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Chapter 1


Word "environment" is most commonly used describing

"natural" environment and means the sum of all living and nonliving things that surround an organism, or group of organisms
Environment includes all elements, factors , and conditions that

have some impact on growth and development of certain organism.

Definition: External Surroundings & conditions directly or

indirectly affect the living organism

There are two factors of environment :Biotic and Abiotic

Biotic Factors Biotic, meaning of or related to life, are living factors. Plants, animals, fungi, protista and bacteria are all biotic or living factors.

Abiotic Factors Abiotic, meaning not alive, are nonliving factors that affect living organisms. Environmental factors such habitat (pond, lake, ocean, desert, mountain) or weather such as temperature, cloud cover, rain, snow, hurricanes, etc. are biotic factors.

Division of Environment






1 Atmosphere
The atmosphere is the body of air

which surrounds our planet

Most of our atmosphere is located

close to the earth's surface where it is most dense.

The air of our planet is 79%

nitrogen and just under 21% oxygen; the small amount remaining is composed of carbon dioxide and other gasses.

2 Lithosphere
The lithosphere is the solid, rocky crust covering

entire planet. This crust is inorganic and is composed of minerals. It covers the entire surface of the earth
1 crust - relatively thin and rocky 2 mantle - has the properties of a solid, but can flow very slowly 3 outer core - made from liquid nickel and iron 4 inner core - made from solid nickel and iron

3 Hydrosphere
The hydrosphere is composed of all of the water on

or near the earth. This includes the oceans, rivers, lakes, and even the moisture in the air. 97% of the earth's water is in the oceans. The remaining 2% is in ice form 1 % is in river,lake,streams and waterfall

4 Biosphere
The biosphere is the defined as the sphere of the

planet Earth where life exists. The biosphere is composed of all living organisms. Plants, animals. The biosphere is all life on our planet. This includes all the things that are living as well as the remains of those that have died but have not yet decomposed.

Parts of Atmosphere
The atmosphere is divided into four main parts. They are

the Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, and Thermosphere. The atmosphere surrounds and protects the Earth. It also provides materials that allow the Earth to support and sustain life. The atmosphere is also one of spheres of the Earth A long time ago, our atmosphere was composed greatly of methane and ammonia. Then a chemical reaction occurred, breaking down the methane and ammonia into nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide

1 Troposphere
This layer is the closest to the Earth, the place where you

live. Most people will never leave this atmospheric layer. The Troposphere starts at the ground or sea and reaches up to 10 - 12 km height. It is the troposphere where most weather phenomena like cloud formation take place. Physically it is characterized by a continuous decrease of temperature with increasing height. The troposphere contains about 80 % of the mass of the atmosphere and also contains almost all of water of the atmosphere.

2 Stratosphere
The stratosphere lies above the

troposphere at 12 - 50 km. It is characterized by an increase of ozone with a maximum ozone concentration at about 30 km of height. Temperature also increases with height and reaches 0 c at about 50 km his increase is mainly caused by the ozone that absorbs the UV radiation of the sun. Doing this, the ozone layer is of essential important for the life on Earth

3 Mesosphere
The mesosphere (50 - 85 km) is characterized by a

continuous decrease of temperature. It reaches it minimum with almost -100 C at about 80 km of height. This also is the upper boundary of the mesosphere. Cold layer of atmosphere

4 Thermosphere
Thermosphere extends from 80 km above the Earth's surface

to outer space. The thermosphere is directly above the mesosphere. The temperature is hot and may be as high as thousands of degrees as the few molecules that are present in the thermosphere receive extraordinary large amounts of energy from the Sun. However, the thermosphere would actually feel very cold to Much of the X-ray and UV radiation from the Sun is absorbed in the thermosphere. When the Sun is very active and emitting more high energy radiation, the thermosphere gets hotter and expands Charged Particles are there in this layer.

Division of Environment

Physical Natural
Environment Social

1 Physical Natural Environment

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things

occurring naturally on Earth It is an environment that encompasses the interaction of all living species. It includes Biotic as wells as Abiotic components

2 Social Environment
Environment made by humans

Cycle can not be completed

Natures law are not followed Factors: Population, Government cooperation, man

power,finance,political factors, civilization, life and use of components Components:Road,Railway,Airport,Building, Industry, Port etc

Environment in India-Major Problems

Population Urbanization Industrialization Poverty Modern life style Land Population Poor health Unemployment Deforestation Shortage of food and resources'