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INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL: CONTROL OF HEAT EXCHANGER

Nikhilbinoy.C Assistant Professor, ICE Department, N.S.S. College of Engineering, Palakkad.

Variable and Degrees of Freedom


Control loops function on the basis of controlling one variable by manipulating the same or some other process variable. Maximum number of independently acting automatic controllers that can be placed on a process is called degrees of freedom.

Terminology

Types:
heat

1) Transfer Liquid-to-liquid Heat Medium: Cooling liquid exchanger

Process Medium: 2) Steam heater Process vapour Cooling liquid Tube: Through which cold fluid is 3) Shell: Condenser - Filled with hot fluid flowing 4) Reboiler Process Vapour Heating liquid Heating vapour

Liquid-to-Liquid Heat Exchanger

Instrumentation and Control


Cooler Heater

Here, the temperature of both process fluid and heat transfer fluid is changed. But the phase of these two fluids remains constant (as liquid).

The fluid, whose There are four temperature temperature is with one defining equation. relatively low, DOF = 6 1 = 5 is flowing through the tube.

and two flow variables

Instrumentation and Control

TIC

TIT

TIT TIC

Location of CV is desirably at heat transfer medium side.


Mounted on the low temperature side. Provided positioner to minimize valve friction effect. Equal percentage valve is recommended, which will maintain control system gain under changing throughput condition.

Keep the relationship between valve opening and temperature change constant.

Instrumentation and Control

TIC

TIT

TIT TIC

PID controller is used.


D

is essential for long time lag, or sudden changes. P is essential for relatively slowly nature systems.

Instrumentation and Control

Contradictory statements.

TIC

TIT

Location of the thermal element is in between these two contradictory positions.


TIT TIC

Selection and location of thermal element is important.


Be

located far enough from the exchanger for adequate mixing. Close enough so that the introduced time delay will not be substantial.

Three Way Valves


TIC TIT

Diverter Valve

The limits within which process temperature can be controlled are function of the nature of the load changes expected and speed of response of the whole unit.

If the process medium TIC temperature is high, the TIC with respect to the TIT measurement TIT opens the three way control valve, so that the flow rate of process medium through cooler is increased and flow rate of process medium through bypass is decreased. So the temperature of process fluid is Mixing Valve decreased, because more fluid is flowed through the cooler.

In case the process time lag is too great, to allow for

Three Way Valves


TIC

Flow
TIT

100

0 Opening Three way valves are unbalanced designs.

Diverter Valve

100

Valve

Normally provided with linear ports.


Linear ports prevents the deviation from the relationship between valve movement and temperature changes. Equal percentage valve is used.

Misalignment or distortion in a control valve installation cause binding, leakage at the seats, high dead band and packing friction.

Three Way Valves


TIC TIC TIT TIT

Diverter Valve

Mixing Valve

Due to high temperature service in three way valve, uniformity of valve temperature must be ensured.

Temperature of fluid at all points of valve must

Balancing the Three Way Valve


TIC TIT

A manual balancing valve is installed in the exchanger by-pass line.

This valve is so adjusted that the resistance offered by heat exchanger to flow equals the resistance offered by this hand valve.

Two Two-Way Valves


TIC

TIT

FO

If it is unable to use three-way valve due to temperature and other considerations, two twoway valve is used to improve the performance.

FC

Linear plugs are used to get the same performance of threeway valve. Price of three-way valve is 65% of two two-way valves.

Cost is increased.

Capacity of three-way valve is equal to capacity of single ported two-way valve (equal to 70% of

Steam Heater

Loop components, accessories, sensor location and time lag considerations discussed in liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger is also applicable here. Use of equal percentage valve is more pronounced here.

High rangeability is required due to high variation in condensate pressure.

Instrumentation and Control

Used to increase the temperature (to heat) of process fluid. Phase (dynamics) of process fluid is not changed. Phase (dynamics) of heat transfer medium is changed from steam to water.

Due to the change in dynamics, the outlet flow rate is almost constant, only the inlet flow rate varies with respect to the performance of steam heater.

So control valve is located at the inlet side (except at some special conditions).

Due to the change in dynamics, the temperature of heat transfer medium is independent of the heat transfer process.

Instrumentation and Control


FC
TIC

TIT

Condensate line is a function of load when the temperature is controlled by steam inlet. Low load and low operating temperature results in a below atmospheric condensing pressure.

This condensate pressure is not sufficient to discharge the condensate (liquid) through the steam tap, which accumulates inside the exchanger. More and more heat transfer area will cover up, resulting in a corresponding increase in condensate pressure. When this pressure rises

Control Valve in the Condensate Line


FC
TIC

Reduces the up problem.

blown

TIT

Cost is the another advantage, because the size of the control valve is small here.

TIT

TIC

Has no effect on steam pressure. Accurate temperature control is not possible.

Due

to

change

in

Level Controller
FC
TIC

TIT

LT

Low condensing pressure is a result of the combination of low load and high heat transfer surface area.

LIC

Reducing heat transfer area will prevent vacuum.


Level

controller is used instead of steam trap.

By-pass Control
TIC

PIC

PIT

TIT

FO

Advantages and disadvantages of this system are similar to liquid-toliquid heat exchanger. By-pass gives additional degrees of freedom.

Flow rate of liquid through the by-pass line is the

Cascade Loop on Steam Heater

SP
PIC TIC

PIT

TIT

The change in dynamics has great effect on the steam pressure.

Dynamics may change with respect to steam purity, etc.

To reduce the effect of load changes, steam pressure is also controlled.

Condenser

Instrumentation and Control

Used to condense the process vapour to liquid. Phase (dynamics) of the process fluid changes from vapour to liquid. Phase (dynamics) of the heat transfer medium remains constant (as liquid). The number of variables are four.

Instrumentation and Control


Process Vapour Source FO FO
TIT TIC

Process Vapour Source


PIT PIC

Condensa te Accumula tor

Both of these throttle the cooling water flow through the condenser.
For efficiency, water velocity through the condenser should be such that its residence time does not exceed one minute.

Condensa te Accumula tor

Instrumentation and Control


Process Vapour Source
PIT

Vent

PIC

FO

When it is not desirable to throttle the cooling water, this system is used. Exposed condenser surface is varied to control the rate of condensation.

Condensa te Accumula tor

When recondensables are present, a constant purge is used to remove inert.

Reboiler and Vaporizer

Instrumentation and Control

Used to vaporize the process liquid by using steam. Phase (dynamics) of the process fluid changes from liquid to vapour. Phase (dynamics) of the heat transfer medium changes from vapour to liquid.

Both medium have the change of phase.

The number variables are two.

of

DOF = 2 1 = 1

Instrumentation and Control

TIT TIC

Only variable to control is the rate of steam.

FC

Remember??!

Even if not so perfect, the inclusion of by-pass will increase the number of degrees of freedom.

Effective for the processes which have a very small DOF.

Thank You

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