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Theories in Merger and Acquisition

Prepared by: Vishal Goel


Mergers and Acquisitions

Definition of Merger Combining of two business entities under common ownership (Arnold 2005) Or Two firms coalesce and share resources in order to realise a common goal But One party almost always dominates so
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Mergers and Acquisitions

Acquisition One firm buys the assets or shares of another

Takeover implies the acquiring firm is larger than the target Reverse takeover if the target is larger than the acquirer


Q1) What are the various ways a Corporate can achieve growth?
There are essentially two ways a Corporate can achieve growth. They are: Organic Route: In such a strategy, the Corporate undertakes projects and builds capacities by itself. Such a strategy is time consuming as the projects will have high gestation periods. Inorganic Route: M & A fall under this strategy. In such a case the Corporate takes over another existing firm


The key benefit in this case is the reduction in gestation period. In these cases if the Corporates would have gone by the organic route, it would have been a couple of months, even years to add capacity. The same objective can be achieved in a significantly shorter time by a properly executed inorganic route. There are other significant benefits also.
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Q2) What are the other significant benefits of M&A?

The other significant benefits of M & A are:

A. Economics Of Scale And Economics Of Scope: - Reducing Fixed Cost/Unit. Economies of scale:In this case, the company increases its production capacity to such an extent that the fixed cost/unit decreases. Example: Fixed Costs No. of units Produced Fixed cost/unit

= = =

10 Lacs 10 Lacs 10 Lacs 20 Lacs Re. 1/- Re. 0.50/-

In such a case, by reducing the fixed cost/unit, the co. will be able to price its products better. This is the advantage of global capacities. Note: China has been using this technique and practicing dumping.
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Economics of scope:
Is aiming to reduce marketing expenses. By producing multiple products jointly at the cost lower than when production was spread across multiple firms. combining marketing or distribution for different types of related products, maybe horizontal or concentric In such a case, we find that the co. is looking at reducing its marketing expenses.

For e.g.: if a pharma co. XYZ has 100 salesman and other ABC has 50, then by taking over ABC and removing the 50 salesmen, the two units after merging can bring down its overall marketing costs. Both Economies of Scope and Economies of Scale will result in synergy (Synchronized energy). This essentially indicates that the whole unit formed after M &A is greater than sum of the merging units. In short 2 plus 2 equals 5.
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B. Acquisition of Intangibles: Often M & As are for acquisition of Intangibles like brands, patents, goodwill etc. In such cases the intangible assets are acquired at a heavy premium. c. Diversification. In this case the firms involved can offer better variety of products. Often firms resort to M & A as they can get access to new markets a prime example is that of Tata Steel with Corus. d. Technology / Skilled man power. Often Corporates go in for M & A to get access to new technology. All the M & As happening in the technology space are prime examples of the same. Also they may go in for M & A to get access to skilled management and manpower as seen in financial services investment banking firms. These are all examples of value creation. Apart from that, there could be the added advantage of value capture.
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Q 3) What is value capture?

Ans. Value capture essentially refers to the tax benefits that a Corporate will get when they go for M&A. Often loss making firms are acquired by Corporates for getting tax benefits. In such a case, the taxable profit of the firm comes down. For e.g. Co.XYZ with 100 cr profit and with a taxation rate of 20% will have to pay taxes of 20 crores. However, if it acquires a company ABC with losses of 30crores, its taxable profit will come down to 100- 30 =70 crores. The taxes in this case would be 14 crores. Thus, the co. is saving 20 14 = 6 crores. This is known as Value Capture. In this case the value is captured from the Govt. as less tax is paid. The Govt. is in favor of the same as M & A in case of sick Corporates generate employment. In fact the Govt. allows carry forward of losses in case the losses are so huge that they cannot be absorbed by the healthy units current years profits.


Q4) What are the various ways in which M & A can be classified?
Ans. M & A can be further classified as: Inbound Deals: Foreign companies acquiring Indian corporates are examples of the same for e.g. Daichi of Japan taking over Ranbaxy. Outbound Deals: Indian Corporates acquiring foreign Corporates or brands are examples of the same. Hindalco of the Aditya Birla Group acquiring Novellis is an example of the same. Domestic Deals: These refer to the deals between Indian Companies. For e.g. the merger of Global Trust Bank with Oriental Bank of Commerce. It is significant to note that the outbound deals are increasing significantly showing increasing risk appetite of Indian Corporates.

Also though used interchangeably, there are significant differences between the terms Mergers and Acquisitions.



Why Do Firms Merge?

Motives which Add to Shareholders Value:
a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Economies of scale Increased Revenue Increased Market Share Synergy Taxes Geographical or other Diversification Resource Transfer Vertical Integration Increased Market Share to increased Market Power



Economies of scale
Combining company can reduce duplicate departments or operations Lowering the costs of the company Leading to profit average costs decline over a broad range of output



Increased Revenue Increased Market Share

Assumption is that the company will be absorbing a major competitor Thus increase its power ( by capturing increased market share) to set prices



Underlying Principle for M&A Transactions 2+24 Additional Value of Synergy Synergy is ability of merged company to generate higher shareholders wealth than the standalone entities



A profitable company can buy a loss maker to use the targets tax write off. In U.S rules are placed in such an order that Limiting the tax motive of an acquiring company.



Geographical or other Diversification

To smoothen the earnings of a company Giving conservative investors more confidence I investing in the company. Ex: Tata Motors acquired Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company ( Republic of Korea) in 2003 Infosys Technologies Ltd. Acquired Expert Information Services Ltd. (Australia)



Resource Transfer
Resources are unevenly distributed across firms Interaction of target and acquiring firm resources can create value through Overcoming information asymmetry Or by combining scarce resources

Ex: WIPRO acquired Nerve ireInc. (U.S) Reliance Info Com acquired Flagcom ( U.K)



Vertical Integration
Vertical Integration : Internalization of crucial forward or backward activities Vertical Forward Integration Buying a customer Indian Rayons acquisition of Madura Garments along with brand rights Vertical Backward Integration Buying a supplier IBMs acquisition of Daksh



Increased Market Share to increased Market Power

In oligopoly market increased market share allows companies to raise their market power



Motives Which do not add to Shareholder Value

Diversification: This may hedge a company against downturn in an individual industry It fails to deliver value Since it is possible for individual to achieve the same hedge by diversifying their portfolio at a much lower cost than Those associated with a merger.



Managers Hubris:
Managers overconfidence about expected synergies from M&A results in overpayment for the target company.

Managerial hubris is the unrealistic belief held by managers in bidding firms that they can manage the assets of a target firm more efficiently than the target firm's current management. Managerial hubris is one reason why a manager may choose to invest in a merger that on average generates no profits.



Hypothesis about Mergers

There are a big number of hypothesis as to why mergers occur, these can be grouped into two broad categories: 1) Neoclassical theories that assume that managers maximize profits or shareholder wealth and thus that mergers increase either market power or efficiency 2) Non-neoclassical or behavioral theories that posit some other motivation for mergers and/or other consequences.
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1) Neoclassical Theories
a) Market Power Increases b) Efficiency Increases

2) Non-neoclassical or Behavioral
a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

Speculative Motives The Adaptive Firm Hypothesis The Market for Corporate Control The Economic Disturbance Hypothesis Financial Efficiencies The Capital Redeployment Hypothesis The Life-Cycle-Growth-Maximization Hypothesis The Winners Curse- Hubris Hypothesis

(1a) Market Power Increases

Horizontal Mergers fewer firms in an industry have greater incentives to cooperate and raise the price A Horizontal mergers involves two firms operating and competing in the same kind of business activity Motives:

ii. iii.

Elimination or reduction in competition

Putting an end to price-cutting Economies of scale in production


R&D, marketing and management

Herfindahl index is used

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Herfindahl index
The Herfindahl index, also known as Herfindahl-Hirschman Index or HHI, is a measure of the size of firms in relation to the industry and an indicator of the amount of competition among them. It is an economic concept widely applied in competition law, antitrust and also technology management The theory behind the use of the H-index is that if one or more firms have relatively high market shares, there is of even greater concern than the share of the largest four firms
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E.g.1: In one market four firms each hold 15% market share and the remaining 40% is held by 40 firms,

each with 1% market share. Its HHI would be:

H = 4(15) + 40(1) = 940



E.g.2: In another market 1 firm has 57% market share and the remaining 43% is held by 43 firms, each

with 1% market share. What would be the Hindex?



For e.g.: Two cases in which the six largest firms produce

90 % of the output:
Case 1: All six firms produce 15% each, and Case 2: One firm produces 80 % while the five others produce 2 % each. Assuming that the remaining 10% of output is

divided among 10 equally sized producers.



A HHI index below 0.01 (or 100) indicates a highly

competitive index.
A HHI index below 0.1 (or 1,000) indicates an unconcentrated index. A HHI index between 0.1 to 0.18 (or 1,000 to 1,800) indicates moderate concentration.

A HHI index above 0.18 (above 1,800) indicates

high concentration
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Since a horizontal merger increases industry concentration, it increases H, it must also increase the industry price-cost margin and profits.



Vertical mergers
Vertical mergers occur between firms in different stages of production operations Upstream & Downstream Mergers. by increasing the barriers

to entry at one or more links in the vertical production chain

Motives : i. ii. iii. Lower buying cost of materials Lower distribution costs Assured supplies and market


Increasing or creating barriers to

entry for potential competitors



Conglomerate mergers
Conglomerate mergers involves firms engaged in unrelated types of business activity.

An increase in concentration leads to a greater increase in profits in

a market in which the sellers also face one another in other markets
than when such multimarket contact is not present. This motive may also be the cause of purposeful diversification mergers.
Product extension mergers Market extension mergers Pure Conglomerate mergers

Diversification of risk.



(1b) Efficiency Increases

Horizontal Mergers


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Vertical mergers
Can increase the efficiency of the merging firms by eliminating steps in the production process, which reduces the transaction costs from bargaining due to asset specificity Asset Specificity refers to the relative lack of transferability of assets intended for use in a given transaction to other uses. Highly specific assets represent sunk costs that have relatively little value beyond their use in the context of a specific transaction. Williamson has suggested six main types of asset specificity: Site, physical asset, human asset, brand names, dedicated assets, temporal specificity

High asset specificity requires strong contracts or internalization to combat the threat of opportunism. Small subcontractors locating and investing next to only customer who could potentially turn to alternative suppliers (site- and physical asset specificity).
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General Motors and Fisher Body 1919-1926

After a 10 year contractual agreement was signed in 1919, GM's demand for closed-body cars increased to extent that it became unhappy with the contractual price provisions and "urged Fisher to locate its body plants adjacent to GM assembly plants, thereby to realize transportation and inventory economies." [Williamson, AJS, p.561] Finally, Fisher Body was merged into GM in 1926 after Fisher had resisted GM's locational demands. As Coase recalls: "I was told [by GM officials] that the main reason for the acquisition was to make sure that the body plants were located next to General Motors assembly plants." [Coase, "The Nature of the Firm: Origin", in: Williamson & Winter, eds., The Nature of the Firm. 1993, p.43.]



Conglomerate Mergers
Economies of scope (ESC) arise when the production of two different products by the same firm leads to lower production costs for one or both products. Example: warehousing and delivery of products



In such an industry, one would expect the merging firms to be smaller than non-merging firms, because the expected cost reductions are greter for pairs of small firms.
Empirical Evidence:
In Belgium, Germany, USA, and UK merging firms were significantly larger than non-merging firms In France, the Netherlands, and Sweden merging pairs were in significantly different in size from randomly selected nonmerging companies.



Non-neoclassical or Behavioral



(2a) Speculative Motives

Studies of early merger waves often mention promoters profits as a cause for mergers. During these waves men like J.P. Morgan often approached corporate managers and suggested a possible merger. They earned large fees for their advice and for other services they rendered to facilitate and finance the deals. Underwriters of the securities floated in the great merger that created the United States Steel Corp. In 1901, earned fees of $575.5 million over $1 billion in todays dollars (The Economist, April 27, 1991, p. 11). Michael Milken
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Fee Revenue from underwriting and M&A transactions in 1998 (Saunders and Srinivasan, 2001 )
Investment Bank Morgan Stanley Goldman Sachs Merrill Lynch Credit Suisse First Boston DLJ Citibank Lehman J.P. Morgan Bankers Trust NationsBank Montgomery Average Fee Revenue from Underwriting (equity & debt) (1) 1253.8 1087.8 1496.9 386 491.8 913.2 516.3 358.9 252.2 132.7 688.9 Fee Revenue from Merger Advice (2) 302.9 531.2 321.3 287.4 200 189.1 199.2 70.9 56.9 26.2 218.5 (2) / (1) 19.50% 32.80% 17.70% 42.70% 28.90% 17.20% 27.80% 16.50% 18.40% 16.50% 23.80%





(2b) The Adaptive (Failing Firm) Hypothesis

Donald Dewey (1961):
mergers as a civilized alternative to bankruptcy

John McGowan (1965):

An adaptive theory to account for why small firms are typically the targets in mergers and why the much more competitive US and UK economies had more mergers than the less competitive ones.

Two implications:
Mergers should follow a counter-cyclical pattern. Why dont we see merger waves during recessions? Profit rates of acquirers should be higher than targets

Empirical Evidence
Most studies of mergers in the USA have found that acquired firms have the same average profit rates as similar non-acquired companies During the conglomerate merger wave acquiring companies had below average profit rates and also profit rates lower than the firms they acquired.



(2c) The Market for Corporate Control

Buyers in the market for corporate control would step in whenever valuation ration Vt falls short of its maximum value, and thus that this process ensures that corporate assets are managed by the most competent managers and those intend shareholder wealth maximization. Manne (1965): Mt: market value of the firm in year t Kt: the value of the assets of the firm in year t If Mt > Kt: the assets bundled together as a firm are worth more than their sum as measured by Kt. Marris (1963, 1964) called Mt / Kt the valuation ratio, Vt



Tobin Q
The q-ratio Tobin (1969) measured Kt as the replacement cost of the firms asset and called qt = Mt / Kt.
Ratio of the market value of the firm's securities to the replacement costs of its assets
High q-ratio reflects superior management Depressed stock prices or high replacement costs of assets cause low q-ratios



(2d) The Economic Disturbance Hypothesis

Gort (1969)
a group of non-holders suddenly raises its expectations about firm Bs future profits. If these non-holders are managers of another firm, the transaction takes the form of a merger. Mergers under this hypothesis are more likely to happen in periods in which stock market experiences rapid changes in value. Consistent with the wave pattern But also consistent with merger waves during sudden drops in stock market values (even more intense merger activity!)
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(2e) Financial Efficiencies

Savings on Borrowing Costs




(2f) The Capital Redeployment Hypothesis

Weston (1970)
Similar to financial efficiencies argument, but goes beyond it by positing ongoing potential gains from a central management teams ability to monitor the investment opportunities of each division and shift capital across them.



(2g) The Life-Cycle Growth Maximization Hypothesis

Mueller (1969)
Mergers are the quickest way to grow and diversify and thus an attractive way for managers with limited time horizons to achieve growth. Predictions
diversification mergers by mature firms



(2h) The Winners Curse Hubris hypothesis

There are a number of bidders The bidder with the highest valuation acquires the target With rational expectations, the expected true value of the target should be at the mean of the distribution The winner will bid too much! Why bid then? Roll (1986): Because managers of acquiring firms suffer from hubris, excessive pride and arrogance.
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Winner's Curse and Hubris

Winner's Curse: The winning bid in a bidding contest for an object of uncertain value will typically pay in excess of its true value One cause of the winner's curse phenomenon in M&As is hubris, defined as excessive optimism



Theories Of Merger
Variety of reasons for M&A and the diversify of their consequences have given rise to a range of hypotheses. These hypotheses can be of 3 types: 1. Internalisation theory 2. Technological competence theory 3. Transaction cost theory



Internalisation theory
It focuses on to acquire others because they want to produce intangible assets that generally give them a competitive advantage. Corporation must have intangible assets, and corporation make them profitable. It may include knowledge of a particular market, know how in a particular technology or an enviable reputation for product quality. These assets usually have 2 characteristics:
They must have the attributes of a public good ( their running costs within the corporation must be zero.) They must have high transaction costs so that most profitable way of acquiring them is through M&A rather than purchase or rental
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Technological competence theory

It is an extension of internalisation theory, developed by John Cantwell. It is based on internalisation of intangible technological assets. It assumes that technology consists of 2 factors:
One that can be codified ( written information about technology, plans etc. One that cannot be codified ( certain abilities needed to operate it , particular knowledge )

Corporations that engage in M&A are attempting to internalise technological advantages by acquiring the corporations that possess them.



2nd attributes technological competence. Intangible assets. This theory has certain consequences: 1. When target corporation with high technology, potential purchasers will be more inclined to install R&D capacity, thus enhancing local innovation. 2. When local corporation have low technology , M&A may increase the Technology content. 3. When corporation engage in research but are not on the cutting edge of technology M&A may results in the complete absorption of the targeted industry.



Transaction cost theory

It applies to vertical merger and acquisitions aimed at reducing uncertainty

or the cost of procuring particular factor of production



Other Theories
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Efficiency theory Monopoly theory Valuation theory Empire-building theory Process theory Raider theory Disturbance theory


8. Information and signaling 9. Agency problems and managerialism 10. Free cash flow hypothesis 11. Market power 12. Taxes 13. Redistribution
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Efficiency Theories
1. Differential managerial efficiency 2. Insufficient management 3. Operating synergy

4. Pure diversification
5. Strategic realignment to changing environments 6. undervaluation
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1(1)Differential managerial efficiency

If the management of firm A is more efficient than the

management of firm B and if after firm A acquires firm b, the efficiency of firm b is brought up to the level of efficiency of firm A, efficiency is increased by merger.
Differential efficiency would be most likely to be a factor in mergers between firms in related industries

where the need for improvement could be more easily identified.

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1(2)Insufficient management
May simply represent management that is incompetent in an absolute sense. Almost anyone could do better.

The theory suggests that target management is so

incapable that virtually any management could do better, and thus could be an explanation for mergers

between firms in unrelated industries.



1(3) Operating synergy

The theory is based on operating synergy assumes that economies of scale do exist in the industry and that prior to the merger, the firms are operating at levels of activity that fall short of achieving the potentials for economies of scale. It includes the concept of complementarities of capabilities



Operating synergy continued

For e.g.: one firm might be strong in R&D but weak in marketing while another has a strong marketing department without the R&D capability. Merging the two firms would result in operating synergy.



1(4) Pure diversification

The firm may simply lack internal growth opportunities for lack of requisite resources or due potential excess capacity in the industry.
Pure diversification as a theory of mergers differs from share holders portfolio diversification.



Pure diversification continued

Therefore, firms may diversify to encourage firm-

specific human capital investments which make

their employees more valuable and productive. and to increase the probability that the organization and reputation of the firm will be preserved by

transfer to another line of business owned by the

firm in the event its initial business declines.
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1(5) Strategic realignment (repositioning) to changing environments

It says that mergers take place in response to environmental changes. External acquisitions of needed capabilities allow firms to adapt more quickly and with less risk than developing capabilities internally. Rationale is that by mergers the firm acquires management skills for needed increase of its present capabilities.
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1(6) Undervaluation
It states that mergers occur when the market

value of target firm stock for some reason does

not reflect its true or potential value in the hands of an alternative management. One possibility of undervaluation may be that management is not operating the company up to its potential.
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Undervaluation continued
A second possibility is that the acquirers have inside information. It is not much different from the inefficient

management or differential efficiency theory. it

cannot stand alone and requires an efficiency rationale.



Efficiency theory
It aims to achieve synergies. Three types of synergies : 1. Financial Synergy: to achieve lower cost of capital through lowering the systematic risk of the acquirer, lower tax (Debt/equity ratio), cost reduction ( economies of scale),

2. Operational Synergy: To achieve operational excellence from a combined firms operations.

3. Managerial Synergy: To enhance a targets competitive position by transferring management expertise from the bidder to the target.
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2.Monopoly theory
It viewed that acquisition were executed to achieve market power. 3 ways of doing it: 1. Conglomerates use it to cross subsidies products 2. To limit competition in more than one market 3. To discourage the potential entrance of competitors into its market.



3. Valuation theory
Acquisition being executed by managers, have superior information than the stock market about their exact targets unrealized potential value The acquirer possesses valuable and unique information to enhance the value of a combined firm through purchasing an undervalued target. LBO can be fit in this category. LBO signifies the acquisition of a business with the help of debt capital or borrowed capital.



4.Empire-building theory
It holds that managers maximise their personal goals

Than their shareholder's value maximization through acquisition.



5.Process theory
Strategic decisions are outcomes of processes governed by bounded rational theory Central role of organization routine Political power Rather than rational choices.



6.Raider Theory
Raider is a person who causes wealth transfer from the shareholders of a target firm to the shareholders of the acquiring firm. One of the wealth transfer media is lavish compensation after a successful acquisition transaction, called golden parachute.



7.Disturbance theory
It holds that the motives of acquisitions occur as a result of economic disturbances (ED).

ED cause changes in individuals expectations and increase the general degree of uncertainty.



8.Information and signaling

The tender offer sends a signal to the market that the target companys shares are undervalued. The offer may signal information to the target management which motivates them to become more efficient. The target managements response to the offer and the means of payment may also have signaling value. This theory attempts to explain why target shares seem to be permanently revalued upward even if the offer turns out to be unsuccessful. The merger offer disseminated information that the target shares are undervalued and the offer prompts the market to revalue those shares. 4/4/2013 74

No particular action by the target firm or any others is necessary to cause the revaluation.

Information and signaling continued

This is called sitting on a gold mine explanation (Bradley, Desai and Kim, 1983)
The other hypothesis is that the offer inspires target firm management to implement a more efficient business strategy on its own. No outside input other that the merger offer itself is required for the upward revaluation. This is called kick in the pants explanation.
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9.Agency problems
Agency problems may result from a conflict of interest between managers and shareholders and between shareholders and debt holders . Takeovers are viewed as the last resort to discipline self serving managers. Agency problems arise basically because contracts between managers (decision or control agents) and owners (risk bearers) cannot be enforced. May result from conflict of interest between managers and shareholders or between shareholders and debt holders
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Agency problems continued

An agency problem arises when managers own only a fraction of the ownership shares of the firm. This may cause managers to work less vigorously (strongly) than otherwise and consume more perquisites In large corporations with widely dispersed ownership, there is not sufficient resources to monitor the behavior of managers. Takeovers as a solution to agency problems (Fama & Jensen, 1983) Managerialism (Mueller 1969)
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Takeovers are a manifestation (sign) of the agency problem, not its solution.
Self serving managers embark on mergers to expand their empire and improve their own career prospects.



10. Free cash flow hypothesis

Jensens Free cash flow hypothesis says that takeovers takes place because of the conflicts

between managers and shareholders over the

payout of free cash flows. He defines free cash flow as cash flow in excess of the amounts required to fund all the projects that have positive NPVs. Debt-for-stock exchange offers are viewed as a means of bonding the managers promise to pay out future cash flows to stakeholders.
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Free cash flow hypothesis continued

He states that such free cash flow must be paid out to shareholders if the firm is to be efficient and to maximize share price The payout of free cash flow reduces the amount of resources under the control of managers and reduces their power resulting in agency costs.



11.Market power
Market power advocates claim that merger gains are

the result of increased concentration leading to

collusion and monopoly effects.

The theory posts that mergers take place to increase

their market share, means increasing the size of the firm relative to other firms in an industry.



Market power continued..

An objection is often raised against permitting a firm to increase its market share by merger is that the result will be undue concentration in the

On contrary, some economists hold that increased

concentration is generally the result of active and

intense competition.
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12.Tax effects
Tax implications may be important to mergers , although they do not play a major role.

Carry over of net operating losses and tax credits, substitution of capital gains for ordinary incomes are among the tax motivation for mergers.
Carry over of net operating losses and tax credits: a firm with accumulated tax losses and tax credits can give positive earnings of another firm with which it is joined



Tax effects continued

2 conditions to be met: Majority of the target corporation should be acquired in exchange for the stock of the acquiring firm. Secondly, the acquisition should have legitimate motives/ business purposes net operating losses: can be carried back 3 years and forward 15 years
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Tax effects continued

Substitution of capital gains for ordinary income: a mature firm with few internal investment opportunities can acquire a growth firm in order to substitute capital gains taxes for ordinary income taxes. The acquiring firm provides the necessary funds which otherwise would have to be paid out as dividends taxable as ordinary incomes.
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13.Redistribution hypothesis
Gains from a merger may come at the expense of other stakeholders in the firm.

appropriate stakeholders may include bond holders, government and organized labour. Value increases in mergers by redistribution among the stakeholders of the firm. Possible shifts are from debt holders to stock holders and from labor to stockholders.
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Merger and Acquisition as a Growth Strategy

Why do companies resort to M&A? Obvious answer is instantaneous quantum growth No. of growth strategy: Ansoffs Product market matrix The BCG matrix The grand strategy matrix Industry/product life cycle analysis



Ansoff's product-market matrix

The Ansoff's product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy.

Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of strategic options to use.
Ansoffs product/market growth matrix suggests that a business attempts to grow depend on whether it markets new or existing products in new or existing markets.

This is one simple way of looking at strategic development options

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Ansoff's product-market matrix



Ansoffs growth opportunities: Market penetration Market development Product development These are grouped as a Intensive growth opportunities by Kotler And diversification as a separate class of opportunities It consists of
Concentric diversification Horizontal diversification Conglomerate diversification



Intensive Growth: Market penetration

Business focuses on increasing in selling existing products into existing markets through more aggressive marketing efforts. Activities like Expanding the dealer and retailer network Getting bigger space for retailers Launching attractive dealer, and consumer incentive/gifts scheme Launching heavy advertisement campaigns No one can escape Marketing wars between Pepsi and coke HLL & P&G, Vodafone, Bharti Airtel and RCOM



Market development
Market development is the name given to a growth strategy where the business seeks to sell its existing products into new markets. There are many possible ways of approaching this strategy, including: New geographical markets; for example exporting the product to a new country New product dimensions or packaging: for example New distribution channels Different pricing policies to attract different customers or create new market segments Ex:cRecently Gujarat Tea Processor and Packers Ltd. (GTPPL), popularly known as Wagh Bakri Tea Group, launched its product in Mumbai and parts of Maharashtra



Product development
Product development is the name given to a growth strategy where a business aims to introduce new products into existing markets. Improved products for its present market This strategy may require the development of new competencies and requires the business to develop modified products which can appeal to existing markets. Ex: HLL had launched Surf in India in 1959. Then In 1996 improved version Surf Excel Launch of Diet Coke/Diet Pepsi Launch of LCD TVs, Plasma TVs Launch of newer and better models of car Microsoft Nokia



Diversification is the name given to the growth strategy where a business markets new products in new markets. This is an inherently more risk strategy because the business is moving into markets in which it has little or no experience. For a business to adopt a diversification strategy, therefore, it must have a clear idea about what it expects to gain from the strategy and an honest assessment of the risks.



Concentric Diversification
Seeking to ad new products that have technological or marketing synergies with the existing products. Launch of Tata Sumo and Indica by Tata Motors



Horizontal Diversification
Seeking to add new products that could appeal to its present customers though technically unrelated to its present product line.



Conglomerate Diversification
Seeking to add new products for new classes of customers with no relationship to the companys current technology.

ITC is into many unrelated business From cigarettes, hotels paper and paperboard, biscuits and flour(atta)



Efficiency Theories
The differential efficiency theory says that more efficient firms will acquire less efficient firms and realize gains by improving their efficiency. Differential efficiency is likely to be a factor in mergers between firms in related industries. The inefficient management theory suggests that target management is so incompetent that virtually any management could do better. This could be an explanation for mergers between firms in unrelated industries. The operating synergy theory assumes economies of scale/scope and complementarity of capabilities.
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Efficiency Theories
The financial synergy theory emphasises complementarity in the availability of investment opportunities and internal cash flows.
Is diversification justified? Shareholders can diversify more easily.

But managers and other employees are at greater risk if the single industry in which their firm operates should fail.

Firms may diversify to encourage firm specific human capital investments which make their employees more valuable and productive.

The organization and reputation capital of the firm is more likely to be preserved by transfer to another line of business in the event there is a decline in the prospects for the earlier business.



Efficiency Theories (Contd)

The theory of strategic alignment to changing environments says that mergers take place in response to environmental changes.

External acquisitions of needed capabilities allow firms to adapt more quickly and with less risk than developing capabilities internally.
The undervaluation theory states that mergers occur when the market value of the target firm stock for some reason does not reflect its true or potential value or its value in the hands of alternative management. Firms may be able to acquire assets for expansion more cheaply by buying the stocks of existing firms than by buying or building assets when the targets stock price is below the replacement cost of its assets.
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Information/Signaling Theory
The tender offer sends a signal to the market that the target companys shares are undervalued.
The offer may signal information to the target management which motivates them to become more efficient. The target managements response to the offer and the means of payment may also have signaling value.



Market Power
Market gains are the results of increased concentration leading to collusion and monopoly effects. But anti trust authorities are on the follow.

So these kinds of gains are becoming increasingly difficult.

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VALUE INCREASING THEORIES Transaction costs organization of firm is reaction to appropriate balance of internal operations and external markets Mergers create synergies Economies of scale More effective management target inadequate mgr. capabilities (horizontal), Improved production techniques Combination of complementary resources
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Takeovers are disciplinary Can be used to remove poor managers - target incompetent mgt. (conglomerate) Facilitate competition between different management teams Undervaluation of target Target having more worth than actually valued Difference between the MV of assets and their replacement costs
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VALUE REDUCING THEORIES Agency costs of free cash flow Free cash flow is a source of value reducing mergers

Firms with FCF are those where internal funds exceed investment required for positive NPV projects




VALUE REDUCING THEORIES Managerial entrenchment Managers hesitant to distribute cash to shareholders

Investments may be in form of acquisitions where managers over pay but reduce likelihood of their own replacement




VALUE NEUTRAL THEORY HUBRIS Economic gains are not motives for M & A Merger bids result from managerial hubris managers are prone to excessive self confidence

Factors that result in the hubris spirit desire to avoid a loss of face, media praise, urge to project as an aggressive firm, inexperience, overestimation of the synergies, overenthusiastic investment banker etc.
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VALUE NEUTRAL THEORY HUBRIS Winners curse Competitive bidding has a distribution of value estimates Manager with most optimistic forecast wins bidding process Cursed by fact that bid likely overvalues target Mergers can occur even when no value effects: target sells when bid is higher than target value
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Principle Theory Value Transaction cost efficiency mergers optimize Increasing transaction costs Synergy scale, best practices, etc. Disciplinary takeovers can be used to replace poor management Undervaluation more worth, replacement costs Value Agency costs of free cash flow managers Reducing reinvest FCF inefficiently back into firm Management entrenchment firm invests to increase managers value to shareholders Value Neutral

Hubris winner of takeover contest is firm that most overvalues target



Theory Efficiency/ Synergy Agency Costs/ Entrenchme nt

Combined Gains to Gains Target Positive Positive

Gains to Bidder NonNegative



More Negative




Examples demonstrate many complexities in negotiating deals
Bidder considerations: Pay cash or stock Deal with management or shareholders Buy initial stake or toehold Target considerations: Decision to sell Decision to seek competing bids or seek termination fee in initial bid
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MODELS OF TAKEOVER BIDDING The winners curse bidder in takeover risk overpaying
Bidders can shade bids lower but risk losing possible deals Alternative:
If concerned about value of target, can offer stock Shares risk of combined firm between bidder and target




Bidder costs making bid is expensive
Preemptive bid
Bidder decides to make bid that precludes other bidders from making competing offer Target may receive higher price if there is a preemptive bidder

Termination fee bidder making formal offer often requires a termination fee in agreement Toehold
Use of toehold helps to recoup bidding costs Size of toehold is a function of expected synergies from the merger
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Effects of bidder using toehold
May deter other firms from making competitive bids But, seller can counteract by designing a favorable auction

Effects of costly bidding

Selling firm bears most of bidding costs Implies that seller may gain by limiting the number of bidders
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Example of Takeover Auction: Outlet Communications

Owned and operated television stations Board engaged Goldman Sachs to aid in sale via auction (auction began 2/95)
80 firms contacted GS 45 signed confidentiality agreements and received nonpublic information By 5/95, 12 firms submitted preliminary bids ranging from $32 to $38 8 firms invited to perform extensive due diligence By 6/95, 5 had submitted definitive proposals
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Example of Takeover Auction: Outlet Communications

Highest bid was $42.25 by Renaissance Communications OC and RC signed a merger agreement Before deal completed, NBC offered bid of $47.25 OC approved competing bid Example illustrates:
Complexity of bidding process Sequential reduction of number of bidders Advantages of encouraging multiple bids
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Examples of the Merger Process

Reasons given for the merger

Economies of scale in PC industry Projected synergies of $2.5 billion Strategic response to conditions in computer and information technology sectors

Market reaction to 9/3/01 announcement

Hewlett-Packard declined 19% Compaq fell by 10%



Examples of the Merger Process

Major events in the merger process

CEOs initiated discussion in June 2001 firms then undertook extensive due diligence Consulting firms McKinsey and Accenture were involved in the analysis of the merger Goldman Sachs (HP) and Salomon Smith Barney (Compaq) were engaged in July 2001, to provide financial advice Members of Hewlett and Packard families threatened to vote against the merger Shareholders approve in May 2002



Examples of the Merger Process

Deal began as a hostile bid by Northrop and evolved into merger Reasons given for the merger
Economies of scale in defense industry Complementary product mix

Market reaction to initial announcement (2/22/02)

TRW increased 26.4% (speculation that there may be more potential bidders, or that TRW would get a higher price from NG ) NG dropped by 6.7%



Examples of the Merger Process

Major events in the merger process

2/22/02 Northrop releases letter sent to TRW proposing a merger 3/3/02 TRW rejected $47 stock offer TRW sought other bidders and considered implementing a split-up Northrop increased offer 7/2/02 announced merger agreement for $60 stock



Example of the Bidding Process: Savannah Foods (a sugar refiner)

Merger process began in March 1996
SFs board of directors requested management develop a plan to improve shareholder value Plan: maximize value of core sugar business and consider acquisitions in related areas Discussions with acquisition candidates and merger partners in summer 1996 produced no formal actions



Example of the Bidding Process: Savannah Foods (a sugar refiner)

Savannah discussed merger with two possible partners in late 1996 Flo-Sun reached deal to buy SF (7/15/97)
Shareholders of SF to own 41.5% of new entity SF price fell 15.7% to $15.75 at announcement Shareholder lawsuits arose over terms

Imperial Holly, a sugar refining company, made a competing bid

IH contacted investment banking firm, Lehman Brothers, to develop acquisition strategies IH made competing offer for SF for $18.75 per share (70% in cash and 30% in stock)
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Example of the Bidding Process: Savannah Foods (a sugar refiner)

Flo-Sun upped bid on 9/4/1997
SF would own 45% of new firm Shareholders would also receive $4 in cash

SF asked both bidders to submit final offers on 9/8/97

IH upped bid to $20.25 per share Flo-sun stood by most recent offer

SF executed merger agreement with IH on 9/12/97

Ended previous agreement with Flo-Sun Paid $5 million termination fee to Flo-Sun
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