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Created & Presented by: Tejas.B.

Prajapati (MMS-Systems)
HISTORY OF THE INTERNET
• Coined from 2 words - ‘Interconnections’
and ‘Networks’

• Born in 1969 out of efforts to connect


together a US Defence Department
network called the ARPAnet (Advanced
Research Projects Agency Network) and
various other radio and satellite
networks.

• Purpose: share information

• Over time the internet has grown


explosively

• Today the internet as become a


information superhighway
consisting of billions of people connected
to each other
Still Growing

As of January 11, 2007, 1.093 billion people use the Internet according to
Internet World Stats.
BASICS OF THE INTERNET
DEF: The Internet is the worldwide, publicly accessible,
network of interconnected computer networks that
transmit data by packet switching using the standard
Internet Protocol (IP).

It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of


smaller domestic, academic, business, and government
networks, which together carry various information and
services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file
transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other
documents of the World Wide Web.
INTERNET VS. WEB
• The Internet is a collection of interconnected
computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-
optic cables, wireless connections, etc.

• The Web is a collection of interconnected


documents and other resources, linked by
hyperlinks and URLs.

. The Web is a service (a system for accessing


documents) that is supported by the Internet
(a gigantic network).
INTERNET STRUCTURE

• The Internet is often represented by a


cloud symbol, into and out of which
network communications can pass
INTERNET PROTOCOLS

Application protocol ex: HTTP,FTP

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)


UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

At the lowest level is IP (Internet Protocol)


ICANN
• The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names
and Numbers (ICANN) is the authority that
coordinates the assignment of unique identifiers
on the Internet, including domain names,
Internet protocol addresses, and protocol port.

• WHY ?

So that there is one and only one holder of each


name
Language
• The most prevalent language – English

• Nowadays the internet supports many


language: Deutsch, Hindi, Italiano,
Marathi , to name a few
How the Web works
• Web documents are linked
Hypertext provide an easy way to manage large collections of data,
which can include text files, pictures, sounds, movies, and more.

• HTTP and hypertext links are the foundations of


the World Wide Web

• A collection of related Web pages is called a


Website.
Web sites are housed on Web servers, Internet host computers that
often store thousands of individual pages.
How to access the Internet

• A home computer may be linked to the Internet


using a phone-line modem, DSL or
cable modem that talks to an Internet service
provider (ISP).

• A computer in a business or university will


usually have a network interface card (NIC) that
directly connects it to a local area network (LAN)
inside the business. The business can then
connect its LAN to an ISP using a high-speed
phone line like a T1 line.
• ISPs then connect to larger ISPs
• Backbone: fiber-optic lines, undersea cables or
satellite links.
Clients and Servers
Machines on the Internet can be categorized
as two types:
• Servers
Those machines that provide services (like Web servers or FTP
servers) to other machines are servers.

• Clients
The machines that are used to connect to those services are clients
IP Addresses

• Each machine on the Internet is assigned a unique address called


an IP address.

These addresses are 32-bit numbers, normally expressed as four


"octets" in a "dotted decimal number”
Ex: 216.27.61.137
• Octets can have values between 0 and 255

• A server has a static IP address that does not change very


often
• A home machine has the IP assigned by ISP and is constant for a
session. It may change during next time.
WEB BROWSERS

• A Web browser (or browser) is a software application designed to find


hypertext documents on the Web and then open the documents on the
user’s computer.

• The most popular graphical Web browsers are Microsoft’s Internet


Explorer and Mozilla Firefox.
URL
• Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
• Ex: http://www.yahoo.com/index.html
• http:- Protocol to follow
• www:- service
• yahoo.com:- server (domain) name
• index.html :- A file (resource) on the server
WEB SERVER
Behind the scene - Web Server
• You typed http://www.howstuffworks.com/web-server.htm (URL) into your web-
browser

• The browser broke the URL into three parts:


1. The protocol ("http")
2. The server name ("www.howstuffworks.com")
3. The file name ("web-server.htm")

• The browser communicated with a name server to translate the server name
into an IP Address

• The browser then formed a connection to the server at that IP address on


port 80
• Following the HTTP protocol, the browser sent a GET request to the server,
asking for the file
• The server then sent the HTML text for the Web page to the browser
• The browser read the HTML tags and formatted the page onto your screen
DNS
Domain Names

Because most people have trouble remembering


the strings of numbers that make up IP
addresses, and because IP addresses
sometimes need to change, all servers on the
Internet also have human-readable names,
called domain names.
For example: www.howstuffworks.com is easy to
remember than 209.116.69.66
The name www.wikipedia.org. actually has
four parts:
• The host name ("www")
• The domain name (“wikipedia")
• The top-level domain name ("org")
• The root domain (.)
Name Servers
A set of servers called
domain name servers (DNS) maps the
human-readable names to the IP
addresses.

These servers are simple databases that


map names to IP addresses, and they are
distributed all over the Internet.
PORTS
• Any server machine makes its services
available to the Internet using numbered
ports, one for each service that is available
on the server
• For example: If a server machine is running a
Web server and an FTP server,
Web server: port 80
FTP server: port 21
Note: There is nothing that forces a Web server
to be on port 80
SEARCH ENGINES
• A search engine lets you search for
information by typing one or more words.

• The engine then displays a list of web-


pages that contain related information.

• This is called “keyword search”


CONTENT SPECIFIC SEARCH
USING A SEARCH ENGINE
• Use boolean operators in your search
AND : looks for pages that include both terms
OR : looks for pages that include either or both
NOT : looks for pages that does not include the
term ex: printer NOT color

• Suppose you want to search for Inkjet


Printers
SITE SPECIFIC SEARCH
• Websites have built in search tool
• Enables you to look for information on the
website you are currently visiting
• Ex: Suppose I want to search ‘RFID’
An advance search
FTP
• FTP (File Transfer Protocol) utility
program is commonly used for copying
files to and from other computers.
• You can also perform FTP through a
browser
• ftp://yourLoginName@IPaddress

• If the remote machine has been reached successfully,


FTP responds by asking for a loginname and password.

• When you enter your own loginname and password for


the remote machine, it returns the prompt
ftp>

and permits you access to your own home


directory on the remote machine using
commands
Some FTP commands
• ? to request help or information about the FTP
commands
• bye to exit the FTP environment (same as quit)
• cd to change directory on the remote machine
• close to terminate a connection with another
computer
• delete to delete (remove) a file in the current remote
directory
• get to copy one file from the remote machine to
the local machine
• put to copy one file from the local machine to the
remote machine
An FTP example
• % ftp nordsieck.cs.colorado.edu
• Connected to nordsieck.cs.colorado.edu. 220 nordsieck FTP
server (Version 5.53 Tue Aug 25 10:46:12 MDT 1992)
ready.

• Name (nordsieck.cs.colorado.edu:yourlogin): yourlogin


• 331 Password required for yourlogin.
• Password:
• 230 User yourlogin logged in.

• ftp> put abc.txt


• 200 PORT command successful. 150 Opening ASCII mode
data connection for abc.txt. 226 Transfer complete.
• ftp> bye
• 221 Goodbye.
APPLICATION OF INTERNET
• E-MAIL
• THE WORLD WIDE WEB: (Access to
information)
• REMOTE ACCESS
• COLLABORATION
• FILE SHARING
• STREAMING MEDIA
• VOICE TELEPHONY (VOIP)
• LEISURE
• MARKETING
Survey Results
E - MAIL
• The concept of sending electronic text
messages between parties in a way
analogous to mailing letters

• Every day billions of e-mail messages sent

• E-mail has become an extremely popular


communication tool
How e-mail gets from your desktop
to a friend
• An e-mail message been nothing more than a
simple text message

• The ability to add attachments now makes


many e-mail messages quite long

• E-mail Clients like Outlook Express / Eudora

• E-mail client that appears in a Web page


Email - client does four things
• Lists all of the messages in your mailbox
by displaying the message headers
• Lets you select a message header and
read the body
• Lets you create new messages and send
them
• Let you add attachments to messages and
save attachments to your PC
Simple Email Server
• Assuming you have an E-mail client on
your machine, you are ready to send and
receive e-mail. All that you need is an E-
mail server for the client to connect to.
Working of a simple Email server
• It would have a list of e-mail accounts,
with one account for each person
• It would have a text file for each account in
the list ( inside a directory named after u)
• You compose and send a message using
email – client
• Client would connect to the e-mail server
• The server would format those pieces of information and append them to
the bottom of the MBRAIN.TXT file
• The entry in the file might look like this:
From: jsmith
To: mbrain
Marshall,Can we have lunch on Monday?
John
• Saves other pieces of information like: date, time

• As other people sent mail to mbrain, the server would simply append those
messages to the bottom of the file in the order that they arrived

• When I want to look at my e-mail, my e-mail client would connect to the


server machine. Show me all of the message headers in a list format.
• Click on a message header and it will show the body of the message

• This is a very simple system


Real Email System
How email works- video
Voice Telephony (VOIP)
• VoIP stands for Voice over IP
• Started on Instant Messaging systems

• VoIP can be free or cost much less than a normal telephone call,
especially over long distances and especially for those with always-
on ADSL or DSL Internet connections.
Eg: Sify has started a business by which one can make ISD calls at
a cheaper rate.

• Simple inexpensive VoIP modems are now available that eliminate


the need for a PC.

• Voice quality can still vary from call to call but is often equal to and
can even exceed that of traditional calls.
Eg Skype has the best voice quality as compared to any other VOIP
clients.
Future Of Internet
• Mobile Internet
• E-commerce
• E-Business
• Blogging
• Web 2.0
BLOG
• A blog is a lot like an online journal or diary. The author can talk
about anything and everything.

• Blogs are full of interesting links that the author has found

• Snippets of information that are interesting to the author.

• A blog is normally a single page of entries


• A blog is organized in reverse-chronological order
• A blog is normally public
• The entries in a blog usually come from a single author

• In Short: A blog can be anything the author wants it to be.


Create Your Own Blog
Web 2.0
Web 2.0 video
Creating your first
web-page
Some important concepts

• Web page - A Web page is a simple text file that contains not only
text, but also a set of HTML tags that describe how the text should
be formatted when a browser displays it on the screen.

• An HTML tag is a code element that tells the Web browser what to
do with your text. Each tag will appear as letters or words between a
< (less than sign) and a > (greater than sign). eg : <HTML>

• HTML - HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. A


"markup language" is a computer language that describes how a
page should be formatted.

• Viewing Page Source

• Notepad Editor to write the code


Your first code on the web
<html>
<head>
<title>My First Page</title>
</head>
<body>
Hello there. This is my first page!
</body>
</html>
This is how it looks
At Issue: Cyberslackers
What is Cyberslacking ?
• On-job behavior where employees using their
PC and Internet access a great deal, but not for
work related purpose.
• Why are companies concerned?
– Can lead to law suits:
ex: If a person is using company’s computer to
distribute pornography, the company can be
implicated as supporting him
– Careless use can invite viruses and hacking
– Lost productivity
Ex: If 2 employees devote 1 hour a day on this it leads
to 10 hours per week of lost productivity
Taking Action
• Employer can set policies
Ex: Restricting websites, chatting, downloading and
installing any software, using only company’s email
system etc

Tools used by managers to prevent


– Web filters(block access to certain websites)
– Surveillance (real time activity monitoring) software
– Proxy Sever ( traps network traffic)
– Packet sniffers (examines all packets) etc
– Key stroke Capturing Software
At issue: EMAIL and MACRO viruses
WEBSITES
Reference Books Go Online
Advantages of online version
Up-to-date information
Depth and Variety
Can be referred later after download
Encyclopedias
Dictionaries
Thesauri
Read your favorite websites
without an Internet connection
Store documents online
Meta Search – Better Search
Do more with YouTube videos
How to download videos
Editing videos online
Google Alerts – Get the news as
it happens
Edit your photos online
Best Place to upload your photos
Web-based instant messaging
Using PDF files without Adobe
Acrobat
Online Word, Excel by Google
Online Operating System
Conclusion
• Because of the growth of Computer and Internet technology,
we now live in an INFORMATION SOCIETY

•  where information is considered to be an extremely


valuable commodity.

• Those who can control this and know how to access and use it
are the key players in this information based economy.

“ BE TECH & INTERNET


SAVVY “
Personal Details

TEJAS.B.PRAJAPATI
B.E. (Computer), MMS (Systems)
Email: prajapatitejas@yahoo.co.in