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Introduction,Aerospac e Engineering
Pre Requisites Aircraft Professions Global Aviation Industries.

Aircrafts Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) drives

aerodynamic forces that drive control surface size and loading


A380 1.25 million lb MTOW extensive use of hydraulics Cessna 172 2500 lb MTOW no hydraulics all manual

1 As airplanes grow in size, so do the forces needed to move the flight controls thus the need to transmit larger amount of power
Air Turbine Pump

5 Hydraulic power is generated mechanically, electrically and pneumatically

2 Hydraulic system transmits and controls power from engine to flight control actuators
Pilot Inputs

Electric Motorpump
Ram Air Turbine Pump

Hydraulic Storage/Conditioning

Electric Generator Engine Pump

Flight Control Actuators

3 Pilot inputs are transmitted to remote actuators and amplified

4 Pilot commands move actuators with little effort

Controlling Aircraft Motion


Primary Flight Controls
Definition of Airplane Axes
1

1 Ailerons 2 Elevators 3 Rudder

control roll control pitch controls yaw

Controlling Aircraft Motion


Secondary Flight Controls
High Lift Devices: Flaps (Trailing Edge), slats (LE Flaps) increase area and camber of wing permit low speed flight Flight Spoilers / Speed Brakes: permit steeper descent and augment ailerons at low speed when deployed on only one wing Ground Spoilers: Enhance deceleration on ground (not deployed in flight) Trim Controls: Stabilizer (pitch), roll and rudder (yaw) trim to balance controls for desired flight condition

Example of Flight Controls (A320)


PRIMARY SECONDARY

REF:

A320 FLIGHT CREW OPERATING MANUAL CHAPTER 1.27 - FLIGHT CONTROLS

Why use Hydraulics?


Effective and efficient method of power amplification
Small control effort results in a large power output

Precise control of load rate, position and magnitude


Infinitely variable rotary or linear motion control Adjustable limits / reversible direction / fast response

Ability to handle multiple loads simultaneously


Independently in parallel or sequenced in series

Smooth, vibration free power output


Little impact from load variation

Hydraulic fluid transmission medium


Removes heat generated by internal losses Serves as lubricant to increase component life

Basic Hydraulic System A valve is


opened, the hydraulic flows into the actuator and presses against the piston, causing it to move and in turn move the attached control surface

Reference: http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/AERO/Hydr02.htm

General Uses
Used for flight control, actuation of flaps,

slats, weapons bays, landing gear, breaks Provides the extra force required to move large control surfaces in heavy aerodynamic loads.

General Specifications Several different Fluids


MIL-H-5606, MIL-H-83282, and MIL-H-81019 General Temperature Ranges : -65F to 295F

Pressures:
Airbus A380 has 5000psi hydraulic system Typical commercial airline pressure is 3000 psi

http://aerospace.eaton.com/news.asp?articledate=06/01/03&NewsCommand=V http://www.tpub.com/content/aviation/14018/css/14018_178.htm

Problems with Hydraulics


Heavy High maintenance Adds cost and creates a logistics problem Requires space (pumps, hydraulic lines, etc.)

Possible Improvements
Electric Actuators
Consists of a small electric motor, pump and

actuator ram requiring about 1 pint of hydraulic fluid Flight tested by NASAs Dryden Flight Research Center on a modified F-18. Provides significant weight savings by eliminating pumps and hydraulic lines Also could decrease required maintenance

Reference: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. News Release 98-84

Electro Mechanical Actuator

Reference: Air Force Research Laboratory http://www.afrlhorizons.com/Briefs/0006/VA9902.html

Impact on Design
Need to allow sufficient space for required

hydraulic systems Weight of the system must be accounted for

Hydraulics
hydraulics [h drlliks ] noun study of fluids: the study of water or other fluids at rest or in motion, especially with respect to engineering applications

Hydraulics used in many applications: Steering/control systems (rudder, planes) Deck machinery (anchor windlass, capstans, winches) Masts & antennae on submarines Weapons systems (loading & launching) Other: elevators, presses

Hydraulic Theory
Hydraulics
Covers the physical behavior of liquids in

motion Pressurized oil used to gain mechanical advantage and perform work

Important Properties Shapelessness Incompressibility Transmission of Force

Shapelessness

Important Properties
Liquids have no neutral form Conform to shape of container Easily transferred through piping from one

location to another

Incompressibility
Liquids are essentially incompressible Once force is removed, liquid returns to

original volume (no permanent distortion)

Transmission of Force
Force is transmitted equally & undiminished

in every direction -> vessel filled with pressure

Hydraulic Theory
Pascals Law Magnitude of force transferred is in direct proportion to the surface area (F = P*A) Pressure = Force/Area Liquid properties enable large objects (rudder,

planes, etc) to be moved smoothly

Hydraulic Mechanical Advantage


F2 = A1 = 20 in2 F1 = 20 lbf A1 = 2 in2

Basic Hydraulic System


Hydraulic Fluid Usually oil (2190 TEP) Pressure Source Hydraulic pump (A-end of system) Pressure user Hydraulic motor (B-end of system) Piping system (w/ valves, tanks, etc) Get fluid from A-end to B-end

Hydraulic Pump (A-End)


Pumps can be positive displacement or

centrifugal

Waterbury pump

Variable-stroke piston pump Tilting box can tilt fwd/aft while pump rotates Angle of tilting box determines capacity and

Hydraulic Pump (A-End)


Variable-stroke piston pump Tilting box can tilt fwd/aft while pump rotates Angle of tilting box determines capacity and dir. of flow

Cylinder/Motor (B-end)
Piston/cylinder used if desired motion is linear
Hydraulic pressure moves piston & ram Load is connected to ram (rudder, planes,

masts, periscopes)
Piston Cylinder RAM

Seal Hydraulic Fluid Supply/Return Ports

Cylinder/Motor (B-end)
Motor used if desired motion is rotary
stroke pump in reverse Used for capstan, anchor windlass, etc
Essentially a variable-

Piping System
Has to withstand excessive pressure Valves, filters, & HXs all necessary Accumulators Holds system under pressure (w/out contin. pump) Provides hydraulics when pump off/lost Compensates for leakage/makeup volume Types: piston, bladder, & direct contact

Accumulator Types
Piston
Most common

Bladder
Gun mounts Steering

systems

Direct contact
Least common

Advantages
Convenient power transfer Few moving parts Low losses over long distances Little wear Flexibility Distribute force in multiple directions Safe and reliable for many uses Can be stored under pressure for long periods Variable speed control Quick response (linear and rotary)

Disadvantages
Requires positive confinement (to give shape) Fire/explosive hazard if leaks or ruptures Filtration critical - must be free of debris Manpower intensive to clean up

Electrohydraulic Drive System


Uses hydraulics to transfer power from electric

motor to load Rotary: Waterbury pump connected to rotary piston hydraulic motor (speed gear)
Tilting box of A-end controls direction/speed of B-end Adv: high starting torque, reversibility, high power-to-

weight ratio

ex: Electrohydraulic Speed Gear or Steering Gear


capstan, anchor windlass, cranes, elevator, ammo hoist

Electrohydraulic Speed Gear

Electrohydraulic Steering Gear


Same as speed gear except B-end is a

hydraulic cylinder to produce linear motion Waterbury pumps connected by piping to hydraulic ram cylinder
Various methods for connecting rams to tillers Two pumps for redundancy & reliability Movement of steering wheel through hydraulic

system moves rudder

Electrohydraulic Steering Gear

Control of System
Remote control Normal method Control from bridge Emergency Take local control Manually position control surface/rudder

Power
Landing gear
Extension, retraction, locking, steering, braking

Primary flight controls


Rudder, elevator, aileron, active (multi-function)

spoiler

Secondary flight controls


high lift (flap / slat), horizontal stabilizer, spoiler,

thrust reverser

Utility systems
Cargo handling, doors, ramps, emergency

Landing Gear

electrical power generation


Spoiler Actuator HYDR. MOTOR Flap Drive GEARBOX

TORQUE TUBE Nosewheel Steering

Sources of Hydraulic Power


Mechanical
Engine Driven Pump (EDP) - primary hydraulic power source,

mounted directly to engines on special gearbox pads Power Transfer Unit mechanically transfers hydraulic power between systems

Electrical
Pump attached to electric motors, either AC or DC Generally used as backup or as auxiliary power Electric driven powerpack used for powering actuation zones Used for ground check-out or actuating doors when

engines are not running

Pneumatic
Engine Driven Pump
Bleed Air turbine driven pump used for backup power Ram Air Turbine driven pump deployed when all engines

Ram Air Turbine

are inoperative and uses ram air to drive the pump Accumulator provides high transient power by releasing stored energy, also used for emergency and parking brake

AC Electric Motorpump Power Transfer Unit

Maintenance-free Accumulator

Key Hydraulic System Design Drivers


High Level certification requirement per aviation

regulations:
Maintain control of the aircraft under all normal and anticipated failure conditions

Many system architectures* and design approaches

exist to meet this high level requirement aircraft designer has to certify to airworthiness regulators by analysis and test that his solution meets requirements
* Hydraulic System Architecture:

Arrangement and interconnection of hydraulic power sources and consumers in a manner that meets requirements for controllability of aircraft

Considerations for Hydraulic System Design


to meet System Safety Requirements
Redundancy in case of failures must be

designed into system

Any and every component will fail during

life of aircraft Manual control system requires less redundancy Fly-by-wire (FBW) requires more redundancy Level of redundancy necessary evaluated per methodology described in ARP4761

Principal failure modes considered


Single system or component failure Multiple system or component failures

Safety Assessment Tools


Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality

Analysis computes failure rates and failure criticalities of individual components and systems by considering all failure modes Fault Tree Analysis computes failure rates and probabilities of various combinations of failure modes Markov Analysis computes failure rates and criticality of various chains of events Common Cause Analysis evaluates failures that can impact multiple components and systems

occurring simultaneously Dormant failures of components or subsystems that only operate in emergencies Common mode failures single failures that can impact multiple systems

Examples of failure cases to be considered


One engine shuts down during take-off need

to retract landing gear rapidly

Engine rotor bursts damage to and loss of

multiple hydraulic systems Rejected take-off deploy thrust reversers, spoilers and brakes rapidly All engines fail in flight need to land safely without main hydraulic and electric power sources

Civil Aircraft System Safety Standards


(Applies to all aircraft systems)

Failure Criticality

Failure Characteristics Normal, nuisance and/or possibly requiring emergency procedures Reduction in safety margin, increased crew workload, may result in some injuries Extreme reduction in safety margin, extended crew workload, major damage to aircraft and possible injury and deaths Loss of aircraft with multiple deaths

Probability of Occurrence Reasonably probable Remote Extremely remote

Design Standard

Minor Major Hazardous

NA P 10-5 P 10-7

Catastrophic Examples

Extremely improbable

P 10-9

Minor: Single hydraulic system fails Major: Two (out of 3) hydraulic systems fail Hazardous: All hydraulic sources fail, except RAT or APU

System Design Philosophy


Multiple independent centralized power systems
Each engine drives dedicated pump(s),

Conventional Central System Architecture


EDP ADP EMP RAT

LEFT ENG. SYSTEM 1

SYSTEM 3

RIGHT ENG. SYSTEM 2 EDP

augmented by independently powered pumps electric, pneumatic No fluid transfer between systems to maintain integrity

ROLL 1 PITCH 1 YAW 1 OTHERS NORM BRK

ROLL 3 PITCH 3 YAW 3 LNDG GR EMRG BRK NSWL STRG

ROLL 2 PITCH 2 YAW 2 OTHERS

System segregation
Route lines and locate components far

apart to prevent single rotor or tire burst from impacting multiple systems

Multiple control channels for critical functions


Each flight control needs multiple

independent actuators or control surfaces Fail-safe failure modes e.g., landing gear can extend by gravity and be locked down mechanically
EDP Engine Driven Pump EMP Electric Motor Pump ADP Air Driven Pump

EMP

OTHERS

EMP

PTU Power Transfer Unit RAT Ram Air Turbine Engine Bleed Air

PTU

System Design Philosophy


More Electric Architecture
systems + Zonal & Dedicated Actuators
Two independent centralized power
Each engine drives dedicated pump(s),

LEFT ENG. SYSTEM 1 EDP EMP ROLL 1 PITCH 1 YAW 1 OTHERS LNDG GR NORM BRK

ELECTRICAL ACTUATORS GEN2 GEN1 RAT

RIGHT ENG. SYSTEM 2 EDP EMP

augmented by independently powered pumps electric, pneumatic No fluid transfer between systems to maintain integrity

ROLL 3 ZONAL PITCH 3 YAW 3 OTHERS

ROLL 2 PITCH 2 YAW 2 OTHERS EMRG BRK

System segregation
Route lines and locate components far

apart to prevent single rotor or tire burst to impact multiple systems

Third System replaced by one or more

local and dedicated electric systems

Tail zonal system for pitch, yaw Aileron actuators for roll Electric driven hydraulic powerpack for

LG / BRK EMERG POWER

NW STRG

emergency landing gear and brake

Examples: Airbus A380, Boeing 787


EDP Engine Driven Pump EMP Electric Motor Pump GEN Electric Generator RAT Ram Air Turbine Generator Electric Channel

System Design Philosophy


All Electric Architecture

Holy Grail of aircraft power distribution .


Relies on future engine-core mounted electric generators

capable of high power / high power density generation, running at engine speed typically 40,000 rpm Electric power will replace all hydraulic and pneumatic power for all flight controls, environmental controls, deicing, etc. Flight control actuators will like remain hydraulic, using Electro-Hydrostatic Actuators (EHA) or local hydraulic systems, consisting of
Miniature, electrically driven, integrated hydraulic power

generation system
Hydraulic actuator controlled by electrical input

Fly-by-Wire (FBW) Systems

Fly-by-Wire
Pilot input read by computers Computer provides input to electrohydraulic

flight control actuator Control laws include


Enhanced logic to automate many functions Artificial damping and stability Flight Envelope Protection to prevent airframe

from exceeding structural limits

Multiple computers and actuators provide

sufficient redundancy no manual reversion

Conventional Mechanical
PILOT INPUTSconnected to flight Pilot input mechanically

control hydraulic servo-actuator by cables, linkages, bellcranks, etc. Servo-actuator follows pilot command with high force output RIGHT WING Autopilot input mechanically summed Manual reversion in case of loss of hydraulics or autopilot malfunction
AUTOPILOT INPUTS

LEFT WING BOEING 757 AILERON SYSTEM

Interfaces
Electrical System
Electric motors, Solenoids Electrical power variations under normal and all emergency conditions (MIL-STD-704)

Design Considerations
Flight Controls
Flow under normal and all emergency conditions priority flow when LG, flaps are also demanding flow

Power on Demand

Hydraulic System

Power on Demand Hydraulic power from EDPEngine

Nacelle / Engine
Pad speed as a function of flight regime idle to take-off

Avionics
Signals from pressure, temperature, fluid quantity sensors Signal to solenoids, electric motors

Landing Gear
Flow under normal and all emergency conditions retract / extend / steer

MTOW - lb

10,000,000

1,000,000

Comparative Aircraft Weights

Architectures

100,000

10,000

Ce

1,000
SINGLE-AISLE LARGE BIZ / REGIONAL JETS WIDEBODY GENERAL AVIATION

Increasing Hydraulic System Complexity


VERY LIGHT / LIGHT JETS / TURBO-PROPS MID / SUPER MID-SIZE BIZ JETS / COMMUTER TURBO-PROPS

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Architectures
MTOW: 21,750 lb Flight Controls: Manual Key Features One main system fed by 2 EDPs Emergency system fed by DC electric pump Common partitioned reservoir (air/oil) Selector valve allows flaps, landing gear, nosewheel steering to operate from main or emergency system All primary flight controls are manual Safety / Redundancy Engine-out take-off: One EDP has sufficient power to retract gear All Power-out: Manual flight controls; LG extends by gravity with electric pump assist; emergency flap extends by electric pump; Emergency brake energy stored in accumulator for safe stopping

Mid-Size Jet

Example Block Diagrams Learjet 40/45


MAIN SYSTEM EMERGENCY SYSTEM

REF.: AIR5005A (SAE)

Aircraft Hydraulic Architectures


Example Block Diagrams Hawker 4000

Super Mid Size

MTOW: 39,500 lb Flight Controls: Hydraulic with manual reversion exc. Rudder, which is Fly-byWire (FBW) Key Features Two independent systems Bi-directional PTU to transfer power between systems without transferring fluid Electrically powered hydraulic power-pack for Emergency Rudder System (ERS)

REF.: EATON C5-38A 04/2003

Safety / Redundancy All primary flight controls 2-channel; rudder has additional backup powerpack; others manual reversion Engine-out take-off: PTU transfers power from system #1 to #2 to retract LG Rotorburst: Emergency Rudder System is located outside burst area All Power-out: ERS runs off battery; others manual; LG extends by gravity

Single-Aisle

Aircraft Hydraulic Architectures


Example Block Diagrams Airbus A320/321 MTOW (A321): 206,000 lb Flight Controls: Hydraulic FBW Key Features 3 independent systems 2 main systems with EDP 1 main system also includes backup EMP & hand pump for cargo door 3rd system has EMP and RAT pump Bi-directional PTU to transfer power between primary systems without transferring fluid Safety / Redundancy All primary flight controls have 3 independent channels Engine-out take-off: PTU transfers power from Y to G system to retract LG Rotorburst: Three systems sufficiently segregated All Power-out: RAT pump powers Blue; LG extends by gravity

REF.: AIR5005 (SAE)

Architectures
MTOW (B777-300ER): 660,000 lb Flight Controls: Hydraulic FBW Key Features 3 independent systems 2 main systems with EDP + EMP each 3rd system with 2 EMPs, 2 engine bleed air-driven (engine bleed air) pumps, + RAT pump Safety / Redundancy All primary flight controls have 3 independent channels Engine-out take-off: One air driven pump and EMP available in system 3 to retract LG Rotorburst: Three systems sufficiently segregated All Power-out: RAT pump powers center system; LG extends by gravity

Wide Body

Example Block Diagrams Boeing 777


LEFT SYSTEM CENTER SYSTEM RIGHT SYSTEM

REF.: AIR5005 (SAE)

Architectures

Wide Body

Example Block Diagrams Airbus A380

MTOW: 1,250,000 lb Flight Controls: FBW (2H + 1E channel) Key Features / Redundancies Two independent hydraulic systems + one electric system (backup) Primary hydraulic power supplied by 4 EDPs per system All primary flight controls have 3 channels 2 hydraulic + 1 electric 4 engines provide sufficient redundancy for engine-out cases

REF.: EATON C5-37A 06/2006

Aircraft hydraulic systems are designed for

high levels of safety using multiple levels of redundancy Fly-by-wire systems require higher levels of redundancy than manual systems to maintain same levels of safety System complexity increases with aircraft weight

Suggested References
Federal Aviation Regulations
FAR Part 25: Airworthiness Standards for Transport Category Airplanes FAR Part 23: Airworthiness Standards for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter Category Airplanes FAR Part 21: Certification Procedures For Products And Parts AC 25.1309-1A System Design and Analysis Advisory Circular, 1998

Aerospace Information Reports (SAE)


AIR5005: Aerospace - Commercial Aircraft Hydraulic Systems

Radio Technical Committee Association (RTCA)


DO-178: Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification (incl. Errata Issued 3-26-99) DO-254: Design Assurance Guidance For Airborne Electronic Hardware

Aerospace Recommended Practices (SAE)


ARP4761: Guidelines and Methods for Conducting the Safety Assessment Process on Civil Airborne Systems and Equipment ARP 4754: Certification Considerations for Highly-Integrated or Complex Aircraft Systems

Text
Moir & Seabridge: Aircraft Systems Mechanical, Electrical and Avionics Subsystems Integration 3rd Edition, Wiley 2008