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Operating Systems

 Integrated set of programs which manage


overall operation of a computer.
 It makes Computer System user friendly.
 Responsible for Smooth & Efficient
operation of entire computer system.
 Go by different names such as, Monitor,
Executive, Supervisor, Controller & Master
Control Programs.
Functions
 Processor  Interpretation of
Management Command
 Memory management
 Coordination among
compilers, assemblers
 Input/Output & other utility
management software.
 File Management  Data Security &
 Job Priority System Integrity.
 Automatic Transition
 Facilitates Easy
Communication.
from job to job.
Batch Processing
 One of Oldest method of running programs.
 Based on the idea of automatic job-to-job
transition facility.
 Also known as serial, sequential, off line, or
stacked job processing.
 Input data are introduced into the computer
& processed automatically, one by one
without user intervention.
Batch Processing(Contd.)
 Method reduces Idle time of a computer
system.
 Appropriate for Processing Payroll or
preparation of customer statements.
 Disadvantages:

1. Reduces Timeliness.
2. Increases Turnaround Time.
3. Difficult to provide Priority.
Spooling
 Simultaneous Peripheral Output On Line.
 Used for reducing speed mismatch & in
turn the idle time of the CPU.
 Process of placing all data that comes from
input devices on either a magnetic tape or
disk.
 Primary Reason for Spooling is to keep the
program & data readily available to CPU.
Input Spooled
Card Reader Disk Or Tape
Input

Output Spool
Main Memory Disk or Tape Output Printer

Process Of Spooling
Multiprogramming
 In order to overcome the problem of
underutilization of main memory & CPU, the
concept of Multiprogramming was introduced.
 Multiprogramming is the name given to the
interleaved execution of two or more different &
independent programs by the same computer.
 CPU switches from one program to another
instantaneously.
Operation Of Multiprogramming

Main
Memory

Supervisor
Writing
Prog. A
Output Data
Prog. B
Program
C (waiting
Secondary for CPU)
Disk Storage

CPU
Three Different States of a Program

Running

Program must wait for


Program Executed is I/O completion
Resumed

Ready Blocked
I/O Completed
Requirement of
Multiprogramming System
 Large Memory

 Memory protection

 Program Status Preservation

 Proper Job Mix


Multiprocessing
 The systems that uses more than one CPU are
known as Multiprocessing Systems.
 Multiprocessing means interconnected computer
configurations with two or more independent
CPU’s that have the ability to simultaneously
execute several programs.
 For Ex:
In case of a multiprocessing systems with two
CPU’s , one may be used to process only on-line
jobs while another one may be meant for
processing only batch applications.
Main
CPU 1 CPU 2
Memory

I/O I/O
Processors Processors

I/O Units I/O Units

Basic Organization Of Multiprocessing System


Advantages Multiprocessing
 Improves Performance of a computer
systems by allowing parallel processing of
segment of programs.
 It also facilitates more efficient utilization
of all the other devices of the computer
system.
 It provides a built-in backup.If one of the
CPU’s breaks down, the other one takes
over.
Limitation Multiprocessing
 Design of such OS is time taking job & requires
highly skilled computer professionals.

 Large main memory is required.

 Very Expensive

 Maintenance is Costly.
Timesharing
 It is used to describe a processing system with a
number of independent, relatively low speed,
online, simultaneously usable stations.
 It refers to the allocation of computer resources in
a time dependent fashion to several programs
simultaneously.
 Idea behind timesharing systems is to allow all
user programs to have a brief share of the CPU
time in turn.
Timesharing(Contd.)
 The short period of time during which a
user gets the attention of the CPU is known
as a time slice & of the order of 10 to 20
milliseconds.
 The processing speed of the system & the
use of multiprogramming in conjunction
with timesharing allows the CPU to switch
from one user station to another to do a job
allocated.
Concept of Timesharing System

Main
Memory
Terminal 1 Time Sharing
Supervisor
User 1 User 1
Terminal 2 User 2 User 2
.


Terminal 3 User N User N

Online
CPU Storage
Terminal N
Timesharing(Contd.)
 Users who are using a timesharing system will fall
in one of the following three status groups:
a) Active: user’s program currently has control
of the CPU. One user will be active at a time.
b) Ready: user’s program is ready to continue
but is waiting for its turn to get the attention of
CPU.
c) Wait: user has made no request for execution
of his job or the user’s program is waiting for
some I/O operation.
Switching between 3 status

Active
Process must wait
Process is
for I/O completion
allocated CPU
time
Allotted
time slice
over

Ready Wait
I/O completed
Advantages Timesharing
 Reduces CPU idle time.

 Offers computing facility to small users.

 Provides advantages of quick response.

 Reduces the output of paper.

 Avoids duplication of software.


Limitation Timesharing
 Question of security.

 Problem of reliability.

 Problem of data communication.

 Question of overhead involved.


ON-LINE Processing
 Also called Direct-Access or Random-
Access processing.
 It permits transaction data to be fed under
CPU control directly into secondary on-line
storage devices from the point where data
originates without being sorted.
 Access & Retrieval of data is quick &
direct.
 Timesharing system is an example.
On-LINE Processing

On-Line Station

Transaction Direct
Input Access
CPU On-Line
Storage
Enquiry Input/
Device
System Response
Real-Time Processing
 A system in which a transaction accesses &
updates a file quickly enough to affect the original
decision making is called Real Systems.
 Real time means immediate response from the
computer.
 It’s a on-line system with severe time limitations.
 One of the early system was American Airlines
SABRE reservation system.
 They are required to be highly reliable.