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Why create a subnet mask?

Tells device which part of an address is the network # including the subnet and which part is the host Filters the node IP address to determine which subnet it belongs to NETWORK/SUBNET/HOST

How to Create Subnets


27 26 128 64 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 25 32 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 16 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 23 8 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 22 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 21 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 20 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255

The class determines which part of the address belongs to the network and which part belongs to the host
Class A NNNNNNNN.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh Class B NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh Class C NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.hhhhhhhh

IP Subnet addressing default subnet masks


In Binary Form Class A 255.0.0.0 Class B 255.255.0.0 Class C 255.255.255.0 Class A
11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000

Class B
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000

Class C
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

Restrictions on subnets
Network addresses of all 0s in the host portion are reserved for specifying the network Network addresses of all 1s in the host portions are reserved for the broadcast address

How an IP address Is Composed


Part of the 32 Bits represents A network ID The remainder is Used to represent A host with the network

Network & Host IDs


Network ID Each network has a unique network number
Each Network connected to the Internet has to have a globally unique ID no other Internetconnected network in the world can have the same Network ID

Host ID
Within a given network Host IDs are used to identify hosts
Hosts any device that needs to be addressed by an IP address - computers, printers, routers, etc.

Host IDs must be unique within a given network.

How Bits Are Set Up for Each IP Address Class


Note This shows the binary values in the first 3 bits of the 3 classes: 0?? For class A 10? For class B 110 for class C

How Address Classes Affect a Network

Ranges of 1st octet network IDs


A B C

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1

private address cannot be routed on the internet

IP Address Guidelines
First Octet Network ID Rules
Network ID cannot be 127. ID bits cannot be all 1s. ID bits cannot be all 0s.

For class B or C Network IDs


Second octet (and the third octet for class C networks) can be any number from 1 -255, or 00000000 to 11111111

Class B: 131.0.x.x or 131.255.x.x are OK Class C: 200.0.0.x or 200.255.255.x or 200.255.0 are all OK

IP Address Guidelines
First Octet Network ID Rules
Network ID cannot be 127. ID bits cannot be all 1s. ID bits cannot be all 0s.

For class B or C Network IDs


Second octet (and the third octet for class C networks) can be any number from 1 -255, or 00000000 to 11111111

Class B: 131.0.x.x or 131.255.x.x are OK Class C: 200.0.0.x or 200.255.255.x or 200.255.0 are all OK

Problems with default masks


They only provide for a single network segment
Class C 255.255.255.0 allows for a maximum of 254 hosts on the segment Class B 255.255.0.0 allows for a maximum of 65,534 hosts on the segment Class C 255.0.0.0 allows for a maximum of 16,777,214 hosts on the segment Beyond class C networks, current LAN technologies will not support anywhere near the maximum number of hosts/segment

Since there is only 1 network segment:


Difficult to use different topologies in the LAN (Ethernet, FDDI, Token Ring) Difficult to have a geographically dispersed LAN connected using a WAN technology.

Common masks
Masks
255.255.252.0 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.192 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.240 255.255.255.248 255.255.255.252 0 0 128 192 224 240 248 /22 1024 hosts /23 512 hosts /24 + 128 /25 + 64 /26 + 32 /27 + 16 /28 + 8 /29 + 4 /30 256 hosts 128 hosts 64 hosts 32 hosts 16 hosts 8 hosts 4 hosts

255.255.255.254 252 + 2 255.255.255.255 254 + 1


Learn or memorize them. Or, use the addition trick in column 2

/31 not usable /32 single host

Subnetting IP Addresses
Variable length subnet masks Could subnet a class B into several chunks

Network Network

Host Subnet Host 00000000 Subnet Mask

111111111111111111111111

Problem #1: Lifetime of Address Space


Example: an organization needs 500 addresses. A single class C address not enough (256 hosts). Instead a class B address is allocated. (~64K hosts) Thats overkill -a huge waste.

IPv4 Addressing Dotted Decimal Notation


Dotted Decimal Notation
Four bytes (8 bits = 1 byte) per address Each byte separated by a dot Each byte expressed in decimal notation
Example:
Dotted Decimal Notation: 192.16.224.254 Binary Notation?:

What is the minimum decimal value any byte can be assigned? What is the maximum decimal value any byte can be assigned?