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Water Demand Management UNIT 1

WDM in Context

Course map
Unit 1: WDM in context

Unit 2:

Municipal WDM

Unit 3:

WDM options and benefits

Unit 4:

WDM plan

Outcomes
By the end of this unit, you should be able to give a brief overview of IWRM and contextualise it within global efficiency, sustainability and equity outline foundational IWRM and WDM concepts in the Southern African context examine various definitions and misconceptions of WDM and outline the motivation behind the approach

Outcomes
By the end of this unit, you should be able to give an overview of available WDM measures detail the constraints and incentives affecting WDM outline the WDM status in each SADC country discuss the opportunities and goals concerning WDM within SADC

Outcomes
By the end of this unit, you should be able to formulate ideas for exploiting incentives and overcoming constraints to WDM implementation understand the successes and challenges of some municipal case studies begin to develop your own MWSAs WDM implementation plan

Water Demand Management in context


What are the links? Sustainable development Integrated Water Resources Management Water resources (stress and scarcity) Water demand Millennium Development Goals

1.1 Sustainable development


There are over 60 definitions of sustainable development, including this landmark:
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs - both for water supplies and for a healthy aquatic environment

1.1 Sustainable development triple bottom line

1.1 Sustainable development role of water

1.2 Water and water resources hydrological cycle

1.2 Water and water resources a rainbow of water


Green water Blue water White water Grey water Brown water Yellow water Black water

1.2 Water and water resources partitioning of rainfall

1.2 Water and water resources the diversion cycle

1.2 Water and water resources dams and development


WCD Report on Dams The hydraulic mission (SADC) Inter-basin transfer schemes

1.2 Water and water resources dam purpose in Southern Africa

1.2 Water and water resources shared rivers


Fifteen shared rivers Downstream-upstream concerns Hydro-politics

1.2 Water and water resources conflict prevention and resolution


SADC Protocol on shared rivers Helsinki Rules on shared watercourses Transparency (equity?)

1.3 Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)


IWRM is a process which promotes the co-ordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximise the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems

1.3 IWRM: The Dublin Principles (1992)


Freshwater is a finite, vulnerable and essential resource

Its development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving all relevant stakeholders
Women play a central role in the provision, management and safeguarding of water Water is an economic good

1.3 IWRM: Implications

1.3 IWRM: Cross-cutting issues

1.3 IWRM: Challenges

1.3 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)


Millennium Declaration 2000 (189 countries) Goal 7: Environmental Sustainability Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

1.4 Water stress and scarcity

1.4 Water stress and scarcity Southern Africa Definitions Deception of numbers Physical scarcity: < 1 700 m3 per person per year Economic and social scarcity No universal scale yet

1.4 Water stress and scarcity Southern Africa


Scarcity versus stress
80% Swaziland

Water stress (extraction as % available)

70% 60% Botswana, Namibia 50% 40% RSA, Tanzania 30% 20% 10% 0% 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Scarcity (water availability per capita, m3 pa) Angola, DRC, Mozambique Zambia

1.4 Water use versus GDP Southern Africa


Water use per capita versus GDP per capita
350 South Africa Botswana Namibia Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe Moz DRC Angola Lesotho 2,000 4,000 6, 000 8,000 10, 000 300 250 200 150 100 50 Malawi Tanz

Water use per capita (excluding irrigation)

GDP per capi ta at PPP (2000)

1.5 Water demands on MWSAs


Categories
Domestic Non-domestic Losses

Variability due to
Average and peak flows Dry and wet season Diurnal flow Drought and non-drought periods

1.5 Water demands on MWSAs factors affecting demand


Weather Population Service level Health and epidemiology Political developments Economic growth and decline

1.6 Water Demand Management


1.6.1 Myths and misconceptions 1.6.2.1 Definitions 1.6.2.2 Interpretations Narrow Broader 1.6.2.3 Components 1.6.3 Motivating factors

1.6 Water Demand Management


1.6.4 Measures and interventions 1.6.5 Constraints and incentives 1.6.6 SADC status 1.6.7 The pursuit of WDM Regional National Local

1.6.1 Myths and misconceptions


WDM is NOT A luxury that poor countries can ill afford A fashion that will pass A hobby of environmentalists A government conspiracy to make peoples lives more difficult

1.6.1 Myths and misconceptions


WDM is NOT A goal in its own right Too vague to implement An approach which does not show tangible benefits Nothing more than tariff increases

1.6.2.1 Definitions
Water Demand Management: Aims to increase water efficiency, reducing or postponing the need for more dams and boreholes (Macy, 1999; Arntzen, 2003) Seeks to maximise the usage of water by curbing inessential use through price and non-price measures (SADCWSCU)

1.6.2.1 Definitions
Water Demand Management: Seeks to influence water demand in order to achieve consumption levels that are equitable, efficient and sustainable Is a management approach that aims to conserve water by controlling demand

1.6.2.2 Interpretations
Narrow: curbing water demand and consumption Examples:
Efficient irrigation Increased water allocation efficiency

1.6.2.2 Interpretations
Broader: influencing water demand and using non-traditional water sources to delay or put off new dams and well fields Examples:
Rainwater harvesting and desalination Re-use of wastewater

1.6.2.3 Components
Enabling policy environment Right institutional set-up Right measures and implementation

1.6.3 Motivating factors


Environment: Drought and water scarcity Adverse environmental impacts of dams and well fields Economic: Lower costs, incl. O & M costs Water savings Enhanced competitiveness of industries

1.6.3 Motivating factors


Equity: Provide water to more people Better affordability Empowerment and growth: Innovation and technology development Greater competitiveness Use of indigenous knowledge

Figure 6: WDM target groups and measures

1.6.4 Measures and interventions


Measures target four different stages of the water supply chain:
Water resource management Water distribution methods Consumer demand management Return flow management

1.6.4 Measures and interventions


Technical measures Planning processes Regulatory measures Economic incentives and restraints Consultative processes

Table 6: Examples of the range of WDM measures


Water cycle stages Technical WDM measures WDM in planning WDM in regulations WDM in eco-nomics WDM in consultative processes

Resource management functions

Removal of invading alien species Wetland rehabilitation Dam storage optimisation (e.g. less evaporation) Optimisation of dam operation rules Artificial recharge and below surface water storage

Water catchment management Protection from over-utilisation Managing land use Water quality management Drought contingencies Allocative efficiency Efficient green water management

Best Available Technology (BAT) water practices as compulsory alternative in Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA)/Social Economic Analysis (SEA) procedure in water stressed areas

Awareness and education, social marketing

Table 6: Examples of the range of WDM measures


Water cycle stages Technical WDM measures WDM in planning WDM in regulations WDM in eco-nomics WDM in consultative processes

Distribution and supply functions

Infrastructure optimisation Parallel infrastructure for different water classes Loss minimisation Metering Pressure management Prepaid metres Commonproperty management of standpipes

Town planning services Re-use and reclamation WDM in building standards

Regulations, norms and guidelines

Incentives Higher energy prices make pumping expensive. Volume-based effluent charges

Education, awareness, training Covenants for monopolies of WSPs

Table 6: Examples of the range of WDM measures


Water cycle stages Technical WDM measures WDM in planning WDM in regulations WDM in eco-nomics WDM in consultative processes

End users

Metering Different service levels Loss minimisation Retro-fitting existing systems

Irrigation scheduling Crop choice Agricultural extension Auditing Minimising institutional use

Domestic use guidelines and restrictions Guidelines for private and public sector Drought restrictions Proper level and structure of tariffs Amendment of water irrigation fees (too low and linked to area, not m3)

Effective billing and pricing Product standards Differential tax rates (e.g. VAT) Higher energy tariffs make pumping expensive Volume-based effluent charges Tradable water rights

Education, awareness, training

Table 6: Examples of the range of WDM measures


Water cycle stages Technical WDM measures WDM in planning WDM in regulations WDM in eco-nomics WDM in consultative processes

Return flow management

Minimising infrastructure Minimising pollution Minimising losses Minimising infiltration Reclamation

Infrastructure optimisation Minimising pollution

Effluent standards

Effluent charges

Education, awareness, training Covenants for irrigation sector and public sector

1.6.5 Constraints and incentives


Constraints: Practical (funds, skills, capacity) WDM benefits not understood Supply bias among stakeholders Inappropriate training of professionals Uninformed or dissatisfied customers

1.6.5 Constraints and incentives


Constraints: Lack of understanding of the need for WDM Lack of planning and implementation skills Lack of appropriate institutions and funding Weak policy and legal instruments Negative views towards WDM

Activity
What does WDM mean in your country and organisation? What are the principal WDM constraints in your country and organisation?

1.6.5 Constraints and incentives


Incentives Resource protection Increased production A sound basis for planning Water loss reduction

Table 7: Status of WDM planning and implementation in SADC countries


Country Policy/legislation National strategy or programme Applied in urban sector Applied in agricultural sector

Angola

No/no

No

No

Extremely limited

Botswana

Developing policy/ legislation to follow

Reviewing draft strategy

Escalating tariffs, leak detection

Extremely limited

Lesotho

Yes/ in progress

Adopted in 1999

Escalating tariffs only

Extremely limited

Malawi

Revising policy/ legislation to follow

National programme to follow new act

Escalating tariffs only

Extremely limited

Namibia

Yes/ in progress

In development

Comprehensive in Windhoek

Limited

Table 7: Status of WDM planning and implementation in SADC countries


Country Policy/legislation National strategy or programme Applied in urban sector Applied in agricultural sector

Mozambique

Yes/no

No

Escalating tariffs only

Extremely limited

Swaziland

No/no Water Bill 1998 not yet enacted

Water Authority to develop Master Plan

Escalating tariffs only

Extremely limited

South Africa

Yes/yes

Nat. strategy in development Urban providers developing programme

Full programme in Hermanus, limited in Durban, Johannesburg and Cape Town

Limited application

Zimbabwe

Yes/no

Strategy Policy developed

Escalating tariffs only in Harare; new programme in Bulawayo

Extremely limited

Activity
Look at the analysis of your country.
Do you agree with the synopsis made? Can you provide some examples of the issues mentioned? Would you like to add to or amend it?

Use your comments and examples during the development of your WDM implementation plan.

1.6.6 SADC WDM status


SADC countries: Are at different stages of WDM preparation and adoption Have seldom integrated WDM into policies and legislation Seldom have institutions charged with IWRM, WDM and shared watercourses Have seldom started with systematic WDM implementation

1.6.7 The pursuit of WDM


Regionally Shared or common sustainability commitments Regional Strategy and Action Plan Shared Water Source Protocol Regional challenges and opportunities International donors and nongovernmental organisations

Activity
What do you think about these constraints and benefits? Can you see opportunities for yourself or your organisation to support the regional development of WDM to meet these challenges?

1.6.7 The pursuit of WDM


Nationally General approaches that countries may need to adopt: Identifying their own national WDM priority areas Integrating the WDM approach and methods into policies and legislation Hastening the preparation for and adoption of WDM measures

1.6.7 The pursuit of WDM


Nationally General approaches that countries may need to adopt: Converting or extending the goals of existing institutions Developing new bodies to act as watchdogs and promoters of IWRM and WDM

1.6.7 The pursuit of WDM


Nationally Countries can promote or legislate WDM measures aimed at user groups: Water planners Water providers Productive end-users Domestic users

Activity
Discussion questions What factors determine the progress made with WDM in countries? Why is WDM not yet integrated in the policies and legislation of most countries?

Activity
Discussion questions Why are few or no institutions charged with IWRM and WDM, and what are the implications of this? What opportunities for enhanced WDM do you consider possible and necessary?

1.6.7 The pursuit of WDM


Local level and municipal initiatives that showcase WDM in Southern Africa Water conservation in Hermanus, South Africa Water conservation in Windhoek, Namibia WDM and irrigation in Southern Africa Can you think of other examples of WDM in practice in your country?

Activity
Think of examples of WDM in practice in your country Collate the information you already know about your local examples List of the information you need to source from colleagues or documents Prepare your own case study example Present it to your co-learners

Summary
WDM is an integral part of IWRM WDM is not commonly applied in Southern Africa WDM is in the interest of countries and their people

Summary
WDM is about efficiency, equity and sustainability WDM needs to target at least four groups: water planners, water, suppliers, end-users and managers of return flows

Activity

HEADING
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