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Course Contents:
SECTION -I INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH METHODS IN MANAGEMENT : 1. Meaning, Nature, Scope, Significance, uses and limitations. 2. Interaction between Management and Research.

3. Scientific Method and Research Process. 4. Problem formulation and statement of Research objectives. SECTION II RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION : 1. Research Designs Exploratory Res.

Descriptive Research, Experimental Research designs. 2. Basic Methods of Collection of Data; Observation and Survey Method. 3. Search of Secondary Data. 4. Questionnaire Design. 5. Attitude Measurement Techniques. 6. Administration of Surveys.

SECTION - III : SAMPLE DESIGN. 1. Sampling Concepts- Sampling Different Methods of sampling. 2. Sample size decisions. SECTION - IV : DATA ANALYSIS. 1. Data processing- Editing, Coding, Classification, Tabulation, and Cross Tabulation.

2. Techniques of Data Analysis 3. Hypothesis Testing. 4. Tests of significance and analysis of associations. 5. Advanced Techniques for data analysis. SECTION - V :INTERPRETATION AND REPORT WRITING: 1. Meaning of Interpretation. 2. Significance of Report Writing.

3. Layout of the Research Report (contents or chapters) 4. Precautions for Writing Research Reports. 5. Research Applications In addition to above, there will be appropriate number of sessions for survey purpose and Case Study.

1. Kothari C.R., Research Methodology, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, 2009 edition. 2. Choudhary C.M., Research Methodology, RBSA Publishers, Jaipur. 3. Rajendra Nargundkar, Marketing Research Texts and Cases- Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. 2002.

4. Aaker Kumar, Dey Marketing Research , Seventh Edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc. 5. Cooper Schindler Business Research Methods, Sixth Edition, Tata McGraw Hill. 6. Boyd, Westfall, Stasch, Marketing Research, Text and Cases Seventh Edition , AITBS, New Delhi, 1996.

7. Luck-Rubin, Marketing Research, Sixth Edition, Prentice Hall of India, Tull & Hawkins, Fifth edition, Maxwell Machmillan International. 8. Richard I. Levin, David S. Rubin, Statistics for Management, Prentice Hall, India. 9. Beri, G.C., Marketing Research (2008), Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.

Go- Ahead


- Research in general refers to a search for knowledge. - Finding solution to a problem is a research. - Research is an Art of scientific investigation.

1. As per Websters Dictionary: A careful critical inquiry or examination in seeking facts for principles, careful investigation in order to ascertain something.

2. As per Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English:- A careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.

3. As per Redmon and Mory: Systematized effort to gain new knowledge is known as research.

Research always starts with a question or a problem. Its purpose is to find answers to questions through the application of the scientific method. It is a systematic and intensive study directed towards a more complete knowledge of the subject studied.

Research is based on some facts or on problems. For doing research collection of data and processing of data is done to know the results. The search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is called Research.

Research can be classified into two broad categories: (1) Basic Research, and (2) Applied Research. Basic research is sometimes called fundamental research or theoretical research, or pure research.

Applied Research, which is also called decisional research, on the other hand, proceeds with a certain problem and it specifies alternative solutions and the possible outcomes of each alternative.


(1) objective of Research: The objective or purpose of any research is to find out facts. On the basis of facts, inferences (conclusions) are drawn. Ultimately the real situation is known through Research. (2) Reliability and Validity: Truth is the foundation of Research. This can be established on

the basis of facts and evidence. Evidence is based on sufficient and reliable data. The reliability and validity can be attained when the error of sampling is minimized. (3) Verification of Data: Any conclusion drawn by a Researcher is subject to the quality of verification.

Verification pre-supposes the phenomenon of research being observed and measured. If a research is not based on observation and measurement, the verification of data will not be possible and inferences (or conclusions) or findings drawn from such studies will not serve the purpose.

(4). Accuracy: In any type of research study, census or sampling methods are used. Researcher or Investigator should be wellversed with the techniques/methods used for collecting information or data. Complete accuracy can be attained when standard tools are used for collecting, recording and analyzing the

Information or data. (5) Impartiality: If the data are partial, it will lead to a wrong information with wrong result. Thus, a research should be impartial while collecting data. Partiality leads to wrong information and it fails to give fruitful results to the Investigator/Researcher.

(6) Scientific Approach: Traditional (old) culture of research was different as compared with todays modern or scientific research. Today, scientific methods are used in research to attain reliable results or findings. (7) Recording and Reporting: Every term used in research should

be well defined. Every procedure should also be described in detail. Any limiting factor should also be mentioned and taken into account. Various references used (i.e. Books, periodicals, journals, Articles, web-site etc.) in research should be carefully and systematically documented/recorded. Results of research should be properly recorded.

Conclusions and generalizations should be drawn with due care with the limitations of Methodology and data available for research. All these data can be used as a source of investigation for further research, in future.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Descriptive and Analytical Research Applied and Fundamental Research Qualitative & Quantitative Research Conceptual and Empirical Research Survey and Evaluation Research Other types of Research. (Social, Political, and Clinical etc.).


Descriptive Research includes Surveys and Fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. (describing in words or lines) The purpose of DR is to know the present state of affairs as it exists at present. The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables ( situation is described) as they are many in number.

When a researcher is interested in knowing the characteristics of certain groups, such as age, sex, educational level, occupation or income, a descriptive study may be necessary. To know relationship between two or more variables, descriptive research is conducted. The objective of such a study is to answer

the who, what, when, where, and how of the subject under investigation. Descriptive studies can be simple as well as complex.. Descriptive research/studies are well- structured. Whereas, the exploratory study needs to be flexible in its approach. In exploratory research the focus is on the discovery of ideas. ER is based on the Secondary data that are available.

Researcher can report- what has happened or what is happening. (Real situation is to be described in words) Examples: (i) Frequency of shopping; (ii) Preferences of people. Method of Descriptive Research is Survey methods (all methods of surveys). - Survey may be for comparison of two items.

- Survey may be for finding correlation between two items. Example:- Age group of MBA students of Two Institutions. Age group of Male or Female students in one Institution. In Analytical Research, the researcher has to use facts or information which is already available with him and he has to analyze

those facts (or data) or information to make a critical evaluation of the material. Example: There are 60 students in PGDBM. Facts available is about their qualification i.e. B.Com./B.Sc./B.V.Sc,/B.A./B.E./B.Pharm. Researcher can analyze these data as under:-




IInd Percentage

1. B.Com. 30 25 5 50% 2. B,Sc. 23 20 3 39% 3. B.V.Sc. 2 1 1 3% 4. B. Pharm. 1 1 2% 5. B.E. 2 2 3% 6. B.A. 2 2 3% ---------------------------------------------------60 51 9 100 ----------------------------------------------------


Applied Research means action research. (application of referred data). Fundamental Research means basic or pure research. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industry/business organization. Fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations or with formulation of a theory.

Collecting data for knowledge is pure research. Example: Going to Bharatpur at Ghana Birds Century. Observing and collecting data on different types of Birds, their size, Shape, colour, habits, nesting, taking photo etc. is known as fundamental research. Differentiating between Local & migrated Birds will give new findings.

Research concerning some natural phenomenon is known as fundamental research. Other examples can be: - (i) Human Behaviour - (ii) Human Habits - (iii) Human Psychology - (iv) Human Priorities.

Applied Research: Where research is connected with Economic, Social, Political ,Business problem and certain solution to the problem is done, it is known as Applied Research. The aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some pressing practical problem.

Some Examples of applied research:

(i) Liking of people about a particular Newspaper - Rajasthan Patrika - Dainik Bhasker - Times of India - Dainik Nav Joyti - Hindustan Times - Nav Bharat Times - Economic Times (ii) Liking of Society about some consumer products : Biscuits (i) : Britania, Marie Gold,Parle-G

(ii) Shoe Company: Bata, Reebok, CSC, (iii) Motor Cycle : Suzuki, Rajdoot,Honda, Splender, Bullet etc. (iv) Ghee/Butter : Saras, Amul, Anik, Krishna, Milk-food, etc. (v) Political Party : Congress, BJP, DMK, JD, Lok Dal, others.

Liking of consumer products may be : - About Quality, - Size or Colour - Price or Cost (with discount/rebate) - Taste/Flavour - Packaging - Comfort or satisfaction etc.


Quantitative Research is based on the number or measurement of quantity or amount. It can be expressed in terms of quantity say 10,20,50,100,1000 and so on. Qualitative Research is concerned with quality phenomenon. Research study relating to Quality or kind of Material is known as Qualitative Research (based on its performance i.e. Quality of product).

Quality may indicate - Desires, Motives, Opinion, or Attitude. QR also study the reasons for Human Behaviour and liking and dis-likings have reasons for it. Example : Organic and Inorganic Foods( Vegetables & Fruits), Free from Chemicals.Liking for Tea/Coffee Thus, Qualitative Research is also known as Motivational Research.

How people feel or what they think about a particular subject matter or institution or product is also a qualitative research. Example: There are many Management Education Institutions in Jaipur and - What do you think about IRM, and other Instt. - What do you compare about IRM with others. - How do you rate IRM with other Institutions.

People think about quality of the subject matter- Faculty, Library, Teaching, etc.). It may be a product or may be an Institution. (Popular for Placements). Here, the Behaviour of Consumer (user) is reflected. So the Human Behaviour is directly connected with quality of things. People have liking and disliking about a particular thing based on their behaviour.

Due care is required to be taken in Qualitative Research. 4. CONCEPTUAL vs. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH: Conceptual research is based on some theory which is existing and is in practice. So whatever theory is existing further research is done to know new concepts in it. Fresh opinion may be taken on any past studies, will be CR.

Re-interpretation on existing theory is made under Conceptual Research. Empirical Research( Data based) is based on Experiments or observation or experiencing something. It is data-based research, with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or by experiments.

For Example: Concept & Theory says that Maruti 800 Car can run at a speed of 120 km/hour. (M/Cycle :90km in a litre). By using the Car on experimental basis or test drive basis, the speed can be observed and verified or further improvement can be done by changing the mechanism or change in fuel combination.


(a) Laboratory Research (For testing Chemical or other reactions on something. (b) Diagnostic Research (to know causes/investigating the reasons). Blood Test to know the sugar and other contents (clinical Research). (c) Historical Research (Documents, structure etc. or ideas of the past. Forts, Monuments, Sculptures, Coins, manuscript etc.

There are different approaches or methods of doing research. There are Two Basic Approaches in Research: (A) Quantitative Approach. (B) Qualitative Approach (A) QUANTITATIVE APPROACH: (i) It involves generation of Data in quantitative form. Data can be analyzed in various forms and findings may arrive at.

(ii) In Q A Characteristics of data & their relationship with population is find out. (iii) Generally, in Quantitative Research Survey is done & sample of population is studied. (Liking of Coca-Cola/ Pepsi). (iv) Literacy level, Average number of persons in a family, are quantitative. (iv) Survey can be done through questionnaire/Observation method.

(B) QUALITATIVE APPROACH: Qualitative approach of Research is undertaken to know : (a) Attitude of population (about use of some product Say : Colgate Toothpaste; (b) Opinion of population (about any political party/Instt. or group of people- Industrial visit of PGDBM/RM class out side Jaipur/within Jaipur); (c) Behaviour of population (about some product e.g. T.V./Fridge/WM/Vehicle).

In all above approaches interview or depth interview of a focus-group (identified persons) is taken. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH: Significance means importance or usefulness of research. Why Research ? Or What is the use of Research?

The Answer is Research is used to solve the problems in the Society or in Business or in Government Organization. By the use of Research, operational problems of Society/ Business/Govt. is solved. Research helps in forming Economic Policy for both Govt. and in Business.

Needs & Desires of the people are known through Survey and Research. Then, Govt. look at the availability of Resources/Revenues to meet the needs of the people. NEEDS MAY BE : -Need of Buses on a particular rout. -Availability of Food-grains for public.

- Need of Road, Water Supply by Govt. - Need of Market in the Colonies (HB). - Need of Dairy Booth for Milk Supply. - Need of School/College/ Tech.Edu.Ins. - Any other need of Public/Business. For all above needs, the Govt. sees the availability of things and funds. The cost of needs is assessed.

Probable income/revenue generation is also looked into. (Charges/Taxes/fee etc.) Through Research, alternative policies can be decided that which activity/need will be fulfilled by whom i.e. by Govt. or by Private People or under Public-PrivatePartnership (PPP). For Example: To run Roadways/Hospitals Or Collection of Electricity/Telephone Bills.

Economic Activities are undertaken by Govt. on the basis of Surveys & decisions are taken by Govt. for Public interest. (e.g. Collection of Bills through e-Governance system) Like wise for Business activities, Govt. allows business people to do an Economic Activity in different areas. For Example: (i) Procurement of Food-grain: 50% is done by Govt./Govt. Agencies & 50% is done by Private Business people

(ii) Construction of Houses: 50% is done by Govt. Agencies; Housing Boards, HUDCO,UIT/JDA DRDA or Gram Panchayat etc. 50% is done by Private Builders or Housing Cooperative Societies. (iii) Educational Institutions: - Govt. & Private Institutions, both are imparting all types of Education.

(iv) Generation of Electricity & Distribution to public: (Hydel/Coal/Gas/Wind/Solar etc.) -Both Govt. and Private Sector is doing it. (v) For distribution of Cooking Gas the Govt. have given this work to Private Agency. - For other activities also the Govt. and Private sector is engaged in all types of Economic Activities for public. The needs are identified through Research by Research Professional Agencies.

Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of Business and Industry. MARKET RESEARCH is done : - For Development of Market, - For Business Decisions, - For Policy Formulation for purchase, production and sales of some product.

SOCIAL RESEARCH Research connected with Society is known as Social Research. Social research may be regarding Literacy level, Medical Facilities, Sanitation, Marital status, occupation, income level Population under different age group etc.

Social relationship and Problem include : (a) Study of Child Care & Development especially in Rural or Backward areas. (b) Study of Mother & Child Care. (c) Health Care and Nutritional Diet in Rural area. (d) Primary Education in Rural Area. (e) Livelihood generation activities

IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH: 1. Research is important in solving operational problems of Govt. as well as that of Business Houses. 2. Research plays an important role in framing Economic Policy of the Country which may be related to : - (a) Agricultural Production. - (b) Price Policy of Commodities.

-(c) Distribution of Essential Commodities -(d) Import-Export Policy. -(e) Industrial Policy. -(f) Economic Reforms through Privatization. -(g) Public and Private Participation Policy

-(h) Poverty Reduction Programme. -(i) Taxation Policy. 3. Research gives basis to Govt. for taking decision for development of Big and small Industries, Farming Development, Size of Defense Services (increasing number of Soldiers and weapons etc.), or any other important area of Development.

4. Market Research gives information to Business and Industry to take decisions for production & Sales i.e. Market Behaviour (about liking & disliking of Product by public). Disliking of Scooter by public have reduced the production. 5. Research provides information (various factors) related to Future Demand of a product in Business. Small packaging is liked these days by consumers with low price (Tomato Sauce, Hair Shampoo, Namkin Pouches, Hair-oil etc.)

6. Business Research shows Need of change in Budgeting, affecting Profit & Loss based on Sales estimates (Budget for Promotion of Product, coverage of more area etc.). 7. Business Research gives information regarding forecasting of Sales of a product or services for forthcoming year (for increasing demand of a product). 8. Research is important for Social Scientists in studying relationships & seeking answers to various Social Problems Unemployment, poverty, literacy etc. (Then Govt. plans to reduce

Social Problems. 9. Research is important for Ph.D. students or Research Scholars or students of Management to know the market conditions. 10. Research is important for Philosophers, and thinkers for writing new ideas & insights for public. 11. Scientific Research is important for development of Nation in all areas using new technologies available in the world market.

Thus, Research is the fountain of knowledge for the sake of knowledge to solve different business/Governmental and Social Problems. ======= DIFFERENCE BETWEEN Research Methods (Research techniques) and Research Methodology:

Research Methods are different methods/Techniques which are used for conduct of Research. The methods used in performing research operations are known as Research Methods. Research Methods can be divided in 3 Groups:-

Group - I : COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA Those methods which are connected with the Collection of Data. (for collection of Primary Data through Questionnaire/observation etc.). Primary data are collected where secondary data are not sufficient to arrive at the required solution of a problem. Group - II: ANALYSIS OF DATA.

This group consists of those statistical Tools & Techniques which are used for establishing relationships between the data. ( using Mean, Mode Median etc.) Group - III: TESTING OF ANALYSED DATA:( to test correctness): It consists of those methods which are used to evaluate the accuracy of the results obtained (T-test, Z Test, Chi-Sq.).

Methods falling in Group II and III (above) are generally taken as Analytical Tools of Research. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: It is a way to solve the research problem systematically. RM includes the use of various tests, calculation of Mean, Mode, the Median or the Standard Deviation, Regression, or ChiSquare Test ANOVA test etc.

The process of collecting data, Tabulation and analyzing them for Research Projects is known as Research Methodology.

Only relevant research method/s should be used and applied in research. Researcher should also know assumptions, and their use. Research Methodology may differ from one problem to other problem (Study). For selecting any Research Method, the researcher has to give reasons for it.

Research Methodology has many dimensions and Research method/s is a part of Research Methodology. Thus, Research Methodology is a wider term as compared with Research methods. In Research Methodology, we should mention first about Research Methods, along with its logic. We also explain that why we are using a particular method/technique (Reasons).

Certain Question and Answer will make more clear about the Research Methodology, as under : Q. 1. Why a Research Study has been undertaken ? Ans. The objective of study should be highlighted. It may be a comparative study. (Any two or more products/Brands can be compared). For Example :Corporate Governance of HDFC & ICICI Banks. (Book on Case Studies by Dr.Sahay, Dr.Thatchenkery & Dr. Sardana)

Q. 2. How the Research Problem has been defined ? Ans. : What has been done in past and what scope of study exists, is required to be highlighted. Q. 3.: In what way and why the Hypothesis (Purpose of Study) has been formulated ? Ans. : To study and compare two areas may be the hypothesis (Purpose of study/Basis of study). At least 3 to 4 purposes should be taken in the Research study.

Q. 4. How the data have been collected out of many ? Ans. : We can say that 10% data have been collected on Random sampling basis. Q.5 : Which particular method of sample has been adopted/selected ? Ans.: We can say-Random sample/Cluster sample/Systematic/Deliberate/Area sample method has been selected (with reason).

Q.6. Why particular technique of Analyzing data has been used ? Ans. :We can say about Tools like Mean/mode/median/Standard Deviation /ZTest/T-Test/Chi-square Test have been used in analyzing collected data (give reasons also).


1. It is based on numerical data evidence. 2. It is based on certain Objective only. 3. It aims at making adequate and correct statements (information) about population objects (Targeted populationRural/Urban) ). 4. It gives results on probable predictions. 5. Its methodology used is known to all. 6. It can formulate Scientific Theories.

Research process is also known as Steps in Research. Research process consists of series of actions or steps necessary to carry out research one after another. Research process guides a researcher to conduct research in sequence.

Research Process in Flow Chart

I Define Research Problem (objective of study) 2. Review the Literature (a) Review concepts & Theories (b) Review previous research findings 3. Formulate Hypothesis (what you want to do- mention here). What you will do, mention clearly. 4. Design Research (including sample design) Place, Area, population, size of sample for study etc.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Collect Data (execution of research) Analyze Data (Test hypotheses, if any) Interpret the Data and give findings. Prepare Report.

PROCEDURAL GUIDELINE REGARDING RESEARCH PROCESS IS AS FOLLOWS: 1. 2. 3. 4. Formulating the Research Problem Extensive Literature Survey Developing the Hypothesis Preparing the Research Design

5. Determining sample Design 6. Collecting the data 7. Execution of the project work (Pilot test) 8. Analysis of data 9. Hypothesis Testing 10.Generalizatin and Interpretation 11.Preparation of the report or

presentation of the results i.e. formal write-up of conclusions reached by research. BRIEF DETAILS ABOUT THESE 11 POINTS: 1. Identify the problem, you want to study. - Aspect of a subject matter that you would like to study (or inquire into).

- See that it is feasible to study the problem or subject matter you have selected for study. - Two steps are involved here in formulating the research problem: (a) Understand the problem thoroughly, (b) Rephrasing (or re-defining) the same into meaningful terms.

Thus, discuss the issue with friends and your Faculty Guide, and the Administrative Heads of Institution/Company/Corporate House etc. where you will conduct Research Work. You are required to read two types of Literature : (a) Conceptual Literature (theory based) and (b) Empirical Literature (Studies made earlier on the subject).

So, check-up Statement of Objective (Title of your Research) because it will determine the data which are to be collected. 2. EXTENSIVE LITERATURE SURVEY: Collect the literature available from Books, Reports, Magazines, which are relevant to your study.

DESIGNING THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: Research Methodology depends on TWO FACTORS: (1) Target Population ( Urban, Semiurban or Rural). (2) Importance of decision which will be taken based on the Research.

Major parts of Research Methodology are: 1. Research Method (method to be used for collection of data). (a) Secondary Data (available record), Research starts with secondary data. (b) Primary Data: (ending research with Primary data.

Primary source (for data) may be :(i) Customers (ii) Buyers (iii) Users/Consumers (iv) Dealers (v) Distributors (vi) Retailers (vii) Other Respondents

2. Sampling Plan. 3. Questionnaire Design. 4. Field Work-Plan 5. Analysis Plan. Data collection from Respondents can be done by many different methods. The major methods, commonly used are: (1) Survey Method,

(2) (3) (4) (5) 1.

Observation Method, Experimentation method, Qualitative &Quantitative Techniques. Other Techniques or methods. SURVERY METHOD:

By Telephone (Advantage & Disadvantage Low cost but is fast) By Mail (It is a slow method & Time consuming, non-respondents are more)

In Person :- Question can be explained to respondent, facial reaction & body language can be observed and noted. - By E-mail (using Internet): -It does not represent true sample. -May have computer/Laptop or not. -For speedy work Telephone & e-mail would be excellent methods.

Personal Interviews are the preferred method for doing surveys in India. Other methods (i.e. mail & Telephone) may be useful will depend on target population and the objectives of the Research. 2. OBSERVATION METHOD: - In this method consumers behaviour is recorded.

- Recording can be done by noting on papers by some other person, or - A video Camera can record a customers behaviour where he/she buys a product For example : at Garment shop, purchase of a Garment, then PRICE, COLOUR, FABRIC may reveal his facial expression i.e. Buying Behaviour.

On the basis of video tap- one can interpret for the purchase factors, purchase behaviour, brand preference, price and colour preference age factor also reflect behaviour. It gives more accurate information. It is an expensive method.

3. EXPERIMENTATION METHOD: -It is a quantitative research method. - It involves more control over the cause and effect when compared to survey method. -In experiments, we try to measure the effect of one or more variables by changing the level of some variables and measuring the effects.

For Example: If an advertisement is released in Newspaper and we measure the brand awareness of the advertised brand (of a product say- Mobile set) among a sample of target respondents say in any area/colony. This type of knowing would be termed as experiment. Other Example: A product test could be

designed as an experiment for any product : For sale of different variety of TEA or COFFEE, if consumers who are coming for purchase of Grocery Items at a Grocery Shop, are served with free sample of TEA or COFFEE. It will be an experiment by the Company to know the test of consumers for TEA or COFFEE.

QUALITATIVE TECHNIQUES: When quantitative surveys are inadequate, Qualitative techniques are used to know the minds (views) of respondents (Public). Interviews with open-ended questions are asked. Unstructured Questions may be asked to know his/her views.

What do you expect from a Refrigerator ? What needs does it fulfill ? Here, the behavioural aspect of public is known. Sample size in qualitative techniques is usually small. It needs to be done by experts only (Sociologist or Psychologist).

Example of TVS moped, when it was launched, the same was compared with Bajaj Scooter. Later on the Scooty was launched after changing the design of TVS. SPECIALIZED TECHNIQUES used by Market Researchers. There are 3 specialized techniques :

1. A Consumer Panel 2. Retail Audit 3. TV Audience Measurements. 1. A CONSUMER PANEL (List is there): (a) A sample of consumers is chosen for keeping a record of what they buy in a given period of time. (b) What TV shows they watch in a given period of time. Say between 7-9 pm.

(c) They have to record this information in a diary ( say on Daily/Weekly basis) and hand it over to the marketing research agency for tabulation and analysis. (d) The special feature of this is that the sample remains the same for 1/3/6 months or even sometime for one year. (e) Usually, there is a payment for being part of such a sample (for extra efforts ).

2. RETAIL AUDIT: (At retail outlet): A retail audit measures what brands are sold and their quantity is sold in a particular period. It could be done weekly. In India, ORG is a company which routinely performs retail audits. It is a measurement done at the retail level. Locality-wise information of sale of a product can also be done.

Usually, such audits are best done by a third party (Independent agency), to reduce chances of bias, rather than the Marketing Company. Some times such studies are undertaken by the Company for its own brands at either consumer level or retail level. Such studies are generally done after launch of a new product.

3. TV- AUDIENCE MEASUREMENTS: These days, millions of rupees are spent on Advertising on TV. It is important for the marketer to know who is watching the TV shows on which time & channel. Advertisements are given on the TV channel and programme which is seen by the family is known by the Ad. Company. Such people are called Peoplemeters.

PLAN FOR SAMPLE, FIELD WORK AND ANALYSIS: The next stage in Marketing research study is the plan for : 1. Sampling 2. Field work 3. Analysis. This work needs accuracy of the study.

1. SAMPLING PLAN : What will be sample composition and size. What is total population (say 10,000) Take few percentage point as sample. What is target population ( say 10%=1000) Two precautions should be taken to ensure a good sample:
(a) Use a probabilistic (sample to be proving as true) sampling technique which is not biased.

(b) Try and divide the population to be sampled into segments or strata (social cluster groups):(i) Users/non-users. (ii) Classes based on Age, income etc. (iii) Ensure that each segment gets represented in the final sample. Limitations, if any, should be taken care of.

FIELD WORK PLAN: 1. Decide the sampling centers (Cities, towns, area, colony/localities etc. (Rural) 2. Decode sample size for each City, town, area, colony/localities.(A, B, C, D) 3. Decide that who will do the field work for collecting data. (Self/Employed worker). 4. Decide field area i.e. Homes, Offices,

5. Dealers, Retailers etc. 6. Decide what is to be collected, its format of recording. 7. Format of interview is generally, a questionnaire. Field workers are using questionnaire in most cases. 8. Assume here that the questionnaire is as per requirement of the study/research.

9. There should be a well planned schedule so that all field work is completed in an definite time. 10. Decide cross check of the data collected to test the data so collected. 11. When data is to be collected from field under supervision of an Supervisor through research executives then,

The Supervisor should brief the field workers that how the data is to be collected. Briefing session is conducted where field workers are required to be recruited (on temporary basis) for field work. Mock interviews are conducted as a part of practice for collection of data in field. Questionnaires are filled by the field workers.

The time limit for collection of data in field should be taken care of ( 3 days, 7 days). If possible, a pilot study of a small sample should be performed, before starting regular field work. Pilot study may be for one/two days to know difficulties & clarifications on various points faced during field study.

ANALYSES PLAN AND EXPECTED OUTCOME: Analysis is based on the answers given to questions in Questionnaire. Analysis plan should be prepared well in advance. There are normally two very basic kinds of analyses in a Marketing Research study. These are :

1. Simple Tabulation 2. Cross Tabulation. 1.SIMPLE TABULATION : a) This involves counting the number of responses in each category for a question, and putting it in a frequency table form. b) This can be used to compute percentages, by dividing the number of responses by the sample size. c) Simple tabulation is done for each question

in the questionnaire. 2. CROSS TABULATION : Cross tabulation is done when counting simultaneously, answers to two or more different questions on a questionnaire. While doing cross tabulation, it is also necessary that the two questions (variables) that we are cross-tabulating must be related to or associated with each

Other. For instance, in the purchase of a Bathing Soap- Question may be as under: How frequently respondents buy a Bathing Soap ? (once/twice/thrice in month) Which fragrance of the soap is preferred? (Reply may be : Rose/Jasmine/Lavender/Sandle etc. etc. It is possible to compute cross tabulation data for any two questions on a Questionnaire.

BUDGET & COST ESTIMATION: There are three basic parameters for estimating cost: 1. Sample size.( small/big sample) 2. Geographical area and location of each respondents. 3. Who will do the field work.

If it is a industrial field work then Research Executive from Industry will conduct field work and it will be a costly affair. Whereas for consumer product or service studies, it is done by hiring temporary field workers, which is a less expensive compared to industrial field work. Travel cost, communication cost and daily wage is included in the cost of field work

along with Stationery cost. PRESENTATION, REPORT AND MARKETING ACTION: After the Tabulation and Analysis is completed, the next step is a presentation of the major findings to the sponsor of the study. This includes a presentation of all the major Tabulations

(frequency tables) and cross-tabulations in percentage (%) terms. It may also include a summary of major findings, and some recommendations. A formal report usually follows the presentation. This would normally contain the following: 1. Executive Summary 2. Table of contents

3. Introduction 4. Research objectives 5. Research methodology, - Sample design, - Field work plan and dates - Analysis/expected outcome plan - Questionnaire copy (as annexure)

6. Analysis, - Simple Tabulation - Cross Tabulation - Any special analysis (SWOT). 7. Findings 8. Limitations 9. Recommendations for action 10. Bibliography/List of references. =====

SOURCES OF SECONDARY DATA: Two sources : (i) Internal & (ii) External Internal source: within Firm Three major sources of External data are : 1. Census Data and other Govt. Publications 2. Non-Governmental Publications. 3. Commercial Information Syndicated services, Data bases (Reports of Industries).

General points for Researcher: (1). Researcher should design the data collection Project. (2). For Exploratory Research collection of Secondary Data (through survey) is essential. (3). How secondary data will be collected, should be mentioned in the detailed data collection scheme.

(4). The best design which serves the purpose/objective of research is selected. 1. Census Data & Govt. Publications: (a) Census data conducted every 10 years throughout the country- 2001 and 2011 are latest two Census (size of population, Age, Sex, occupation, Income etc. are given in it). -Source: Registrar General of India.

(b) Statistical Abstract India - Annually. Source: Central Statistical Organization (CSO) Indian Economy. (c) Annual Survey of selected Industries Source: CSO Number of Units. (d) Monthly Survey of selected Industries. Source: CSO. (e) Foreign Trade of India Monthly Statistics. Source: Director General of Coml. Intelligence

(f) Wholesale Price Index- weekly All India Consumer Price Index: Source: Ministry of Commerce and Industry (Food Articles). (g) Economic Survey Annual Publication Source: Deptt. Of Eco. Affairs, Mini. Of Finance. (Growth in various sectors). (h) National Sample Survey (NSS) : Source: Min. of Planning (Social, Eco. Agr.etc).

Other Important Govt. Publications:

1. Basic Statistics Relating to Indian Economy (By Planning Commission). 2. India Pocketbook of Economic Information (By Ministry of Finance). 3. Agricultural Situation in India (By the Ministry of Food & Agriculture). 4. Reserve Bank of India Bulletin (By RBI) 5. Reports by all the Ministries for their relevant Sector/Areas.

SECONDARY DATA- NON-GOVERNMENTAL PUBLICAGTIONS: 1. Company Working results- Stock Exchange Directory. Source: Bombay Stock Exchange 2. Status Reports by various Commodity Boards: Source: The Commodity Board of the Industry Association like Jute,/Cotton,/Sugar/ Boards etc.

3. Industry Association on problems faced by Private Sector etc. Source: FICCI, ASSOCHAM, AIMA 4. Export Related data- Commodity wise. Source: Leather Exports Promotion Council, Apparel Export Promotion , , Council, Handicrafts/Tea/Spices,etc. Exim Bank etc.

5. Crop Survey Annual Reports. Source: ORG (Operations Research Group). TWO BASIC METHODS OF COLLECTION OF DATA: 1. Observation Method. 2. Questionnaire Method (or Survey method or Interview method).

In observation method, the Respondent is simply observed and his actions are recorded either by physically watching him or through certain mechanical or Electronic device (Video Camera). QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD:- In this method, Respondent is questioned directly about his attitudes, opinions and demographics (Income,Age).

Advantages & Disadvantages of Data Collection method:

1. Questionnaire Method: (A) Advantages: `(i) All types of Res. Problems can be addressed. (ii) It records not only factual data but also records attitude and opinion. (iii) Less time consuming.

(iv) Less expensive than observation method. (v) It is very structured so chances of incorrect recording is less. (vi) A large number of respondents can be contacted from all over the country at the same time.

(B) Disadvantages: (i) Respondents have reached to a level of saturation. (ii) Respondents might not respond with the actual feelings or facts. (iii) Respondents may refuse to answer to certain questions. (iv) His responses may be biased.

Observation method: Advantages:

(i) The respondent is observed directly so that no chances of bias. (ii) Willingness of the respondent is not a problem because we can observe it. (iii) Social research studies are using observation as the first step to understand the behaviour of people (Rural, Urban etc.) (iv) Studies involving plants, Animals, or

Small Babies would have to opt for the observation method (more suitable). Disadvantages: (i) Action of the respondent do not provide any reasons for his behaviour or his attitudes and opinion. (ii) It is expensive and time consuming to set up and undertake observation studies.

(iii) The data collected is completely dependent on skills of the observer and the manner in which he records and interprets them. (iv) The studies are not very reliable or valid since the same results might not hold true for different observations or two similar respondents.

(v) Very few respondents can be contacted owing to time constraints.

Model MCQs
1. The main purpose of research is : (a) Expansion of Knowledge (b) To solve any practical problem (c) To suggest & provide alternative solutions (d) To provide final answers scientifically to solve problem.

2. Communication between the Manager and the researcher is : (a) Applied Research (b) Basic Research (c) Research Process. (d) Marketing Research

3. Research is understood as :
(a) (b) (c) (d) Collection of data Systematic Collection of information. Identifying a problem Gathering information

4. As a researcher, identifying the characteristic features of scientific method: (a) Direct observation of phenomena (b) Clearly define variables & method (c) Self-correction process ( d) All of the above

5. In a research process, scientific inquiry is based on : (a) Thinking ( b) Reasoning (c) Research (d) None of the above.

6. What are the two major characteristics of the Scientific method : (a) Validity (b) Reliability (c ) a &b above (d) None of the above

7. Which research aims at enlarging the boundaries of knowledge : (a) Applied Research (b) Basic Research. (c) Decisional Research (d) None of the above

8. If a research is designed to obtained a preliminary investigation, it is known as : (a) Applied Research (b) Exploratory Research. (c) Conclusive Research (d) None of the above

9. Which statement is submitted to the client before a project : (a) (b) ( c) (d) Research Design Research objectives Research Proposals. None of the above

10. The basic requirement in a Research Process is : (a) Identifying the Problem (b) Design the objectives (c) Communicate the research Objectives (d ) All the above

11. If a researcher wants to conduct a field survey, which approach should he follow: .(a) Sample Survey (b) Census Survey (c) Population (d) All the above

12. The Survey Researcher is concerned with :(a) (b) (c) (d) Sampling Questionnaire Design Questionnaire Administration All the above.

13. Survey Research means: (a) A method of collecting primary data for marketing decisions. (b) A method of collecting secondary data for marketing decisions. (c) A method of collecting information about a problem. (d) None of the above.

14. The sequence of the questionnaire depends on the following : (a) Method of Research (b) Objectives of Research. (c) Sample size (d) (a) & (b) above

15. A Questionnaire generally contains: (a) (b) (c) (d) Structured Questions Un-structured Questions Combination of both (a) & (b) All of the above.

16. The first step in the Marketing Research is : (a) .(b) (c) (d) Research Objective Problem Definition Collecting information Exploratory Research

17. The end product of an Exploratory Research is :- (a) (b) . (c) (d) Research Objectives More information A set of Hypothesis More confusion

18. The least expensive type of research is :- (a) (b) (c) (d) Survey of Secondary Data. Case-study Method Statistical Method Experimentation

19. If the value of information is found to be positive: ( a) The Researcher should go ahead with the research. (b) Stop the Research (c) Conduct an Exploratory Research (d) None of the above

20. The research type which has the lowest interviewer bias is : (a) (b) (c) (d) Case-Study Focus Group Survey of Secondary Data Statistical Method.

21. When a relatively small number of respondents is to be contacted in the urban area in upper-income socioeconomic classes, the best mode for communication is : (a) Personal Survey (b) Mail Survey (c) Telephone Survey, (d) All the above

22. When the questions require a prompt, spontaneous response from the respondent, the best method available is : (a) Structured- non-disguised mail method (b) Structured- non-disguised Personal method (c) Structured- non-disguised Telephone method, (d) None of the above

23. The sampling method which is the least time and cost consuming out of those indicated below is : (a) Cluster Sampling (b) Area Sampling (c) Systematic Sampling (d) Quota Sampling.

24. A sampling unit is necessarily a part of : .(a) The sampling frame (b) The Population (c) The sample (d) The Target Market

25. Simple Random Sampling should always yield more precise estimates than Cluster Sampling in Consumer Research studies. This statement is : (a) Always True .(b) False (c) Partly True (d) Cant say =======

Questionnaire Design:
1. When objectives of a marketing research study are well defined, then designing a questionnaire becomes easy. 2. Decide about the language to be used, it may be Hindi, English or any other local language. 3. Simple words should be used so that respondent can understand easily and reply properly. Keep the language simple.

4. Include only necessary questions in the questionnaire, and avoid unnecessary ones. 5. The golden rule is to keep questions as short as possible. 6. The ideal maximum interview time should be around 20 minutes per interview.

7. Before starting the interview, the researcher must introduce himself and the subject of the research and the agency or institution he/she represents. 8. The questionnaire must be easy to understand, easy to fill, and must fulfill its purpose. 9. Questions must appear in a sequence keeping introductory questions first.

10. Questions such as age, income, occupation, education and similar demographic questions should appear at the end of a questionnaire. 11. Questions should follow a logical sequence. 12. Questions may be Open-ended and Closed-ended.

13. Questions which permit any answer from the respondent in his own words are called Open-ended questions. Space is given to answer ___________________ 14. Questions which structure the possible answers beforehand are known as closed-ended questions. (Options are given and respondent has to give answer from given options only).

Example: (Open-ended): What do you like about Surf Detergent? ________________________________. Example: (Closed-ended):or Multiple Choice Question. What do you like about Surf Detergent? (a) It cleans cloths (b) It dissolves easily. (c) Its price. (d) Its stain-removing ability.

TYPES OF QUESTIONS USED IN QUESTIONNAIRE: 1. Open-ended 2. Dichotomous (two choices Yes/No, True/False; Like/Dont Like etc. 3. Multiple Choice (>2 choice is available) 4. Ratings or Rankings (1,2,3,4,& so on) or Priority.

Multiple-Choice Questions: MCQs are extensions of dichotomous questions, except that the alternatives listed number are more than two. Dichotomous Questions: (two choices): These are questions which ask the respondent to choose between two given alternatives. Most common example of this is the Yes or No type of questions.

Example: Are you a user of Lux Brand toilet soap? Yes, or No are the alternatives given. Open-ended Question: This is one which leaves it to the respondent to answer it as he chooses. The answer can be in the respondents own words.

Example of MCQ: Please tick against the factors which made you buy this brand of a Car: (a) Reasonable price (b) Good appearance (c) Fuel Economy (d) Easy availability of service (e) Any other, please specify._________

General guidelines for preparation of a Questionnaire: 1. The Respondent must understand the meaning of Question. 2. The language used in questionnaire must be simple to be understood by common man or house-wife or least educated person to answer. 3. Difficult words should be avoided.

4. A questionnaire must be easy to code. 5. A questionnaire should not be two long to answer in terms of time. 6. A questionnaire, if possible, should be interesting, and should serve its purpose. 7. Questions can be scaled on one of the four scales: (i) Nominal (name) (ii) Ordinal(1st ,20th etc) (iii) Interval ( time- space between two) (iv) Ratio (number of times 1:2 or 1:4) Depending on the nature of the variables.

For Example: Age can be measured in years or in categories of years as under: 5 to 10 years. 10 to 15 years 15 to 20 years and so on. 8. Question can be either closed-ended or open-ended. These are also known as Structured and Un-structured questions.

Quantitative studies normally use Structured or closed-ended questions, where all responses fall into pre-determined categories. For example: Income of respondents may be :(a) Rs. 10,000 to 15,000 p.m. (b) Rs. 15,000 to 20,000 p.m. (c) Rs. 20,000 to 25,000 p.m. (d) Rs. 25,000 to 35,000 p.m. (e) Rs. 35,000 and above p.m.

9. Questions can also be either direct or disguised (with concealment). Questions may be in Dichotomous (divided in to two parts) i.e. YES/NO. Or Multiple choice (polytomous) questions may also be there which are nothing but further extension of dichotomous questions.

10.There may be ranking type questions or Rating type :
Rank -1 or Grade A Rank -2 or Grade B Rank -3 or Grade C Rank -4 or Grade D In Marketing Research ranking on Brands or Product choice is taken from respondents.

11.Reliability and Validity are two tests of a good Questionnaire. 12.Designing a Questionnaire is an Art. Help of common sense should be taken up by researcher. 13.Practice with designing questionnaires is the best way to perfect the art. *******


1. Concept of Sampling & Meaning 2. Population and sampling 3. Sampling frame 4. Sampling Unit (the respondent we want to meet may be a family or an Individual. 5. Methods of Sampling Two Types: Probability Sampling and Non-Probability.

A Sample out of population is a predefined set of potential respondents in a geographical area. The most common sampling element in Marketing Research is Human Respondent who could be : - Consumer, - A potential Consumer, - A Dealer or Retailer - A person exposed to an advertisement.

Other sampling may be from : -Companies, or - Families, or - Households, or - Retail-Stores and so on. 2. POPULATION : Population means not the entire population of a given geographical area. But it is a set of potential respondents in a geographical area.

For Example : (a) All mothers who buy branded BABYFOOD in a given area ( say in a district or a city area). (b) All teenagers who watch MTV in the country. (c) All adult males who use the Shaving Cream PALMOLIVE.

(d) All College going students who use LAPTOPS. 3. SAMPLING FRAME:
Sampling frame means a subset of the defined target population, from which we can select a sample for our research. Example: Use of Telephone Directory of Jaipur to be used as Adult Residents of Jaipur

A sampling frame is usually a practical listing of the population, or a definition of the persons or areas which can be used for the sampling exercise. In Jaipur- Persons can be Doctors, Engineers, Advocates, Professors, Govt. Employees etc. Areas may be -- C-Scheme, Bani-Park, Raja- Park, Bapu Nagar etc.

In Marketing Research, there is a multi-stage selection of sample unit. Ist Stage Select Area - Bani Park IInd Stage Specific block- Near Collectorate IIIrd Stage may select -Names of Apartm. Apartments- Street/Lane H.No. IVth Stage Reach to Indvi. Respondent (Other Example: SHG-Bank Linkage)

SAMPLE SIZE CALCULATION : Question : What should be the size of sample in Research Studies ? Ans.: Sample size determination is based on or will depend on following: (a) a blend of using different formulae, (say 5% of population) (b) experience of similar studies, (how others have taken sample)

(c) Time & Budget constraints, (d) Few other elements Number of segments of the Target Population or Number of centers of study. (e) Analysis Requirement.

5. METHODS OF SAMPLING: There are two Methods of sampling :- (a) Probability Sampling (b) Non-Probability Sampling. (a) Probability Sampling:- In probable sampling technique each sampling unit (household or individual) has a known probability of being included in the sample.

Probability of inclusion in sample sometimes it is equal and sometime it is unequal. Probable samples are unbiased. The major types of probability sampling techniques are as under : 1. Simple Random Sampling. 2. Stratified random sampling 3. Cluster sampling 4. Systematic sampling 5. Multistage or Combination sampling.

(b) Non-probability sampling Techniques: (1) Quota Sampling ( a fixed number) (2) Judgment sampling (3) Convenience Sampling (4) Snowball Sampling. Now, we will discuss these sampling techniques in detail one by one as under:


When we select randomly the required number of sample of unit out of a total number of units, it is termed as simple random sample. (any 5 students in class) For example : the average income level of 100 employees of a Company can be known by writing number 1 to 100 on a slip of paper and their income is written on it by them.Then, if we need a quick estimate

then we have to decide with a sample of any 5/10 slips of paper out of 100 (after mixing them by shuffling) and use these employees as our sample for knowing their average income. It is known as simple random sampling. For the same information if we interview all the 100 employees, and collect the information then it will take

more time. Simple Random sample is more useful where exact number of respondents are not known and we require certain sample. 2. STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING: In this technique, the total target population is divided into Strata or Segments on the basis of some important variables (Variables may be Age, Income, education level Science, Commerce, Arts, Engineering etc.).

For Example: a consumer population may be divided into Age brackets of below 25 years, 25 to 40 years and above 40 years. Then, a sample is taken from each of the segment defined (3 segments). Then as per need sample can be taken from each segment. This type of sampling is known as Stratified Random Sampling.

Example:2: Total population of a Block or Area is 50,000. Block or Area is divided into 10 segments. 5% sample is decided to be taken by the Researcher. Total sample would be 2,500. Thus, 250 sample from each segment (10) will be taken. We can take proportionate sample also based on population of the Block or Area.

Most of the population do not fall into extreme zones, and generally Stratified Sampling is the most efficient method of probabilistic sampling, if it is feasible. 3. CLUSTER SAMPLING/AREA SAMPLING: In Cluster Sampling a group of objects/Units for sampling is selected.

A Cluster is a group of sampling units or elements, which can be identified, listed, and a sample of which can be chosen. (Example: Selection of MBA students from different MBA/PGDM Institutions in Jaipur) Cluster represents -(i) Geographical Areas,( say a village/Block/Town/District etc.) -(ii) Membership of some Group: CA, CS Members of Lions Club etc. -(iii) Members of Church

(iv) Members of Sports Club. (v) Members of some Social Organization e.g. Agrawal Samaj/Jain Samaj etc. (vi) MP/MLA etc. Marketing Researchers use cluster of Households, located in a city or block or colony or any specified area. When the Clusters are selected on the basis of Geographical area, it is also called Area Sampling. You can define the area.

In Cluster Sampling the Researcher should: (i) Prepare a list of all available clusters (ii) All Clusters should be numbered as 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12, and so on. (iii) A sample of clusters (number to be decided by Researcher) should be randomly drawn say- 2,4,6,8,10,12 etc. or 1,3,5,7,9,11 etc.

(iv) All sampling units/elements such as Household in the selected clusters should be chosen to be a part of the sample. Advantage of Cluster Sampling: It is usually low cost oriented; It is convenient to Researcher; Disadvantage:- Members of cluster tend to be similar same socio-economic background, similar tastes, and buying behaviour.

Systematic Sampling is just like simple random sampling. Here we decide sample size. We divide the total population into parts. Example of IRM: IRM, Jaipur have 360 students in the Institute. For research purpose, we need a sample of 20 students out of 360.

The sampling fraction is 360/20 which means 1 out of every18 students will be selected on an average basis. We divide the list of 360 into 18 parts. Out of the first 18 students we choose any one at random. Let us say, we choose student Number 9 (all students are listed from No.1 to 360).

We choose student numbers 9 + 18 then 9 + 18 + 18 and so on in a systematic sampling plan. Thereafter the selected students will be numbered as 9,27,45,63,81,99,117,135,153,171,189, 207, 225,243, 261, 279, 297, 315 ,333, and 351 (total 20 students).

All these 20 students will be sample for the study which is known as systematic sampling. 5. MULTI-STAGE OR COMBINATION SAMPLING: (a) In this type of Sampling combination of any two or more than two sampling methods is used, e.g. Combination of Cluster sampling and Stratified random

(segment) sampling. (b) We have combined TWO or more different methods of probability sampling. (c) This type of sampling is used when it is done at National Level Research. In such a research, we may divide India into 5 Metro Clusters, then 20 Class A towns/Cities, and then 200 Class B towns/Cities.

At Ist Stage: 5 Metro Clusters 20 Class A Towns/Cities 200 Class B Towns/Cities At 2nd Stage: (Out of Ist stage) 1 Metro Cluster 3 Class A Towns/Cities 10 Class B Towns/Cities

In 2nd Stage we may have sample plan as Stratified/Segment Sampling. In 3rd Stage we may decide about Household Income or Age of Respondents where the cluster sampling can be used by the researcher. Thus, at different stages, we may use different sampling methods to complete the Research work.


Question : When we use Non-probability Sampling Technique/Method? Answer: When it is not feasible to use probability based methods, researcher may use Non-probability methods. For approximate sampling sometimes Researcher use the Non-probability Sampling methods, and these are as under :-

1. Quota Sampling :- Quota sampling is just like Segment sampling. As per the judgment and Researcher the sample is taken in quota sampling method. 2. Judgment Sampling:- The Researcher choose the sample as per his choice and judgment. Thus, biasness of Researcher is there.

3. Convenience Sampling:- This type of sampling is taken by Researcher as per his convenience. Example: TV Reporters take sample interview in the market which is convenient to him. Whosoever meets the TV reporter, he takes interview and record the matter. Proper identification or selection is not done in this method.

4. Snowball Sampling :- One respondent is selected to generate names of others is called snowballing. In this type of sampling the respondents are having net-working and they all know each other. This type of sampling is done where population is small and are selective. For Example : 1. Golf-players. 2. Pilots of Airlines

3. Owners of Honda City Car. 4. Owners of Mercedeze Benz Car. ERRORS IN MARKETING RESEARCH: Two Types of Errors may be there: (i) Sampling Error: Such error is done by the Researcher. It is controllable. (ii) Non-sampling Error:- Error done by Interviewer, or data entry operator or the Researcher himself.

Examples of such Errors: (1) Interchange of column Yes or No. (2) Not filling data in field. (3) Cheating by Interviewer (data filled without taking interview of the respondents. =======


MAJOR CHALLENGES/ DIFFICULTIES IN RURAL MARKETING RESEARCH ARE AS UNDER: 1. High distribution cost (mgt. cost is high) 2. Cost per contact is more in Rural area 3. Communication problem exists 4. Limited knowledge of Rural Market 5. Difficulty to understand the Psychology

of the Rural Consumer. 6. Lack of Commitment & Competence in Distributors and Retailers along with Rural Consumers. 7. Lack of proper Budgetory allocations for Rural Marketing Research. 8. Sale of Spurious (not genuine/original) i.e. Duplicate products which is a big challenge in Rural Market-Colgate/Lifebuoy/Rin/Ponds

But great opportunities are there: (i) There exists a big market in Rural Area (ii) Opportunities are increasing in Rural market every year. (iii) Serious efforts are needed to capture this market, through Strategic Marketing Research.

(iv) Potential in Rural Market is because of (a) Rising Rural prosperity (per capita income is increasing). (b) Increasing Rural consumption and (c) Lesser dependence on Agriculture and Monsoon.( due to other activities (d) Marketing efforts by different Orgns.

Question: What are various sources for Rural Market Research ? Answer : Rural database is available with following institutions for Rural Market Study/Research: 1. NCAER : National Council of Applied Economic Research. 2. NSS : National Sample Survey.

3. CMIE : Center for Monitoring Indian Economy. 4. IMRB : Indian Market Research Bureau. 5. IRMA : Institute of Rural Management, Anand (since 1980). 6. HTA : Hindustan Thompson Associates (since1972).

7. MART : 8. HLL : 9. RC&M :

Marketing And Research Team, Delhi Hindustan Lever Limited. Rural Communication and Marketing, New Delhi.


Basic difference in Rural & Urban Research: 1. Area in Rural is large and heterogeneous (different kinds), hence data collection is difficult task and time consuming. 2. Rural areas are highly under-researched, and conducting research in rural area is not a easy task. It is too expensive also. 3. The manner in which data is collected from the rural areas are quite different from the ones that are required for Urban markets.

4. Thus, for collection of data in Rural area, different activities have to be undertaken by the Research Company. 5. Extensive efforts are required in Rural areas research, as compared to Urban. EVOLUTION OF RURAL MARKETING RESEARCH: Phase 1 Prior to 1980s Phase 2 -- The Decade 1980- 1990

Phase - 3. The Decade 1990-2000 Phase - 4. The years since 2000 to date Phase I First of all Rural market was studied by Hindustan Thompson Associate (HTA) who developed the Thompson Rural Market Index in 1972. Market potential available in each district was studied by HTA. Potential available was based on the needs of people and

Needs in Agriculture Sector. Needs Agril. Inputs - Durable goods

FMCG Companies planned to penetrate deep into the Rural Markets. They started going from District level to individual village level.

Phase II & III (1980 to 1990 & to 2000): IRMA (Institute of Rural Management, Anand) initiated a course in Rural Marketing in 1980. The course included Marketing of Urban Consumer products & services to Rural India. Rural exposure to students through Survey in Village for a specific product/Services was started. Field visits

were made by students. Case Studies were developed on Rural Consumers. HINDUSTAN LEVER started focusing on the growing rural market in India in 1983. At that time it was found that vastuntapped opportunities are available in Rural Market. HLL and COLGATE PALMOLIVE were in Rural Market and they were

Imparting Training to their staff for Rural Marketing i.e. how to tap Rural Market. The gist of Rural Marketing Research during 1980 to 1990 and up to 2000 was as under: 1. Educational Programmes on Rural Marketing were only available at IRMA. 2. Training materials developed at IRMA

included simulation (resembling) exercises on marketing of consumer products to Rural India. 3. A series of Articles were written & published in newspapers & Magazines by IRMA students who joined Marketing Companies. Mr. Mukunda Das, Somnath Sen, Sanjay Chandwani wrote articles on Rural Consumers, Rural Distribution & Rural Mkg. Stratgies and

published articles in the Newspapers. 4. IRMA Alumni initiated Trg. Prog. For Companies targeting the Rural Markets. 5. Several Institutions, including NGOs initiated Pilot Projects on going-rural with their products. 6. Tapping the opportunities in Rural Markets increased with faster shift of channels of communication in Rural India.

Consumer products were: 1. Electric Fan/Air cooler 2. Washing Machines 3. Pressure Cooker/Pan 4. Fridge, Television, Tap Recorder etc. 5. Motor Cycle/Scooter/ Moped/Motor Car 6. Other Consumer goods.

Phase IV :The year since 2000 to date Training in Rural Marketing was felt in 21st Century at Corporate Level. Great need of Marketing Professionals was also felt at all levels. International Companies were reaching in Urban India. FMCG Companies felt to move to RURAL INDIA to sell their product first.

Rural Marketing Information System was developed and HRD for Rural Marketing was realized by the Corporate world. Under Marketing Research the Consumer Behaviour is important. HLL is the leading player in the field of Market Research in India, including Rural Market Research.

Example of LIFEBUOY Soap is there. Marketing Research changed the contents in soap product along with its colour, size and shape to launch the product in Urban and Rural Area. SOURCES & METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION (About Rural Markets): 1. Primary Data through Survey, questionnaire, Group Discussions &

experimenting etc. is done. 2. Secondary Data: Published data of Govt. Organizations, Research Bodies or Institutions, Research Consultancy Organizations is used, for Rural Market Research. Data Collection Approaches in Rural Areas: For data collection, a Researcher has

To : - Make clear the Rural people about concept of Market Research. - Rural people have sufficient time. - Remove their hesitation to reply to questions of Researcher/Survey person. - Make them clear the objective & purpose of Research (to get good response).

- Develop the rapport with Rural people. - Researcher should take help of local people who are leaders or known persons. For collection of data from the Rural Areas, the Researcher can employee the following approaches : (a) Ensure the support of opinion Leaders: (i) Sarpanch, (ii) School Teacher,

(iii) Educated Farmers (iv) Respected Elderly person First the researcher should convince/educate these opinion leaders about the benefits of Research. Then these leaders will convince local rural people to respond to the Researcher.

(b) Behave in the manner the Rural people like you: The Researcher/Investigator should dress, speak, act and behave in a manner that is liked by the Rural people. For example: - Greet with folded hands Namaskar - Try to speak in Hindi or local dailect. - Dress-up in simple way.

- Have rural feelings (manners of rural people). - Do not hurt any one, they are sensitive (c) Be at the Right Place (Location). Researcher should collect data from such places where rural people likely to visit in a good number, so that data collection can be done with efficiently.

These places could be as under:(i) The Village Choupal (people use to come to Choupal) (ii) Retail outlets (Retailer can influence the people & ask them to respond to Researcher. (iii) Fairs/Melas (iv) Haats : A large number of people

visit the Haats. Researcher can have good number of respondents at a single location.

Section - V: Interpretation and Report Writing

Coverage in this section will be as under: Meaning of Interpretation Importance of Report Writing Salient features of good Report Writing Precautions for writing Research Reports Limitations of Research Methods.

1. Meaning of Interpretation: Interpretation means explanation or finding out the meaning. When data are analyzed, they shows some inferences or conclusions. Explanation on conclusions is interpretation of data. Thus, after analyzing the data whatever conclusions are received are matter of interpretation.

Conclusions from the analysis of data is the result or outcome of Interpretation. Ultimately, the conclusion gives the result of the research. Interpretation should be done with utmost care and high degree of skill. Before interpretation, the Researcher should ensure the following points:

1. Ensure that the data collected are reliable and adequate for drawing inferences (i.e. conclusions). 2. Ensure that sampling error is not there. Reasonable & sufficient size of sample has been taken). 3. Ensure that appropriate statistical methods have been used in analyzing data. (More than one method can be used)

4. Ensure that the Hypotheses and Methodology are correct. REPORT WRITING: Importance of Report Writing: A) Research work is incomplete till the report has been presented and written. B) The findings of research should be known to others, and it is only possible

when it is written. C) Writing of Report is the last step in research study. D) Writing research report requires a set of skills. This task should be done by the researcher himself with due care. E) Researcher, at the most may take help/assistance and guidance of Experts for the purpose.

Steps in Writing a Research Report: (a) Logical Analysis of the subject-matter. (Supportive matter) (b) Preparation of the final out-line (framework of chapter) all points to be covered. (c) Preparation of Rough-Draft of report. - Procedure adopted for collecting material. (Primary & Secondary data) -Limitations faced. (Time & Budget)

-Techniques of Analysis adopted. -Broad findings & generalizations -Various suggestions regarding problem concerned. (d) Re-writing and Polishing of the rough draft. -Do careful revision of the report - Check the weaknesses, if any - Check the mechanics of writing i.e. Grammar, spelling and usage etc.

(e) Preparation of the final Bibliography. -To be appended -List of Books, Periodicals referred. -Arrange bibliography alphabetically. For Books: - Name of the Author, last name first. - Title, underlined to indicate italics. - Place, Publisher and Date (year)

Number of Volumes. For Magazines/Journals: -Name of the Author, last name first. - Title of Article, in quotation marks ( ) - Name of periodical/Journal, (in Italics) - The Volume or volume and Number. - The date of the issue (month and year) - The Pagination (Page numbers)

(f) Writing the Final Draft of Report. It should be in simple language. LAY-OUT OF THE RESEARCH REPORT: Lay-out means what the research report should contain. General lay-out of a Research Report can have three parts:

(A) Preliminary Pages. (Head) (B) The Main Text, and (Body) (C) The End matter. (Tail) (A) Preliminary Pages: -A Title and date (year) - Acknowledgements in the form of Preface or Forward - Table of Contents (Chapterization)

List of Tables and illustrations. This is done for a Reader to locate easily the required information in the report. (B) Main Text (Body)- (i) Objectives of Research: Summary of other Research, Hypotheses of Study, Definitions of major concepts or terms, Methodology adopted, Basic sample design, Questionnaire, sample used and limitations etc.

(ii) Statement of findings and Recommendations: in summarized form. (iii) Results : Findings of the study in the shape of Tables, and Charts, several chapters can be there. (iv) Implications of the Results: Mention again the results of your research precisely and clearly.

What present study reveals -mention it. Conclusions drawn. Suggestions or new questions drawn/observed/raised in research. (v) Summary: Conclude the research report with brief summary, about Problem, methodology, major findings, major conclusions drawn from the research.

(C) END- MATTER: Appendices (enclosures) should be enlisted: - Questionnaires, - Sample information, - Mathematical Derivations, - Bibliography of Sources, and - Index.( words or terms & page No.)

PRECAUTIONS FOR WRITING REPORT:. A Research report communicates the Research findings to the readers of the report. Therefore, a good research report does this task efficiently and effectively. Thus, a Research Report must be prepared with some precautions.

Precautions are as under : 1. Length of Report:Report should be long enough to cover the subject but should be short enough to maintain interest. 2. Interesting for Readers: Report should not be dull, it should be interesting to readers.

3. Simple Language: Report should convey the matter in a simple way. It should be in simple language. Avoid using expressions such as it seems, there may be and the like. 4. Main findings: Report must provide ready availability of the findings. For this purpose, the Statistical Tables, Charts, Graphs may be

Used. Findings must be available in main report in addition to the Summary of important findings. 5. Layout:- Layout of the report should be in accordance with the objective of the research problem. 6. Grammatically correct:- The Report should be free from Grammatical mistakes. Use of quotations, footnotes,

Documentation, proper punctuation and use of abbreviations should be used in correct way. 7. Reflect original work:- Research report should show original work and be an attempt to solve the problem. 8. Appendices:- All appendices should be enlisted in respect of all the Technical data.

9. Bibliography: Bibliography of sources consulted is a must for a good report and must be given. 10. Index:Index must be prepared and appended at the end of the report. 11. Appearance: Report must be attractive in appearance, neat & clean typed/printed.

12. Introductory part: Objective of the study, the nature of the problem, the methods employed and the analysis techniques adopted must all be clearly stated in the beginning of the report in the form of Introduction. Report writing is an art which is learnt by practice and experience.


After the Tabulation and Analysis work is completed, the next step is usually a presentation of the major findings to the sponsor of the study. This includes a presentation of all the major Tabulations (frequency tables) and Cross-Tabulations in percentage terms. It may also include a Summary of major findings, and some recommendations.

A formal report usually follows the presentation. This should normally contain the following:Title page 1. Executive Summary. 2. Table of contents 3. Introduction 4. Research objectives

5. Research Methodology - Sample design -Field work plan and dates - Analysis/expected outcome plan - Questionnaire copy (as annexure) 6. Analysis - Simple Tabulation - Cross Tabulation

7. Findings of the Research 8. Limitations of the Research 9. Recommendations for action 10. Suggestions, if any 11. Bibliography/List of references