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# Introduction to MV equipments

## Building a New Electric World

Introduction to MV equipments
Basic magnitude to define a MV Switchgear: Voltage Current Frequency Short Circuit power The Voltage, rated current and rated frequency are often known in the single line or specification or can easily be defined

Short circuit power to choose various parts of a switchgear which must withstand significant temperature rises and electro dynamic constraint.
Voltage to define the dielectric withstand of the components such as: CB, insulators, CTs,VTs,etc

## T Limantoro Sch. Indonesia . Aug 2005

Introduction to MV equipments
Electrical network can be disconnect, protect and control by using SWITCHGEAR : METAL enclosed switchgear divided 3 types: Metal clad : example: MC set,NEX Compartmented : example: SM6 Block : example Interface/joggle cubicle.

## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

VOLTAGE
Operating/service Voltage U (kV): Voltage across the equipment terminals. example : 22kV, 3.3kV, Rated Voltage Ur (kV) : (nominal Voltage) Max rms (root mean square) value of the voltage that equipment can withstand under normal operating conditions. The rated voltage (Ur) is always greater than the operating voltage. The rated voltage associated with an insulation level Examples : Rated voltage 24kV, 17.5kV, 12kV and 7.2kV

## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

VOLTAGE
Insulation level Ud (kV rms, 1 minute) and Up (kV peak) This defines the electric withstand of equipment to switching under operation over voltages and lightning impulse. Ud: Over voltage due to of internal switchgear, which accompany all changes in the circuit: opening/closing CB or Switch, breakdown or shorting across an insulator, etc Simulated in laboratory by the power-frequency withstand voltage for 1 minute. Example : Ur : 24kV Ud : 50kVrms/1 min. Up: over voltage of external switchgear or atmospheric origin when lightning falls on or near a transmission line. Simulated in laboratory by the lightning impulse withstand voltage. occur

## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

Standard
Merlin Gerin equipment is conformity with list 2 of the series 1 table IEC 60 071 and 60 298.
Rated Voltage Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage 1.2/50us 50Hz . kV peak list 1 list 2 40 60 60 75 75 95 95 125 145 170 Rated powerNormal frequency operating withstand voltage voltage

## kV rms 7.2 12 17.5 24 36

1minute kV rms 20 28 38 50 70

## Insulation level apply to MV swgr at altitudes of less than 1000 meters,

20 deg.C, 11 g/m3 humidity and press of 1.013 mbar.

## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

Standard Each insulation level corresponds to a distance in air which guarantees withstand without a test certificate.
Rated Voltage Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage 1.2/50us 50Hz . kV peak 60 75 95 125 170 Rated powerfrequency withstand voltage 1minute kV rms 20 28 38 50 70 Distance live to earth in air .

cm 9 12 16 22 32

## lower than this distance, we need simulation/test in the laboratory to

check lightning impulse withstand voltage.

## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

IEC Standard Voltage

20 7.2 28 38 50 70 Ud 12 17.5 24 36 Ur

60 75 95 125 170 Up
1.2/50us 50Hz

## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment Current

The rms value of current that equipment can withstand when current flow without exceeding the temperature rise allowed in standards. Temperature rises authorized by the IEC according to the type of contacts.

## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

OPERATING Current : I (A) Calculate from the consumption of the devices connected. Actual current passes through the equipment. generally customer provide its value calculate if we know the power of the load Exercise:

A switchboard with a 630kW motor feeder and a 1250kVA xmer feeder at 5.5kV operating voltage, cos j = 0.9 and motor efficiency h = 90%
How many ampere the operating current of Transformer and motor? 81.74 A

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## Short Circuit Current

Short circuit power depends on : Network configuration (exp: single source, parallel source,network, generators)

## Impedance of each equipments or devices.(exp: lines, cables, transformers, motors)

Maximum power that network or source can deliver to an installation during a fault, expressed in MVA or in kA rms at operating voltage.(Psc, for instance 500MVA) Determination of the short-circuit power requires analysis of the power flows feeding the short circuit in the worst possible case. What is short circuit level for 500MVA at 20KV ? 14.5kA 13.13kA

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

Minimum short-circuit current: Isc (kA rms.) Corresponds to a short circuit at one end of the fault point. This value allows us to choose the setting of thresholds for over current protection devices and fuses Example: Isc: 25kA rms

Ith

source

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

Maximum short-circuit current: Ith (kA rms. 1 s or 3 s) Corresponds to a short circuit in upstream terminals of the switching device.

## This value is defined in kA for 1s or 3 s

It is used to define the thermal withstand of the equipment Example: Isc: 31.5 kA rms. 1 s or 3 s It h source Isc

## T Limantoro Sch. Indonesia . Aug 2005

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Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment Peak Value of the max.short circuit current (kA peak)
value of the initial peak in the transient period I dyn = (kA peak)

I dynamic is equal to :
2.5 x Isc at 50 Hz (IEC) 2.6 x Isc at 60 Hz (IEC) 2.7 x Isc (ANSI) times the short circuit current calculated at a given point in the network. Example: Isc : 25kA Idyn: 2.5 x 25= 63.75kA peak (IEC 60 056) Idyn: 2.7 x 25= 67.50kA peak (ANSI), 25kA at a given point This value determines the breaking capacity and closing capacity of CBs and Switches, as well as the electro dynamic withstand of busbars and switchgear. IEC uses the following values: 8 12.5 16 20 25 31.5 40 kA rms

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

The short circuit current depends on the type of equipment installed on the network (transformers, generators, motors, lines,etc) Transformer : To determine the short circuit current across the terminals of a transformer , we need to know short circuit voltage (Usc %)

## Usc % is defined by:

1. The voltage xmer is not powered: U=0 2. place the secondary in short circuit 3. gradually increase voltage U at the primary up to the rated current Ir in the transformer secondary side

## The value U read across the primary is then equal to Usc

The short circuit Isc = Ir / Usc Example : Transformer 20 MVA/10kV with Usc: 10%. Upstream power infinite Ir = Sr/ (V3 xU no-load) = 20.000/(V3x10) = 1150 A Isc = Ir / Usc = 1150 / 10% = 11.500A = 11.5kA

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

Synchronous Generators : (Alternator and Motor) To determine the short circuit current across the terminals of a synchronous generator is very complicated because the internal impedance of the generator varies according to time When the power gradually increases, the current reduces passing through three characteristic periods: Sub Transient, average duration 10 ms (enabling determination of the making capacity of the CB and electro dynamic constraint) Transient , average duration 250 ms (sets the equipments thermal constraints)

## Permanent (value of the short circuit current in steady state)

The short circuit Isc = Ir / Xsc The most common values for a synchronous generator are:

Example : Generator 15 MVA/10kV with Xd: 20%. Ir = Sr/ (V3 xU) = 15.000/(V3x10) = 867 A Isc = Ir / Xd = 867/ 20% = 4.330A = 4.33kA

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

Frequency fr (Hz) Two frequency are usually used throughout the world: 50 Hz in Europe 60 Hz in the USA several countries use both frequencies indiscriminately Instrument Voltage Transformer rated 50 can operate at 60Hz

## Instrument Current Transformer rated 50 can operate at 60Hz.

But CT with rated 60Hz can not be operated at 50Hz.

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

SWITCHGEAR FUNCTION

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

DIFFERENT ENCLOSURE TYPE

compartment

Block type
T Limantoro Sch. Indonesia . Aug 2005

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

DIELECTRIC WITHSTAND depends on 3 parameters: The Dielectric strength of the medium The Shape of the parts The distance : ambient air between the live parts insulating air interface between the live parts Dielectric Strength of air depends on ambient conditions: Pollution reducing the insulating performance by a factor <10. Pollution may occur from external dust, lack of cleanliness, breaking down of an internal surface, pollution & humidity causes electrochemical conduction which will worsen discharge phenomena. Condensation reducing the insulating performance by a factor 3 Pressure related to the altitude, derating performance. Humidity % of humidity can cause a change in insulating performances. (liquid always leads to a droop in performance) Temperature temp. increases can cause decreases insulation performance. Thermal shock can be the cause of the micro fissuration which can lead very quickly to insulator breakdown. Insulator expands by 5 and 15 times more than a conductor.
T Limantoro Sch. Indonesia . Aug 2005 21

## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

The Shape of the parts It is essential to eliminate any peak effect to avoid disastrous effect on the impulse wave withstand in particular and on the surface ageing of insulator. Air Ionization Generate Ozone Breakdown of insulator surface or skin

## Distance between parts

Ambient air between live parts For installations sometime we can not test under impulse conditions, the table below gives the minimum distance to comply with in air either phase to earth or phase to phase . The table based on IEC 71-2 according to the rated lightning impulse withstand voltage

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

CURRENT TRANSFORMER To provide a secondary current that is proportional to the primary current. Transformation ratio (Kn) : Kn = I primary/Isecondary = N2/N1

Current transformer must be conformity with IEC 185 and BS3038 and ANSI
One CT comprises one or several primary windings or one or several secondary windings and all being encapsulated in an insulating resin Dont leave a CT in open circuit because dangerous voltages for people and equipment may appear across its terminal CT defined at 50Hz can be installed on a 60Hz network. The opposite is not correct. Rated primary Voltage (Upr) > rated insulation voltage

Special case for CT is core balance or ring CT installed on a cable. The dielectric insulation is provided by the cable and the air located between them. The core balance or ring CT is itself insulated.
T Limantoro Sch. Indonesia . Aug 2005 23

## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

If j and h are not known, use approx value cos j: 0.8 and h = 0.8 Capacitor Feeder : Derating coefficient of 30% to take into account of temp. rise due to capacitor harmonic

Bus section

The greatest value of current that can flow in the bus section on a permanent basis.
Ips = In bus Standardized values : 10-12.5-15-20-25-30-40-50-60-75 and their multiples and factors CT must be able to withstand 120% the rated current

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

CURRENT TRANSFORMER Example:

A thermal protection device for a motor has a setting range of between 0.6 and 1.2 x Ir (CT).
In order to protect this motor, the required setting must correspond to the motors rated current. If we assume that Ir for the motor = 45 A, the required setting is therefore: 45A If we use a 100/5A CT, the relay will never see 45A , because: 100A x 0.6 = 60A > 45A. If we use a 75/5A CT, the relay will see , 75 x 0.6 = 45 A The range of setting will be: 0.6 < 45/75 < 1.2 . This CT is suitable.

RATED THERMAL SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT (Ith) Value of the installation max. short circuit current and the duration 1s or 3 s. Each CT must be able to withstand short circuit current both thermally and dynamically until the fault is effectively cut off. Ith = Ssc / (U x V3), Ssc = power short circuit MVA When the CT is installed in a fuse protected, the Ith = apprx. 80 Ir.

## Local use or inside switchgear Isr = 5A

Remote use or long distance Isr = 1A

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

ACCURACY CLASS Metering: class 0.5

## Differential protection : class X or 5P20

Zero sequence protection: class 5P REAL POWER OUTPUT The total (sum) of the consumption of the cabling, protection or metering device connected to the CT secondary circuit. Consumption of the cooper cable (losses in the cable):

where :

0.5625 0.0225

Consumption of each metering or protecting devices are given in the technical specification

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

SAFETY FACTOR (SF) Safety Factor is protection of metering device in case of a fault SF will chosen according to the current metering short time withstand current: 5 < SF< 10. SF is ratio between the limit of rated primary current (Ipl) and the rated primary current (Ipr)

where : Ipl is the value of primary current for which the error in secondary current = 10% Example: an ammeter is guaranteed to withstand a SC of 10 Ir, I.e. 50A for a 5A (secondary CT/device input). To avoid ammeter will not be destroyed in the case of primary fault, the CT must be saturated before 10 Ir in the secondary side. A safety factor of 5 is suitable.

Schneider CTs have a safety factor of 10, however lower SF can be requested.
ACCURACY LIMIT FACTOR (ALF) Protection application : accuracy limit factor and accuracy class Example: Definite time OC relay The relay will function perfectly if : ALF real CT > 2 (Irs / Isr) where : Irs : relay threshold setting, Isr : rated secondary CT CT 100A/5A, I relay setting : 5 times , so the ALF = 2 (5x5/5) = 10, Actual ALF CT > 15 or 20

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

CLASS X (DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION) The short circuit current is chosen as a function of the application: generator differential

motor differential
Transformer differential busbar differential

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

CLASS X (DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION)

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

CLASS X (DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION)

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

CLASS X (DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION)

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER To provide secondary voltage that is proportional to the primary voltage. IEC Standard 60 186 defines the conditions which voltage transformer must meet. One VT comprises a primary windings and one or several secondary windings and all being encapsulated in an insulating resin RATED VOLTAGE FACTOR (KT) The rated voltage factor is the rated primary voltage has to be multiplied in order to determine the max. voltage for which the transformer must comply with the specified temperature rise and accuracy recommendations. According earthing system of the network, the VT must be able to withstand this max. voltage for the time that is required to eliminate the fault.

Generally VT manufactures comply with : VT phase to earth: 1.9 for 8 h and VT phase to phase : 1.2 continuous.

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

RATED PRIMARY VOLTAGE (Upr) According to the design, VT will be connected : Phase to earth 22.000V/V3 / 110V/V3, where Upr = U/V3 Phase to phase 22.000 / 110V, where Upr = U RATED SECONDARY VOLTAGE (Usr) Phase to phase VT, rated secondary voltage : 100V or 110 V Phase to Ground VT, rated secondary voltage : 100/V3 or 110V/V3 RATED OUTPUT The apparent power output that VT can supply the secondary circuit when connected at rated primary voltage and connected to the nominal load.

It must not introduce any error exceeding the values guaranteed by the accuracy class . (S = V3. U. I in 3 phase circuit)
Standardized value are: 10-15-25-30-50-75-100-150-200-300-400-500 VA

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

ACCURACY CLASS The limits of errors guaranteed in terms of transformation ratio and phase under the specified conditions of both power and voltage.

PROTECTION ACCORDING TO IEC 60 186 Classes 3P and 6P (but in practice only class 3P is used) The accuracy class is guaranteed for values : of voltage of between 5% of the primary voltage and the max. value of this voltage which is the product of the primary voltage and the rated voltage factor (kT x Upr) For secondary load between 25% and 100% of the rated output with a power factor of 0.8 inductive.

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

Transformation Ratio (Kn)

## Voltage ratio error

This is the error that the transformer introduces into the voltage measurement

Phase error or phase shift error This is the phase difference between the primary voltage Upr and the secondary voltage Usr. the error expressed in minutes of angle

## Thermal power limit or Rated continuous power

This is the apparent power that transformer can supply in steady state at its rated secondary voltage without exceeding the temperature rise limits set by the standards.

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

PROTECTION INDEX Protection of people against direct contact and protection of equipment against certain external influences. Requested by international standard for electrical installations and products (IEC 60 529) The protection index is the level of protection provided by an enclosure against access to hazardous parts, penetration of solid foreign bodies and of water. The IP code is a coding system to indicate the protection index.

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

PROTECTION INDEX: first index

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

PROTECTION INDEX: second index

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

PROTECTION INDEX: third index
Definitions The protection mentions correspond to impact energy levels expressed in joules hammer blow applied directly to the equipment impact transmitted by the supports, expressed in terms of vibrations therefore in terms of frequency and acceleration The protection indices against mechanical impact can be checked by different types of hammer: pendulum hammer, spring-loaded hammer or vertical free-fall hammer (diagram below).

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## Metal-enclosed, factory built equipment

PROTECTION INDEX: third index

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## sector site networks

For public distribution

networks
For all voltage levels

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## S20 substation application

Series 20
Substation incomer and feeder

applications
Protection functions: 50/51, phase overcurrent 50N/51N, earth fault 46, negative sequence / unbalance Logic discrimination 4-cycle recloser

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## Substation application (S40/S41/S42 types)

Parallel incomers or closed ring

Series 40

networks
Isolated or compensated

neutral networks
Protection functions: 50/51,50N/51N,46,50BF 67N/67NC, directional earth fault 67, directional phase overcurrent 32P, reverse power I, U, P, E metering

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## T20 transformer application

Series 20
Protection functions: 50/51, 50N/51N and 46

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## Transformer application (T40/T42 types)

Parallel transformers

Series 40

Isolated or compensated

neutral networks
Protection functions: 50/51,50N/51N, 46,50BF 49RMS and 38/49T 67N/67NC, directional earth fault 67, directional phase overcurrent I, U, P, E metering

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## M20 motor application

Series 20
Protection functions: 50/51, 50N/51N, 46 49RMS 38/49T Specific functions: 37, phase undercurrent 48/51LR, excessive starting time and locked rotor 66, starts per hour specific motor-related function (MES114)

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## Motor application (M41 type)

Isolated or compensated

Series 40

neutral networks
All the M20 protection

functions, plus:

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## Generator application (G40 type)

Protection functions: 50/51, 50N/51N,46,50BF 49RMS and 38/49T 27/59, 81L/81H, Specific functions: 50V/51V, voltage restraint overcurrent 32P, 32Q/40, directional active and reactive overpower I, U, P, E measurements

Series 40

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## B21 busbar application

Series 20
Voltage protection functions: 27/59, phase-to-phase under/overvoltage
81L/81H, under/overfrequency
59N, neutral voltage

displacement
27D/47, positive sequence

## undervoltage and phase rotation direction 27R, remanent undervoltage

27S, 3 phase-to-phase

undervoltages V1,V2,V3

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## B22 busbar application

Series 20
Voltage protection functions: 27/59, 27S, 59N 81L/81H 27D/47, 27R Loss of mains protection 81R,

## rate of change of frequency (ROCOF)

fast,

reliable detection of loss of mains for substations with generators in parallel with the main network

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## Sepam 1000+ Selection guide

Selection criteria series 20 Measurements Specific protection functions Applications series 20 I U U
Loss of mains (ROCOF)

## series 40 I and U I and U

Directional earth fault

I et U
Directional earth fault & phase O/C

series 40

Substation
Transformer Motor

S20
T20 M20

S40
T40

S41

S42
T42

M41

Generator
Busbar

G40
B21 B22

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