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Communication Software and Design (Communication System Software Design Fundamentals)

ECM650

Dr Azlina idris Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Components of a Communication System


Definition of communication (partial def.): Transmission of information from one place to another. Major parts: Transmitter, Receiver and medium (communication channel) Information to be transmitted: - > data

Analog

Digital

Continuous information Simple receiver design

Discrete information. Robust to noise through channel coding, error correction algorithms
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Analog and Digital Communications


Modulation (partial definition)

To vary amplitude, frequency, or phase of a carrier wave for transmission of information

Carrier (partial definition)

An electromagnetic wave or an alternating current whose modulations are used as communication signals (as in radio, telephonic, and telegraphic transmissions).

Analog and Digital Modulation


Analog Modulation

Continuous information such as speech or video encoded as an amplitude

Digital Modulation

Discrete information such as binary data encoded as a frequency shift or a phase shift.
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Nyquist Theorem

Also known as sampling theorem fm A bandlimited analog signal with [Hz] that has been sampled can be perfectly reconstructed from an infinite sequence of samples if the sampling rate exceeds fm samples per second, where is the highest frequency of the original signal
fs 2 fm

Nyquist rate is the minimum sampling rate required to avoid aliasing/foldover distortion Hence the sampling must f s frequency fn exceed the Nyquist rate
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Determining sampling frequency


A communication system must be simulated using the same sampling frequency (Single rate system) Simulation of a multi-rate system is possible, through implementation of interpolation (up-sampling) and decimation (down-sampling) of related data in the system. Sampling frequency fs must exceed the highest Nyquist rate required in the system.
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Baseband and Passband System

Baseband system: signals and systems whose range of frequencies is measured from close to 0 hertz to a cut-off frequency Passband system: signals and systems whose a filtered frequency is measured at a specific RF frequency. (usually filtered by a bandpass filter)

Equivalent Baseband System


Equivalent baseband signal: -The modulated signal is replaced by a complex valued equivalent baseband signal with carrier frequency of 0 hertz For the case ofI ( a Z (t ) = t )ASK, + jQ(t )PSK, and QAM signals, the equivalent baseband signal is Q (t ) I (t ) represented by:

where is the phase signal and is the quadrature signalI (t )cos(wt ) - Q(t )sin(wt ) = Re Z (t )e jwt { } In this w case, the corresponded passband signal is
represented by:

where

is the carrier angular frequency in rad/s

Equivalent Baseband System

Advantages of using equivalent baseband domain:


lower the maximum sampling frequency required. lower the simulation cost (time) due to low sampling frequency. simplify the architecture of simulated system

Example:

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Assignment 1:

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