps (control traffic, in & out) Latency: 10ms for decoupled (lower gains!)) < 1 ms*/arbitrary (scheduling and coordination coupled)

calculation assumptions: 10 MHz system BW, 4 antennas per cell, 20 UEs per cell + time and frequency domain IQ samples (in this order) * latency is site to site one way, includes eNB processing time!

spectral efficiency

Joint processing non-coherent combining

Non-coherent combining: lower gains than coherent Moderate backhaul

Additional BW incoming2 coherent: 3.7 or 2 Gbps (IQ samples+) non-coherent: 250 Mbps (softbits) 30 Mbps (user data) Latency < 3 ms*

Coordinated scheduling
Efficient interference reduction low latency helps!

Coordinated scheduling

same as downlink

1 3 sites with 3 cells each, coordinator co-located at one site 2 2 slave cells 3 30 % of UEs in CoMP mode 4 7 cell coordination area, 3-step coordination cycle

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Enabling technologies
- Efficient feedback - pre-coding schemes - IRC and SIC receivers

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Example for Enablers: Feedback compression


Downlink data transmission and pilots

BS MIMO channel

MS

Channel estimation

Uplink feedback of compressed channel state information

Feedback compression

Challenge for FDD systems:


Transfer channel information from the UE to the Base Station
MIMO channel state information (CSI) Frequency-selective channel quality information (CQI)

with strongly limited feedback signalling bandwidth

Approach:
Source coding for CSI/CQI
27 | Advanced LTE Description | June 2009 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2009

Example for Enablers: Feedback compression


OFDM channel feedback compression based on a RAKE approach

CE

CTF

IDFT

CIR

E{ }t,ant

PDP

Fingers
delays f, powers pf

Reduction on fingers Common pilots Quantized short-term feedback

Quantized long-term feedback

Principle: based on time/frequency domain transformations separating of short-term and long-term feedback (using a RAKE-receiver-like fingerapproach) Focus on CSI compression: Complex-valued coefficients per Tx-Rx antenna channel LTE-A T-Docs
28 | Advanced LTE Description | June 2009

Uplink CSI feedback signalling Collection at Rx and synthesis to CIR DFT CTF

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Efficient feedback concepts: The best /worst companion concept


BS 2

Codebook
Index 1 2 Weight vector w1 w2

FDD DL Reference symbols BS 1

User 1

PMI, CQI + BCI/WCI, Delta CQI for BS 2, BS3 Backhaul connection

BS 3

UEs measure channel and report best beam index (preferred rank 1 PMI) for their serving cell UEs further measure channels from a set of dominant interfering cells UEs report best-companion (BCI) or worst-companion PMIs (WCI) for the set of interfering cells UEs report CQI for the case that the best-companion PMIs are not used and for the case that the best companion PMIs are used (Delta-CQI).

Additional low-rate-feedback enabling COMP beam coordination based on coordinated scheduling


29 | Advanced LTE Description | June 2009 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2009

MU-MIMO with and without Best Companion signaling (multi-link simulation result)
Relative gain in total average sector throughput
140% 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Urban macro Urban micro min. Beam dist. Best Comp.

Simulation assumptions (see appendix A.5) Using a subset of the LTE-codebook DL FDD 10MHz@2.1 MHz

4 Tx linear array, 2 Rx
MU-MIMO pairing of 2 users Intra-cell interference fully modeled Inter-cell interference taken from Geometry of 19*3 sector system with 500m ISD and statistically modeled

SCME channel
subband SINR cdf 1 0.9 0.8 BCI no BCI

subband SINR cdf 1 0.9 0.8 BCI no BCI

SINR per subband at decoder input


Urban micro

cumulative probability

cumulative probability

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -40

Urban macro

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -40

Conclusion: With very small additional feedback signaling overhead (0.8 kbit/s), throughput gains in the order of 20%
20 30 40

-30

-20

-10

0 SINR dB

10

20

30

40

-30

-20

-10

0 SINR dB

10

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Optimized pre-coding Closed Loop MIMO, optimized codebooks


600

Comparison of different Antenna Systems and Pre-coding Matrices, 500m ISD


500 1x1 Single Antenna TX 500 1x2 Single Antenna TX

optimized codebook

Cell Border Throughput [kbit/s]

500

500 2x2 CL TX Div & PSRC (36.211) 500 4x2 CL TX Div & PSRC (36.211)

Gains with optimum codebook


4x2 2x2 36.211 codebook

400

500 4x2 Directional CL TX Div & PARC, 4 Beams, 4 Wts 500 4x2 Directional CL TX Div & PARC, 16 Beam, 8 Wts

300

1x2

200

1x1

100

0 1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Spectral Efficiency [bit/s/Hz/sector]

1.8

1.9

2.0

We go for downloadable codebooks in 3GPP: pre-coding will be adaptable per cell. Low impact on UE.
31 | Advanced LTE Description | June 2009 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2009

Summary :
We aim at a smooth introduction of LTE-A into the field System should adapt to available spectrum System should extend on LTE (antenna) deployment System should allow to select optimum COMP scheme
depending on available backhauling capabilities (bandwidth and latency ) Depending on existing antenna sites and configurations

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