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Seabed irregularities (unevenness) during installation

(residual tension on span creation is closely linked to the pipe weight). Subsequent scouring(sand wave) and movement. Seabed topography and composition (type of soil), wave and current action and pipe properties.

Type of Span

End Condition Using in Free Span

Fixed- Pinned end condition may be assumed for

single spans. Fixed- Fixed may only be assumed if validated be observed support condition. "Fixed/Pinned" in this case is assumed to be the average of "Fixed/Fixed and "Pinned/Pinned" bending moments, on the basis that the end fixities of a span are somewhere between the two cases but it is difficult to determine exactly where. When calculating permissible span lengths, the assumed end conditions have a large impact on the results. The fixed/pinned assumption may not be accurate when, for example, a pipeline spans between two rock ridges. The support conditions might then be closer to pinned/pinned; though the adjacent sections of pipe will provide some restraint so that the pipe section is not truly pinned/pinned. Analytically, it is only possible to accurately determine these effects with the use of an advanced finite element analysis to accurately model the span support conditions and axial effects. It is obviously impractical to perform this type of analysis on every span along the pipeline route. However, it may be possible to build a "typical" FE model to determine the magnitude of these effects and modify the limiting span criteria.

A. DNV-1981
II. Criteria for Span Condition
Static Stress

Vortex Shedding Induced Vibration:

Bar Buckling


In Line;

Cross Flow;

1. Static Stress
Checked individual stress components, and the total

combined stress condition is also limited to maximum percentage of the material SMYS (percentage is variable according to pipeline loading condition).


Vortex Induced Vibration

VIV dependent upon the pipe and span characteristics,

fluid flow around a pipeline span can result in vortices occurring on the wake side of the pipe. If vortices are of sufficient frequency, they can produce significant pipeline oscillations. The parameter assessment VIV is Reduced Velocity (Vr ).

0 < Vr < 2.2 symmetric vortex shedding producing "In-

Line" oscillations, i.e. parallel to fluid flow.

2.2 < Vr < 3.5 alternate vortex shedding causing "In-Line"

oscillations (unstable);

4.8 < Vr < 12.0 alternate vortex shedding causing Cross

Flow" oscillations i.e. perpendicular to fluid flow.

3. Bar Buckling
For a restrained pipeline, the pressure and

temperature induced axial force (compressive), if of sufficient magnitude, may lead to beam mode buckling of the pipeline

4. Fatigue
As mentioned previously, vortex shedding induced

span vibrations may be broadly divided into two categories:

In-line; Cross-flow.

Cross flow vibrations by their nature are almost always

high amplitude and consequently their occurrence should be avoided at all costs, while in-line vibrations are generally of smaller amplitude and may be permissible. The criteria for permitting in-line vibrations fall within assessment of the pipeline fatigue and fatigue usage requirements.

III. Calculation
Permissible span lengths for a pipeline are calculated based on each of the following criteria: For each of these criteria the permissible span length should generally be calculated for each of the following four load cases: Static stress Empty

Vortex shedding (inline vibrations)

Water filled

Vortex shedding (cross flow vibrations)


Bar buckling.


III. Calculation
2. Static stress
Due to its self-weight and lateral hydrodynamic loading. The combined stresses should be checked against the allowable levels of stress given in the relevant codes, i.e. is not to exceed the permissible value.
.ep = usage factory as defined table below .F = specified minimum yeild strength

What are a and b ?

III. Calculation
Is function likes Operation ?

How about Functional and environmental ?

III. Calculation

III. Calculation

III. Calculation

III. Calculation
3. Vortex Shedding a. Cross-Flow Vortex Shedding

III. Calculation

The Reduced Velocity (Vr ) parameter see figure below:

III. Calculation
b. In-Line Vortex Shedding Stability parameter is controlling the motion , KS

III. Calculation
Effective mass (me) is function of Ca (add mass

Submerged Weight(Wsub)

The relationship between VR and the stability parameter, KS

1<Vr<3.5 and Ks<1.8 : resonant in-line vortex shedding include oscillations

may occur. The possibility of fatigue damage from in-line VIVs may therefore be ignored if this criteria is violation.
Vr > 4.7 and Ks <16 crow-flow oscillation may occur. Cross-flow VIVs may be assumed not to occur if this criteria is violation.

III. Calculation
The Reduced Velocity

for In-line Vortex Shedding as figure A.3 The calculation InLine Vortex Shedding method is now the same as for the Cross Flow. i.e.

Other Method
The natural frequency based on document ANALYSIS OF SPANS FOR SUBMERGED PIPELINES (Shell):

III. Calculation
4. Bar Bucking

III. Calculation
5. Fatigue

B. DNV-F105



The fundamental natural frequency (first Eigen frequency) may be approximated by

2. The reduced velocity, VR, is defined as:

3. Onset Span Lengths :
Given(for In Line Onset span Length) finding Leff:

Given(for Cross flow Onset span Length) finding Leff

What is this mean Onset ? Check all the MathCAD file , the span length due to onset span length is bigger/smaller span length due to Screening criteria. Finding Vr (Reduced Velocity) ?. Reduced Velocity for In Line Flow is defined in section 4.3.5 DNV RP F105 Reduced Velocity for Cross Flow is defined in section 4.4.4 DNV RP F105

4. Screening Fatigue Criteria
The In-line natural frequencies fn,IL must fulfill:

The Cross-Flow natural frequencies fn,CF must fulfill:


Given f1=fnIL finding maximum free span length due to Inline flow. Given f1=fnCL finding maximum free span length due to CrossFLow.

2. Fatigue Criterion ?????????? 3. ULS Criterion(Ultimate Limit State)
Local buckling check for a pipeline free span shall be in compliance with the combined loading load controlled condition criteria in DNV-OS-F101, Sec.5 or similar stress-based criteria in a recognised code. Functional and environmental bending moment, axial force and pressure shall be accounted for. Simplifications are allowed provided verification is performed by more advanced modeling / analyses in cases where the ULS criteria become governing.


Input Data

Hoop Stress:

Axial Force
Where: H pi = Effective (residual) lay tension = Internal pressure difference relative to as laid = Temperature difference relative to as laid

Characteristic plastic moment resistance:

Section D505

Characteristic plastic axial force resistance:

Section D505

Drag Force:

Other parameter is defined in DNV RP F105 , from section 5.4.4 to 5.4.8

Inertial Force :

Other parameter is defined in DNV RP F105 , from section 5.4.10 to 5.4.13

The pressure containment resistance: F101-Eq5.8 Characteristic collapse pressure is finding as: Eq. 5.10

Plastic Collapse Pressure: F101-Eq5.12

Elastic collapse pressure, see Eq. 5.11

b) Load-Controlled Combined Loading Check

Pipe members subjected to bending moment, effective axial force and external overpressure shall be designed to satisfy the following equation:

Applies for D/t2 <45, Pi>Pe Where: Msd : The design moment is sum of maximum environmental bending moment due to in-line and cross-flow VIV (Dynamic) and static bending moment

Submerged Weight
Pcr Critical buckling load (positive sign) The stiffening effect of concrete (CSF)coating may be accounted for by:

Normalised Moment Design effective axial force
.F=Functional Load factor (S4 G201) .c=Condition Load factor (S4 G203)

Normalised Effective Force Which calculation using Check?

Applies for D/t2 <45, Pi<Pe

c) Validity Check
Maximum length for response model validity Cross flow deflection

Methodology and Summary


Coefficient DNV 1981 DNV RP F105

1. Reduced Velocity
2. Static Stress

Interpolate accurate)

for figure (not Equation (accurate)

Comparison with Yielding Criteria, Von Misses Stress included all parameters as: Bending Stress Hoop Stress Hydrodynamic Load Longitudinal Stress Thermal Stress Poisson Stress

ULS check (Combined Loading Check) based on parameters as: Bending Moment Hoop Stress Hydrodynamic Load Axial Force

Coefficient DNV 1981 DNV RP F105 3. Dynamic Stress Maximum span length based on the excitation frequency (due to Vr-Interpolate for figure ) Maximum span length based on Screening and Onset criteria


Bar Buckling

Maximum span length based on axial force

Not required, summary in ULS checks.


Fatigue Check

Required (but the sequence calculation of method is not finding)

Required when Screening Criteria is violated.


Validity Check

Not required

Check the free span length is smaller 140.D, deflection is invalid/Ok, Bucking is not influence the response/ buckled (Onset Criteria).



Bigger (see example free span length 40m)

Smaller (i.e the number is smaller <40m




Analytic wave theories

Wave Theories are developed for constant water depth d. The objective of a wave theory is to determine the relationship between T and and the water particle motion throughout the flow.

Supplementary (wave)

The different of wave theory

if Ur<48.35, Airy theory / Airy Lagrange / Stocker 1st using sin/cos function Ur48.35 ,Cnoidal theory using Jacoby Eliptic function/ Stocker 2nd ,3rd ,4th ,.n Ur= ,Limit solitary wave.


Fig 1:Ranges of validity for various wave theories. Detail of the wave theory ref DNV RP C205

Supplementary (wave)
2. Defined Deep Water Deep water waves can be defined as those for which

or more usefully: Shallow water waves can be defined as Intermediate water as other section.


Supplementary (wave)

Supplementary (wave)
3. Wave spectrum classification
All the wave theory: Airy, stocker, Cnoidal and Solitary are regular kinematics wave and wave

period T remains constant but reality wave always random field. I. Classification wave spectrum following specific characteristics wave Frequency spectrum; Direction spectrum; Energy Spectrum ; Height Spectrum. II. Classification wave spectrum following geographical name or famous man Pierson Mosskowitz spectrum first time (P-M); Pierson Mosskowitz spectrum second time; Bretschneider Mitsuyasu spectrum (B-M); Jonswap spectrum (Joint North Sea Wave Observation Project); Neumann spectrum; Roll Fisher spectrum; Storckelov spectrum; Burling spectrum; Krulov spectrum; Bretschneider spectrum; Davidan spectrum. III. Classification wave spectrum following water depth Deep water; Shallow water;

Supplementary (wave)
3. Wave spectrum classification

Supplementary (wave)
4. Jonswap spectrum The spectral density function