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Maldives experience on energy storage for an Island

OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION National profile Energy sector Government Policies RE Resources & Potential Technologies SREP, Investment Plan Case study, island of Adh. Mandhoo, Maldives Barriers and challenges

National Profile: Maldives consists of 1,190 islands

199 Inhabited islands

Total land mass of the country is about 300km2 Size of the islands range b/w (0.2 5km2) Total population of Maldives is 330,000 plus Main economic activities are Tourism & Fishing

No proven non renewable energy sources


Energy sector Entirely depend on imported fossil fuel in meeting energy demand. Fuel import bill is 16% of GDP equivalent to US$ 0.24 billion (2010) Total primary energy consumption,2009 340,311 toe

24% Male, 42% 100 Resorts , 21% 200 Islands and 13% Transport.
Total GHG emissions in 2009 was 1,030,157 tons of CO2 equivalent Large amount of imported diesel is used for electricity generation and transportation Almost 42% of the diesel oil is used for electricity production at tourist resorts

Total Installed Capacity 240MW

Greater Male 62 MW

Resorts 120MW

Other Islands 55MW

Government Policies
Provide a continuous, reliable and affordable energy supply to all islands. Reduce fossil fuel and promote RE. Promote energy conservation & efficiency without hindering the quality of the services provided. Promote energy efficiency in electricity production,

distribution and usage.

Conduct a public awareness campaign to promote energy efficient products and practices.

Government Policies, Cont

Enhance national energy security by promoting renewable & environmentally sound sources of energy. Introduce and demonstrate sustainable solar and wind energy applications.

Strengthen the institutional framework of

the energy sector.

RE Sources & Potential Technologies

Solar Maldives is located in the Equator and receives abundant solar energy. Maldives Receives about 400 Million MW of Solar Energy Per Annum. Average Sunny Days Per Annum 280 300 Sunny Days Daily Average Global Irradiation in Maldives is

4.56 kWh/m2/day

RE Sources & Potential Technologies, Cont

Existing technology usage Solar PV Power generation (pilot systems, resorts) Telecommunications Navigation lights Solar Thermal Water heating (Resorts and hotels)

Power generation (pilot systems)

Installed & Ongoing RE Projects

In Male, The Capital

Project for Clean Energy Promotion in Male (Ongoing) 775kWp Solar roof top PV , (10 sites) Grid connected feeding in Govt. owned, operated by STELCO

Grant Aid ($11million) Japan

Island of Thinadhoo Clean Energy for Climate Mitigation (CECM) Project

300kWp Solar roof top PV (Grid connected feeding in)

Govt. owned, operated by FENAKA Grant Aid, Multi-donor, Climate Change Trust Fund (MCCTF)

Installed & Ongoing RE Projects

In 6 islands Male atoll. Project for 6 island RE promotion (Ongoing) 644kW Solar roof top PV Without storage Grid connected feeding in Installed by private company (REM) Power buys by STELCO under a power purchasing



Scaling-up Renewable Energy Program (SREP) IP

30 different islands power project 15 islands Power system rehabilitation. Upgrade to reduce generation & distribution losses. 15 power system healthy islands feed 30% RE 5MW (3MW Solar PV and 2MW wind) Without storage Grid connected feeding in

Installed by private company(s)

Power buys by FENAKA under a power purchasing agreement

Scaling-up Renewable Energy Program (SREP) IP, Cont.

10 small different islands power project 100% power by RE Approximately 2MW With storage Installed by private company(s) Power buys by FENAKA under a power purchasing agreement


Case study, Adh. Mandhoo, Maldives (Population 330) in 2004

Storage technology. PV Capacity: With inverter Location. Adh Mandhoo, Maldives Electricity system type. 12kWp Battery capacity: 108kWh

Diesel/Solar/ Battery
System size. Diesel Generator: 22kW x 2

Consumption & Load pattern Daily peak load, 194kWh With 10% network loss, 68900kWh / year Operation Hybrid PV- Diesel system PV- Battery or Diesel generator with manual Change-over 07:00 to 17:30 Solar, battery start feeding through inverter Solar radiation increases PV gradually takes over load


Points to consider for investors.

Maldives has abundance of sunshine throughout the year. Annual nation electricity growth demand 8% Solar (with storage) is competitive with current sources of electricity Minimizes CO2 considerably Latest bid for 15 islands Solar PV, 24 parties bought prequalification document and 14 parties submitted it, mostly international parties that proves existing investor confidence.

Thank you