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# Chapter 3 Chemical formulae and Equations

Relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass The mole and the number of particles The mole and the mass of substances The mole and the volume of gas Chemical formulae Chemical equations

## Relative atomic mass, Ar

Relative atomic mass is the average

mass of one atom of the element when compared with 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.

## Calculation of Relative atomic Mass

Example 1
Calculate how many times greater is the mass of a carbon atom compared to that of an helium atom ? [Ar : He, 4 ; C, 12]

## Calculation of Relative atomic Mass

Example 2
Mass of a sulphur atom is 2 times greater than that of the mass of an oxygen atom. What is the relative atomic mass for sulphur? [ AR : O,16] Solution: Mass of a sulphur atom = 2 x mass of an oxygen atom AR sulphur = 2 x AR oxygen = 2 x 16 = 32

## Calculation of Relative atomic Mass

Example 3
How many magnesium atoms will have the same mass as two silver atom? [AR : Mg,24 ; Ag,108 ] Solution: Let the number of magnesium atom = n Mass of n magnesium atom = mass of 2 silver atoms n x 24 = 2 x 108 n = 2 x 108 24 =9

## Relative Molecular Mass (Mr )

The relative molecular mass of a substance is the average mass of a molecule of the substance when compared with 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12

Mr

## average mass of one molecule of substance 1 the mass of an atom of carbon 12 12

Calculation of Mr and Fr
The term relative molecular mass, Mr can only be used for substances that are made up of molecules. For ionic compound, the term relative formula mass, Fr is used
Mr or Fr can be calculated by adding up the relative atomic masses of all the atoms present in a molecule of the substance.

Calculation of Mr or Fr
Example 1: Calculate the molecular mass of water. [ AR : H,1 ; O, 16]
Solution: The formula of water is H2O Mr H2O = 2H + O = 2(1) + 16 = 18

Calculation of Mr or Fr
Example 2: Calculate the relative molecular mass of ammonia. [ AR: N,14 ; H,1 ] Solution: Formula of ammonia is NH3 Mr of NH3 = N + 3H = 14 + 3(1) = 17

Calculation of Mr or Fr
Example 3: Calculate the relative molecular mass of carbon dioxide. [AR : C, 12 ; O,16 ]
Solution: The formula of carbon dioxide is CO2 Mr CO2 = C + 2O = 12 + 2(16) = 44

Calculation of Mr or Fr
Example 4: Calculate the relative molecular mass of ethanol, C2H5OH. [ AR: C, 12; H, 1; O,16 ]
Solution: Mr of C2H5OH = 2C + 5H + O + H = 2(12) + 5(1) + 16 + 1 = 46

Calculation of Mr or Fr
Example 5: Calculate the relative molecular mass of sodium chloride

[ AR : Na,23 ; Cl,35.5 ]
Solution: The formula of sodium chloride is NaCl AR of NaCl = Na + Cl = 23 + 35.5 = 58.5

Calculation of Mr or Fr
Example 6 Calculate the relative molecular mass of aluminium sulphate. [ AR : Al,27 ; S, 32 ; O,16 ]
Solution: The formula of aluminium sulphate ialah Al2(SO4)3 Mr of Al2(SO4)3 = 2 Al + 3 SO4 = 2(27) + 3[ 32 + 4(16) ] = 342

Calculation of Mr or Fr
Example 7: Calculate the relative molecular mass of hydrated copper(II)sulphate. [ AR : Cu,64 ; S, 32 ; O,16 ] Solution: The formula of hydrated copper (II) sulphate is CuSO4.5H2O
Fr of CuSO4. 5H2O = Cu + S + 4O + 5H2O = 64 + 32 + 4(16) + 5[2(1) +16] = 250