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Eating more than is needed can lead to obesity.

This is associated with cancer, type 2 diabetes and CHD

Body mass index is a way of determining whether a person is


BMI = body mass in kg / (height in m)2

BMI Category
Less than 18.5 Underweight
18.5-24.9 Acceptable
25-29.9 Overweight
Remember mass in kg here
30-34.9 Obese (class
35-35.9 Obese (class
England 2007 17% men and
Over 40 Severely 21% of women estimated BMI
obese (class 3)
more than 30
-Risk of heart disease is increased if there is:

A concentration of cholesterol in the blood greater than 5

mmol dm-3
A high concentration of LDLs (bad!) more than 3mmol dm-3
A low concentration of HDLS (good fat!) less than 1mmol dm-3
Low ratio of HDLs to LDLs. Ratio should be 4:1

Remember: Atherosclerosis is build up of plaques in the artery


LDLs deposit cholesterol which accumulates with fatty acids,

calcium salts and fibrous tissue
Selective breeding
Artificial selection
Food spoilage
Rice, Sugar, Wheat (Wholewheat, Wheat Flour), Vanilla
Flavour Clusters (10%) (Rolled Oats, Rice, Wheat Flour,
Sugar, Vegetable Oil, Milk Whey Powder, Wheat Gluten,
Defatted Wheatgerm, Skimmed Milk Powder, Barley Malt
Extract, Salt, Glucose Syrup, Starch, Emulsifier {Soy
Lecithin}, Glazing Agent {Gum Arabic}, Flavourings),
Wheat Gluten, Defatted Wheatgerm, Skimmed Milk
Powder, Freeze Dried Fruit(3%)(Cranberry, Raspberry),
Salt, Barley Malt Flavouring, Vitamin C, Niacin, Iron,
Vitamin B6, Riboflavin (B2), Thiamin (B1), Folic Acid,
Vitamin B12.
Selective breeding

Humans often want to develop a new variety (or breed) of

plant or animal that has all the characteristics that they
want. This is usually done to benefit us in some way.

Crops Livestock Pets Garden plants


1. Select the best cow

3. Mate

2. Select the best bull

4. Select the best offspring

and mate again
Crop Plants Livestock
-Increased yield of grain, -Increased yield of meat,
roots, tubers (potatoes), milk and eggs
etc -Fast growing breeds
-Resistance to pests e.g. -Resistance to disease
insects -Better quality meat
-Resistance to microbes
-Better quality e.g.
nutritional value and
Nitrogen as nitrates or ammonium ions – makes amino acids
Magnesium – chlorophyll
Potassium – Enzyme cofactors and for guard cells to open stomata
Phosphate – Makes DNA, RNA and coenzymes for respiration

-Natural fertiliser
-Artificial e.g. NPK

10.Herbicides – Kill weeds that complete with germinating crop
11.Fungicides – On crops that may grow fungi dependent upon
12.Insecticides – Insect levels may cause an economic loss

15.Crop Rotation
16.Biological control
17.Antibiotics – Added to animal feed to reduce activity of bacteria in
gut so more food available for digestion (banned in EU but still in


Fusarium venenatum strain PTA-2684 is a soil mould

fungus has been developed and used since 1985 as a
meat substitute
Advantages Disadvantages
Microbes grow rapidly Microbes subject to
High yields infection by viruses
Factories use less land (bacteriophages)
and can be set up Fermenters can get
anywhere contaminated
Use waste material as Customer resistance
substrate Purification and
No ethical issues processing can be
Low fat or no fat foods expensive
-Mould, fungi, discolouration, softening, unpleasant odour
-Extreme = vats of grain infected with fungus Aspergillus
which produces carcinogenic toxins called aflotoxins

Method Example Principle

Salting Salted cod Removes water by
Pickling Sauerkraut osmosis
Gives low pH so
enzymes in microbes
Heat treatment Milk, wine denatured
Pasteurisation and
Freezing Meat UHT
Water frozen so not
available for microbes
Irradiation Fruit, prawns X-rays/gamma rays
kill bacteria and
moulds by breaking
bonds in proteins and