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There are two major types of drawings: artistic drawings and technical drawings. Artistic Drawings These are a form of freehand representation that makes use of pictures to provide a general impressionof the object being drawn. There are no hard rules or standards in the preparation of artistic drawings. Technical Drawings These are detailed drawings drawn accurately and precisely. They are pictures that have been prepared with the aid of mathematical instruments in order to record and transmit technical information. They provide an exact and complete description of things that are to be built or manufactured. o Technical drawings do not portray the objects the way they directly appear to the eye o They make use of many specialized symbols and conventions in order to transmit technical information clearly and exactly.

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS

Drawing Instruments are used to prepare drawings easily and Accurately. For this purpose a set of instruments and accessories is required. Basics Drawing Instruments are:Drawing sheet & paper Drawing board Mini Drafter T square Set Square Protector Compasses Dividers Pencils/Lead Pen French Curve Circle Template

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS

Drawing sheet & paper

Drawing Sheet & Paper are the Canvases on which drawings are composed by pencils or pens. Drawing Paper are available in standards sizes. The sizes of Drawing papers recommended by the BIS are-A0,A1,A2,A3 & A4

Drawing board

Drawing board are to support a drawing sheet or paper. Drawing board is rectangular in shape and is made up of sold wooden plates fastened together by two cross plates. Drawing board is made in various sizes. Its selection depends upon the size of the drawing paper to be used. The sizes of Drawing boards recommended by BIS( IS: 14441989)

Designation B0 B1 B2 B3

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS

Wooden Platens T-Square

Ebony edge

Working surface

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS

Mini Drafter

A mini drafter is a portable device used to draw parallel, inclined & perpendicular lines speedily. It is mounted on a drawing at the top left corner. A drafter consists

of a scale, a scale screw, a scale plate, steel bars, a bar plate & a clamping mechanism.

Scale

Clamping Strap

Clamping Mechanism

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS

T square

A T-square is a T- shaped devices used to draw straight horizontal lines. It consists of two parts- the stock and the blade-joined together at right angles to each other by means of screws and pins. The length of the blade in selected so as to suit the size of the drawing board. It is made up of hard quality wood. Now a days T-square is also available of celluloid or plastics with engraved scale.

90

Working Edge

Blade Stock

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS

Set Square

Set squares are the most common drawing instrument. It is made up of transparent plastics. Two forms of set squares are generally used. (1) 45 set squares and (2) 3060 set squares. Two edge of each set square are perfectly set at right angles. The working edges are beveled and engraved with mm or inch markings. The hypotenuse edge is beveled but not engraved.

45 set squares with protectors

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS

Protector

It is used to draw and measure the angles. Protectors of transparent celluloid are in common use. They are flat and circular or semi circular in shape. A medium sized transparent protector capable for measuring up to 1 is recommended.

Compasses

Compasses are used to draw circles or arcs. Good quality steel compasses are recommended to ensure accuracy in engineering drawing. Two sizes of compasses are available: Large compass: It consists of a needle leg & a pencil leg hinged together at upper ends. A large compass can be conveniently used to draw circles having a diameter larger than 25 mm Small spring bow compass : It consists of two types viz. Bow pencil compass & Bow pen compass. As the name suggest, they are used to draw circles or arcs by pencil or pen. The bow compass are suitable for drawing circles with diameter smaller than 25 mm diameter.

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS

Dividers

Dividers are used to transfer lengths from one place to other. They are also used to set-off desired distance from the scale on the paper. It is made up of heavy steel. Two types of dividers are available: Large divider Small spring bow divider

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS

Pencils/Lead Pen

Pencil is a primary tool in Drawing. The accuracy and appearance of a drawing depends very largely on the quality of the pencil used. Pencils are designated by their grades. For technical drawing many grades of pencils used, namely H,2H,3H,4H is hard pencil. B, 2B, 3B,4B etc. are soft pencil. HB pencil are more suitable for lettering and dimensioning. A lead pen is an alternative to the Pencils

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS

French Curve

French curves are made up of wood, Plastics or celluloid. They are made in various shape. It helps to Draw a smooth curve passing through a number of non-co linier points. French curve are frequently used to draw engineering curves, loci of points, section of solids, development curves and curves of intersections of solids.

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS

Circle Template

A transparent circle template made up of acrylic is used to draw circles of different radii quickly. The common circle templates have circles from 2 mm diameter to 30mm diameter on them

DRAWING STANDARDS

Sizes of Drawing Sheet

Indian Standards (IS) for drawings sheets arte recommended by the Bureau of Indian Standards(BIS) as per SP:46 are given below

Sheet Designation A0

A1 A2 A3 A4

594x841 420x594 297x420 210x297

625x880 450x625 330x450 240x330

DRAWING STANDARDS

DRAWING STANDARDS

Layout of Drawing Sheet

Margin: Margin is provided in the drawing sheet by drawing margin lines. Margin should be kept on all the sides of the drawing sheet. It prevents the actual drawing getting damaged due to spoilage at the sheet edges. Border Lines: Clear working space is obtained by drawing border lines Borders and Frames: SP:46(1988) recommends the borders of 20mm width for the sheet sizes A0 and A1, and 10mm for the sizes A2 A3 A4.Frames shows the clear space available for the drawing purpose.

Lay Out of Drawing SheetA typical layout of the drawing sheet will facilitate the reading of drawing and make it possible for essential references to be located easily, especially when drawings are prepared by several offices. A standard arrangement should ensure that all necessary information's are included and sufficient margins are left from the edges of finished drawing to facilitate filing and binding where necessary.

Drawing Sheet

Trimmed paper of a size A0 ~ A4. Standard sheet size (JIS) A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 210 x 297 297 x 420 420 x 594 594 x 841 841 x 1189

A4 A3 A2

A1

(Dimensions in millimeters)

A0

1. Type X (A0~A4) c 2. Type Y (A4 only) d Border lines d

Drawing space

c Title block

Drawing space

Title block

Sheet size A4 A3 A2 A1 A0

c (mm) d (mm) 10 25 10 25 10 25 20 25 20 25

Drawing layout

All engineering drawings should feature a title block.

The title block should include: Title:- title of the drawing Name:- name of the person who produced the drawing Checked:- before manufacture, drawings are usually checked Version:- many drawings are amended, each revision must be noted Date:- the date the drawing was produced or last amended Notes:- any note relevant to the drawing Scale:- the scale of the drawing Company name:- name of the company Projection:- the projection system used to create the drawing

LETTERING

Lettering is an art of writing text on a drawing by using alphabets, numerals and symbols. Texts are necessary to provide specific information, like dimensions, notes, special instructions, etc. the text should be clear and concise. Two types of lettering are commonly used (1) Single stroke, and (2) Double stroke. Single stroke or double stroke latter may be vertical or inclined.

LETTERING RULES

1. Draw letters as simple as possible. Artistic or cursive lettering should be strictly avoided. 2. Draw letters symmetrical about the vertical axis or horizontal axis. Asymmetric letters like, F,Z,4, etc., may be drawn as they are. 3. Round off the sharp corners wherever necessary, e.g., D,P,S, etc. 4. Draw all letters legible and uniform. 5. The height of all the letters in one line should be the same. 6. Use single stroke vertical CAPITAL letters as much as possible.

Unit 1

Letter writing

lettering

Writing of tittles, dimensions, scale, notes and other important particulars on a drawing is called Lettering. In other words to write any thing on drawing sheet in a simple and systematic way is known as Lettering. Lettering should, therefore, be done properly in clear, legible and uniform style. It should be in plain and simple style so that it could be done freehand and speedily.

The main requirements of lettering, namely, types and sizes of letters and technique of lettering are specified in IS:9609 -1983(Lettering for Technical Drawing), adopted from ISO:3098/11974(E).

Essential features

Legibility Uniformity

Suitability for microfilming and other photographic reproduction Since time is more important, the lettering should be in plain and simple style so that it can be done in free hand with speed

Types of letter

Single stroke letter

Vertical

Inclined

Gothic letter

Single stroke letters are the simplest form letters generally used in engineering drawing. The word single single stroke should not be taken to means that the letter should be made in one stroke with out lifting the pencil. It actual means that the thickness of the line of the letter should be such as is obtained in one stroke of the pencil. The horizontal lines of letters should be drawn from left to right and vertical or inclined lines, from top to bottom.

Types

1.Vertical letters

The axis of letters and numerical is perpendicular to the horizontal axis is called vertical letters.

90

example

types

2.Inclined letters When the axis of the letters are inclined at 75 to the horizontal axis is known as inclined letters. 75

example

example

types

Gothic letters If we give more thickness to the single stork letters then it will be gothic letters. These are generally used for giving main titles. The out lines of the letters are first drawn with the aid of instruments and then filled in with ink. The thickness of the stem may vary from 1/5 to1/10 of the height of the letters.

example

Notes

1.Vertical letters are preferable for execution. 2.Alaways draw guide(2h pencil) and do the lettering (HB pencil) between them.

3.Spacing between two letters should be approximately equal to 1/5th of the height of the letters. The letters should be so spaced that, by eye judgment, they do not appear too close together or too much apart.

4.Space between two words should be approximately equal to 3/5th of the height of the letters.

Sizes of lettering

The size of a letter is described by its height. According to the height of letters, they are classified as: i) Lettering A ii) Lettering B In lettering A type, the height of the capital letter is divided into 14 parts, while in lettering B type it is divided into 10 parts.

The height of the letters and numerical for engineering drawing can be selected from 2.5, 3.5, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 20mm according to the size of drawing. The ratio of height to width varies but in case of most of the letters it is 6:5 The main titles are generally written in 6mm to 8mm size, sub-titles in 3mm to 6mm size, while notes, dimensions figures etc. in 3mm to 5mm size.

The drawing number in the title block is written in numerical of 10mm to 12mm size.

Lettering a

Lettering b

PLANE GEOMETRY

Where the construction of the geometrical shapes having only two dimensional that is called plane geometry.

A. B. C.

SQUARE: Equal sides, adjacent sides perpendicular RECTANGLE: Opposite sides equal , adjacent sides perpendicular RHOMBUS: Equal sides, opposite sides parallel but adjacent sides not perpendicular.

D. RHOMBOID: Opposite sides parallel, adjacent sides not equal. E. F. TRAPEZOID: Two sides parallel TRAPEZIUM: No sides parallel

polygons

A plane figure bounded by straight lines are called a polygon. If the polygon has equals sides and angles, it is termed a regular polygon. A regular polygon can be inscribed in or circumscribed in a circle. The regular Polygons include---1.Pentagon----- 5sides 2.Hexagon------ 6sides 3.Heptagon ----- 7sides 4. Octagon ----- 8sides 5.Nonagon ------ 9sides 6.Decagon ------ 10sides 7 .Dodecagon -----12sides

Geometrical construction

Geometrical construction are described as under following. 1.Bisecting a line. 2.To draw perpendiculars. 3.To draw parallel lines. 4.To divide a line. 5.To bisect an angle. 6.To trisect an angle. 7.To find the centre of an arc.

8. To construct an equilateral triangles. 9. To construct squares. 10.To construct regular polygons. 11. Special methods of drawing regular polygons. 12. Regular polygons inscribed in circle. 13. To draw regular figures using T-square and set-square.

14. To draw tangents. 15. Lengths of arcs. 16. circles and lines. 17. Inscribed circle.

Let it required to bisect the line PQ shown in fig. with P as center and any length greater than half PQ as radius, draw arcs on both sides of PQ. With Q as center and with the same radius, draw arcs to cut the previously drawn arcs at R and S. Join R and S. Let this line RS cut PQ at T. Then PT=TQ=1/2PQ. The line RS is the perpendicular bisector of PQ.

Solid geometry

Geometry as used by the engineers for the graphics representation of solid of three dimensions on plane surfaces of two dimensions are called solid geometry.

What is solid

A SOLID IS THREE DIMENSIONAL OBJECT HAVING LENGTH, BREATH AND THICKNESS.IT IS BOUNDED BY PLANE FACES OR CURVED SURFACE OR COMBITION OF PLANE AND CURVED AREAS.

Types of solid

1. Polyhedra 2.Solid of Revolution. Polyhedra: A polyhedron is defined as a solid bounded by planes called faces. When all the faces are equal and regular. This polyhedron is said to be regular polyhedra.

TYPES OF POLYHEDRA

A) Tetrahedron:-It is having four equal faces. All faces are equilateral triangle.

TETRAHYDRON

``````````````````````````````````````````````````````cu be or hexahedron ````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` ``````````` It is having six faces ,all faces are equal

squares.

Octahedron

It is having eight equal faces .Each faces are equilateral triangles.

dodecahedron

It is having twelve equal faces .Each faces are regular pentagons

Isosahedron

It is having twenty equal faces .all faces are equilateral triangles .

Prism

Prism is a polyhedron having two equal and and similar faces known as its faces or bases

pyramid

A pyramid is a polyhedron consisting of a plane figure as its base and a number of lateral faces of triangular shape. All the triangle meet at a common point called the vertex or apex. Pyramid is named by according to its base.

Solid of revolution

There are following types of solid of revolution. (a)Cylinder: A right circular cylinder is a solid generated by the revolution of a rectangle about one of its sides which remain fixed. It has two equal circular bases. The perpendicular line joining the centers of the bases is its axis.

(b) cone

Cone : A right circular cone is a solid generated by the revolution of a right angled triangle about one of its perpendicular sides which fixed. It has one circular base. Its axis joins the apex with the centre of the base. Straight lines drawn from the apex to the circumference of the base circle are all equal and are called generator of cone. The length of generator is the slant height of the cone.

(c) sphere

When a semi circle is rotated about its diameter as axis ,thus obtained solid is know as sphere.Mid point of the diameter is centre of a sphere .All points on surface of sphere are equidistant from its centre

(d) Frustum

When a pyramid or a cone is cut by a plane parallel to its base and removing the top portion ,thus remaining is known as frustum.

(e) Truncated

When a solid is cut by a plane inclined to the its base ,thus obtained solid is known as truncated solid .

Projection

THE FIGURE AND VIEW FORMED BY JOINING, IN CORRECT SEQUENCE,THE POINT AT WHICH THESE LINES MEET THE PLANE IS CALLED THE PROJECTION OF OBJECT. THE SHADOW OR IMAGE OF AN OBJECT OBTAINED ON A PEICE OF PAPER IS KNOWN AS PROJECTION.

Theory of projection

PROJECTORS

The lines or rays drawn from the object to the plane are called projectors

Types of projection

1. PICTORIAL PROJECTION

> PRESPECTIVE PROJECTION > OBLIQUE PROJECTION > ISOMETRIC PROJECTION 2. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

PICTORIAL PROJECTION

THE PROJECTION IN WHICH THE DESCRIPTION OF THE OBJECT IS COMPLETELY UNDERSTOOD IN ONE VIEWIS KNOWN AS PICTORIAL PROJECTION.

Types

PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION

THIS IS THE TYPE OF PICTORIAL PROJECTIONIN WHICH ALL THE PROJECTORS MEET AT A POINT IS KNOWN AS PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION.THIS PROJECTION DOES NOT RE-PERSENT ACTUAL SIZE OF THE OBJECT BY GIVEN GENERAL OUT LOOK.

OBLIQUE PROJECTION

THIS IS THE TYPE OF PICTORIAL PROJECTION-IN WHICH ONE FACE OF THE OBJECT IS PARALLEL TO THE PLANE AND THE OTHER FACE IN INCLINED AT AN ANGLE OF 45 TO THE PLAIN OF PROJECTION IS KNOWN AS OBLIQUE PROJECTION.

EXAMPLE

ISOMETRIC PROJECTION

THIS IS THE TYPE OF PICTORIAL PROJECTION IN WHICH THE PROJECTOR ARE PARALLEL BUT INCLIEND AT AN ANGLE OF 30 TO THE PLANE IS KNOWN AS ISOMETRIC PROJECTION. NOTES ISOMETRIC PROJECTION GIVES TRUE SHAPE OF THE OBJECT, WHILE PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION AND OBLICQUE PROJECTIONS DO NOT.

EXAMPLE

ORTHOGRAPHICS PROJECTION

ORTHO MEANS RIGHT ANGLE & ORTHOGRAPHIC MEANS RIGHT ANGLED DRAWING.WHEN THE PROJECTORS ARE PERPENDICULAR TO THE PLANE ON WHICH THE PROJECTION IS OBTAINED. IT IS KNOWN AS ORTHOGRPHIC PROJECTION.

IT IS THE METHOD OF REPRESENTING THE EXACT SHAPE OF AN OBJECT IN TWO OR MORE VIEWS ON A PLANE .

EXAMPLE

PLANE

A PLANE IS A TWO DIMENTIONAL SURFACE , AREA OR OBJECT, HAVING ONLY LENGTH AND BREATH.

Reference plane

1. In 1st quad above H.P, infront of V.P.

2. In 2nd quad above H.P, behind V.P. 3. In 3rd quad below H.P. behind V.P. 4. In 4th quad- below H.P infront V.P. Where H.P-Horizontal plane

V.P-Vertical plane

Projection

There are two method of projection. (1) First angle projection (2) Third angle projection.

When the object is placed in front of the V.P and above the H.P. i.e. in first quadrant and then projected it on these plane is known as first angle projection.

In this method the object is assumed to be situated in the third quadrant. They lie between the object and observer. The planes of projection are assumed to be transparent. The third angle projection method is an orthographic representation in which the object to be represented, as seen by the observer, appears behind the co ordinate planes on which the object is orthogonally projected. In this system : Top plane is placed at top. Bottom will come bottom .

difference

symbols

Types of viwes

ISOMETRIC VIWES:

The Surface roughness represent by the triangle also. These are depending upon the accuracy wise

Sectional view

Cutting plane or section plane: The imaginary plane which assumed to cut the object as required is called cutting plane or section plane. Cutting plane are generally shows by their traces by using lines made of alternate long and short dashes , thickened at the ends, bends and changes of direction and thin elsewhere.

SECTION

The surface produced when a section plane cuts a solid is termed as a section. It is indicate by continuous thin line inclined at 45 to the axis or to the main outline of the section. Spacing between these hatching lines is uniform and should be chosen in proportion to the size of the hatched section.

Sectional view:

The drawing showing that part of the object which is between the plane of projection and the section plane is called a sectional view. it may be a sectional top view or sectional front view. While drawing the sectional view, the portion of the object between the cutting plane and observer is assumed to removed and remaining portion is projected .thus, a section top view or sectional front view will show cut surface and all other part of the object beyond the cutting plane .

A Section plane will be usually perpendicular to one or both the reference plane . A section plane perpendicular to only one of the reference planes ,may parallel or inclined to the reference plane . The projection of the section on the plane to which it is perpendicular is always straight line coinciding with its faces on that planes .That is why the planes shown by their traces .sectional planes are classified as follows:

(I) section planes perpendicular to H.P and Parallel or inclined to the V.P (II) section planes perpendicular to V.P and Parallel or inclined to the H.P (III) Both planes are perpendicular to the H.P and V.P

There are following type of sections (1) Full section ; When an object is assumed to cut though entirely and the front half removed, it is said to be in full section. the projected view is called a sectional view.

when an object is symmetrical, it may be assumed to cut by two cutting planes at right to each other and containing the two centre lines of the object. the one quarter of the object between the planes is then removed showing only a half section. the projected view is a half sectional view.

When only a small portion of an object is required to be shown in section to reveal a minute feature, the view is shown in a partial or Brocken. The irregular lines show the boundary of the section. This section is also known as the local section.

A section is formed by passing a cutting plane at right angles to the axis of the object. it is in fact the cross-section of the object. This section is then revolved and brought into the plane of the axis and shown in the view in which the axis is seen as a line. Section shown in this manner is called a revolved section. the outline of the section is shown by a continuous line.

Revolved section:

Removed section:This section is obtained in the same manner as the revolved section, but is drawn outside the view, generally around the extension of the cutting-plane line. When it is not convenient to show the section in this manner, it identified by drawn away from its location. This method is generally used when the section is to be shown on an enlarged scale the purpose of dimensioning..

To show more details the cutting plane may be offset ,thus obtained section is known as offset section. section lines is the sectional view are similarly spaced but are offset along the dividing line between the sections. the position of the offset plane is always shown by a cutting-plane line in the view in which it is seen edge-wise.

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