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Learning Intentions

Recall the relative position of Earth in the vastness of space Recognise the scale and components of the solar system, galaxy and Universe Explain the changes in day length, season and elevation of the Sun with regards to the position and tilt of the Earth

What is a Light Year?


Speed of Light = 300,000,000 m/s One year in seconds =

Speed = distance / time


Distance =

s t

What is your exact address?


House Number Street Name Town County Country Continent Hemisphere Planet Solar System Milky Way Galaxy Universe

Solar systems, galaxies and the Universe


(Basically, everything in the universe orbits around something else)

OUR SUN is one of millions of stars that orbit the centre of

THE UNIVERSE

THE MILKY WAY, which is one of a billion galaxies that orbit AND move away from the centre of

Our Solar System


The Solar System is made up of - Eight Planets - Moons orbiting planets - A large band of asteroids - Comets - The Sun (a star)

Our Solar System


The set up of the Solar System is described as Heliocentric. This model has the Sun at the centre of the system with the Planets moving around in a circle or orbit around the Sun. Only the Sun emits its own light, the other planet are visible because they reflect the light from the Sun.

Heliocentric Model

The Order of the Planets


Saturn
Earth Mercury Venus Mars Pluto

Jupiter
Neptune Uranus

The Earth & Beyond

Day & Night

Anti-clockwise

The Earth spins on its axis once every 24 hours.

SUNLIGHT

The Earth & Beyond : Day & Night


It is 04:00 in London
Casablanca Philippines Antanarivo Pretoria
Place Casablanca Pretoria Antanarivo Philippines GMT +1 +2 +3 +8 Time

Learning Intentions
Explain the changes in day length,

season and elevation of the Sun with regards to the position and tilt of the Earth Recall that stars are powered by nuclear fusion processes

The Earth & Beyond : The Seasons (The Northern Hemisphere)


Tilted away from the SunSun is low in the sky Long nights Day and night the same length Tilted towards the Sun- Sun is high in the sky Long days

When it is Summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is Winter in the Southern Hemisphere

Day and night the same length

Sunlight rays are slanted across the land

Sunlight rays are almost directly on the land

Why do countries close the equator not experience much change in climate from season to season?

The Earths surface gains most heat when the Sun is above the horizon for the most hours, and when it reaches the highest angle in the sky.

This happens around JUNE 21ST in the Northern hemisphere and DECEMEBER 21ST in the Southern hemisphere. This midsummer day is called the SUMMER SOLSTICE.

The WINTER SOLSTICE is when the Sun is at its lowest angle above the horizon and stays above the horizon for the fewest hours. Between the solstices there are two EQUINOX when the day length is equal to the night length.

Choose the correct words from the box below to complete the diagram-

June 21st March 21st and September 21st December 21st

Northern Hemisphere

EastSunrise

West- Sunset

December East

21st

September 21st Sunset Northern West June 21st

March

21st

Sunrise

The Sun in all its shining glory!


Click on the link below to find out how the Sun does what it does best... shine

http://www.suntrek.org/solar-surface-below/solar-energychain/called-fusion.shtml

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Nuclear Fusion
The centre of the Sun is extremely hot (around 15 million degrees) and very dense. It is so hot that the atoms lose their electrons becoming bare nuclei. Usually, in cooler conditions nuclei would not get close enough to fuse, or join (electric forces push them apart), but with temperatures that are incredibly high, the nuclei can bang into one another so hard that they can actually fuse together and release enormous of energy. It is possible for two hydrogen nuclei to join together to form a new nucleus containing 2 protons and 2 neutrons, a helium nucleus. Hydrogen converted to Helium In this process a little bit of mass is lost and reappears as a lot of energy (E = mc2).

Learning Intentions
Understand what affects the force of gravity within the universe Describe the model for the formation of the solar system. Describe the Big Bang and Steady State model for the formation of the universe

Gravity and Newton


Newton first came up with the idea that the force which caused an apple to fall always down from its tree was in fact the same force that keep all the planets in orbit around the Sun - gravity.

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- The attraction between two masses Name some objects which experience gravity!
The Earth The Moon The Sun The bigger an objects mass, the greater the effect of gravity The closer an object is to another object, the greater the effect of gravity

Which of these has the most gravity?

The bigger an objects mass, the greater the effect of gravity


The Moon walkastronauts wore heavy boots because the effect of gravity is less on the Moon. The Moon is 1/80th the mass of the Earth and has a gravitational pull of 1/6th of the Earth

The closer an object is to another object, the greater the effect of gravity

As the comet comes closer to the Sun its speed increases - a greater force must be acting to cause it to accelerate faster.

The Halley comet


Edmond Halley (1656-1742),

The Nucleus of the comet

The moon and the Sun cause the sea to have tides. This is because of the gravitational attraction between the Sun, moon and water in the sea. The moon has the biggest effect, as it is closer to the Earth.

Gravity
Mars

Anything that moves with circular motion requires a centripetal force to keep it accelerating. The force acts to the centre of the circular motion The force of gravity is the centripetal force between two large masses eg. The Earth and the Sun The larger the mass, the larger the force of gravity and the further the masses move apart, the smaller the force of gravity

Sun

Earth

Mars

Less gravity

Sun

Force of gravity

Earth

The formation of the Solar system


Pg 192

Orion Nebula

Collapsing Clouds of Gas and Dust Nebula

Gas and Dust is disturbed by cosmic movement (possibly the death of a star)

The cloud spins more rapidly as it collapses

The Spinning Nebula Flattens Because of the competing forces associated with gravity, gas pressure, and rotation, the nebula begins to flatten into a spinning pancake shape with a bulge at the centre.

Condensation of Protosun and Protoplanets As the nebula collapses further, gravity develops in other regions. These will become the Sun and planets, as well as their moons and other debris in the Solar System.

How did it all start?


Read about the Big Bang and the Steady State Theory on the link below-

http://www.bbc.co.uk/sc hools/gcsebitesize/scie nce/edexcel/space/theo riginsoftheuniverserev1 .shtml

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Steady State Theory


According to this theory, the Universe has always existed; it had no beginning and will continue forever. Although the universe is expanding, it maintains its average density steady-state through the continuous creation of new matter. Most cosmologists now reject the theory because it cannot explain background radiation or the observation that the appearance of the universe changes with time.

Wheres the Evidence?


The Red Shift - Galaxies far away from our home galaxy, the Milky Way appear to be red shifted. This suggests the Universe is expanding.

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Wheres the Evidence?


Cosmic Background Radiation - Whenever a telescope is aimed up into our night sky there seems to be a form of microwave radiation sensed in every direction. Supposedly this is energy left over from the early stages of the Big Bang.

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Just to be sure...
Read some more about the Red Shift and Comic Background Radiation from the website link http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/scienc e/edexcel/space/theoriginsoftheuniverserev4.sht ml

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The Sun

Nebula

Galaxy

Aurora

Comet Hale- Bopp

The Moon

Eclipses
1. A solar eclipse:

2. A lunar eclipse: