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SHOPPING MALLS

A Shopping Mall or simply Mall is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit, along with a parking area a modern, indoor version of the traditional marketplace.

Phoenix Market City, Mumbai

Mantri Square Mall, Bangalore

High Street Phoenix, Mumbai

Felix Square, Lucknow

Metro Junction Mall, Kalyan The Great India Place, Noida

Fashion/Specialty Centers Characterized as higher end, fashion oriented centers between 80,000 and 250,000 sq. ft.

Community Centers Characterized as having between 100,000 and 350,000 sq. ft. Usually two types of anchors, such as a discount department store or large specialty/discount apparel store. Lifestyle Centers A new designation that has a loose definition. Generally, it's a center that does not have an anchor tenant in the classic sense (that is, a department store). However, lifestyle centers increasingly have a cinema as a major tenant. Others have just a small collection of exclusive shops.

Outlet Centers

Characterized as manufacturers' outlet centers between 50,000 and 400,000 sq. ft. Regional Centers Characterized as having between 400,000 and 800,000 sq. ft. Usually two or more anchors, such as a conventional department store, junior department store, mass merchant, discount department store, or fashion apparel store. Superregional Centers Characterized as having over 800,000 sq. ft. Usually three or more anchors, such as a conventional department store, junior department store, mass merchant, or fashion apparel store. Theme/Festival Centers Theme or festival centers have distinct unifying themes that are followed by their individual shops as well as their architecture. They are usually located in urban areas and cater to tourists.

Availability

of Parking One-Stop Shopping and Entertainment Centre Lots of different events and offers Many types of stores within one location Merchandise assortments available within those stores Large trade area Inexpensive form of entertainment Customers dont have to worry about weather

Excessive

crowding Browsing leads to buying Attractive deals, offers and discounts in reality may not be true Traditional shops fail to withstand the tight competition and they run out of business Competition within shopping centers can be intense

A mall owner must maintain the premises as well as the approaches and entrances to the premises so as to keep it free from unreasonable dangers. The mall owner has a duty to keep visitors safe whether or not they buy anything at the mall. If he is negligent in his duty, and allows an unreasonably dangerous condition to exist at the mall, he is liable for injuries that result. For example, the mall owner is liable for defects in places where people walk that cause someone to slip and fall if he failed to warn people of the danger or repair it.

If

you are injured in a common area in the mall, or parking lot outside the mall, the shopping mall owner is usually liable for your injuries, unless the terms of a lease make store owners responsible for common areas near their store. If you are injured inside of a store, the store owner, not the mall, is most likely liable for your injuries.

In general, the owner of a mall has no duty to protect people from unanticipated CRIMINAL attacks that occur within the mall. However, if the criminal act can be reasonably anticipated, the mall may be liable. For example, there may be a history of crime in the mall. Note that it is not enough to just show that the mall is in a high crime area or that other crimes have happened in the general area. You must also show that the mall owner failed to exercise reasonable care in protecting you. For example, the owner may be liable if:
The security guards at the mall were negligent. There were not enough security guards at the mall. The lighting was inadequate in the parking lot.

The

mall may help you using the CCTV camera footage in case you have been robbed but the mall authorities cannot be liable to reimburse your stolen property if there is the notice put up which says No personal belongings should be left unattended

The

negligence of the mall owner must cause the injury and not some other unforeseen event. Also, the owner is only responsible for unreasonable risks. That means that the owner does not have to fix every possible dangerous condition. If the condition is so obvious that everyone should know to avoid it, then there is no liability. Furthermore, if the defect did not exist long enough for the owner to possibly discover it, there is no liability. Contributory negligence and assumption of risk may also limit recovery.

In general, the owner of a mall has no duty to protect people from unanticipated criminal attacks that occur within the mall. However, if the criminal act can be reasonably anticipated, the mall may be liable. For example, there may be a history of crime in the mall. Note that it is not enough to just show that the mall is in a high crime area or that other crimes have happened in the general area. You must also show that the mall owner failed to exercise reasonable care in protecting you. For example, the owner may be liable if:

The security guards at the mall were negligent. There were not enough security guards at the mall. The lighting was inadequate in the parking lot.

Security Patrol Provide ample uniformed security officers to patrol both the interior and exterior of the mall in well-marked, high-profile vehicles. The security staff either contract or in-house, may be augmented by off-duty sworn police officers. Escorts Provide escort service to both patrons and employees to their motor vehicles, particularly during late-night hours of darkness. Community Policing Substation In some communities, community policing substations have been located in shipping malls.

Exterior Lighting Provide adequate exterior lighting (3-5 footcandles) in all parking and exterior areas associated with the shopping mall. A reliable lighting inspection and replacement program should also be in place. Placement of Public Restrooms Unfortunately, shopping malls frequently place public restrooms at the end of long service corridors in less desirable space. Isolation makes mall restrooms possible sites for anything from robbery to sexual assault. Mall maintenance or housekeeping personnel should be instructed to be in the restrooms every 15-30 minutes,and keep log sheets showing the frequency of these visits. In addition, mall security officers should also visit the restrooms periodically. A CCTV camera may be installed to monitor the corridors leading to the public restrooms, especially if the corridors twist and turn. Convex mirrors at corridor intersections can help mall patrons see around corners before they get there.

Bicycle and Mounted Patrol For purposes of visibility and accessibility, some shopping malls have their security officers patrol the parking areas and grounds on bicycles. A small number even have horseback mounted security patrols. Rooftop Patrol Particularly during holiday shopping periods, when theft from motor vehicles tend to increase, shopping malls may station security or police officers on the building roof with binoculars. Shoplifting Awareness Training The shopping mall may provide or sponsor shoplifting awareness and prevention training for its tenants and their employees. Exercise Walkers Enclosed shopping malls often attract persons who want to walk within the confines of the mall for purpose of exercise. This practice should be encouraged, particularly during hours of least activity within the mall.

Use of CCTV Closed-circuit televisions cameras can be used to monitor parking areas and common areas. The Mall of America employs approximately 130 CCTV cameras monitored by two persons at all times. Emergency Phones or Call Boxes Shopping malls may provide highly visible emergency phones or call boxes located in parking areas and the mall itself. Volunteer Patrol A few shopping malls have developed volunteer citizen patrols to assist mall security or volunteer parents to work at the shopping malls on Friday and Saturday nights to interact with youth.

Wayfinding Signs Signs should be placed along shopping mall ring roads to assist patrons in locating parking that is closest to their destination.

If

due to False Claims or advertising you have been tricked the person liable to you is the shop-owner and not the mall owner. You may seek redressal against your grievances if you have a proper bill.

FATEMA DANYAL
SHAIVI BHAMARIA SHIVANI DEVPURA PRIYANKA KUMAR

MEGHNA DHANDHANIA