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Petroleum Engineering 626 Offshore Drilling

Lesson 20 Horizontal Wells


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Lesson 20: Horizontal Wells


Why Drill Horizontal Wells? Relative Production Rates Relative Costs Types of Horizontal Wells Drilling Problems and Solutions How Popular is Horizontal Drilling?
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Quiz B

April 10 Rich 114 6-8 p.m.

Presentations: - Start on April 15


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Austin Chalk Pearsall Field Oil Rig

Austin San Antonio

Austin Chalk
Not to scale

WHY DRILL HORIZONTAL WELLS?

Increase Production Rates

Control Water Production


Control Gas Production

Control Sand Production


Increase Reserves
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WHY DRILL HORIZONTAL WELLS?

Produce From Thin Reservoirs Connect Vertical Fractures Produce Methane from Coal Seams Increase Injectivity (steam, water, polymers, etc.)
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Production, Horizontal Well / Vertical Well

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Horizontal Well Drainage Area = vertical drainage area = 30 acres *Steady State

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5 4 3 2 1 0

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Horizontal Well Length, 100 ft increments


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Vertical Well

Horizontal Well

Horizontal Drilling Sites


Bryan
Austin Chalk Austin Chalk Fields

Austin Giddings
Houston

San Antonio Pearsall Field

Horizontal Drilling
Horizontal wells are often drilled perpendicular to vertical fractures in order to intersect and drain as many fractures as possible.
Horizontal drilling greatly reduces the risk of bypassing vertically fractured reservoirs.
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Horizontal Drilling

Oil-filled fractures

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PRODUCTION RATES: ORYX - Austin Chalk


Vertical Well B/D 12 15 5 Horizontal Well B/D 507 215 107 Horizontal/ Vertical Ratio 42 14 21

Drilled 7 wells over a period of 4 years (1986-1989) Drilled 85 additional wells the next year (1990)
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ROSPO MARE, ITALY

500

Horizontal Well

250

Slant Well

Vertical Well
1982

1984

1986

Water

70m

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PRUDHOE BAY
Vertical Well: Horizontal Well: Production Ratio: Vertical Well: Horizontal Well: Cost Ratio: 3,000 - 4,000 B/D 10,000 - 12,000 B/D 3-4 235 $/ft 520 - 282 $/ft 2.2 - 1.2
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2-6 degrees/100 ft Long Radius Conventional - Directional 2,800-1,000 ft. radius 20-75 degrees/100 ft 300-125 ft. radius Medium Radius Short Radius Pay Zone 400-700 ft 1.5-3 degrees/ft

20-40 ft. radius

1,000-5,000 ft

1,000-6,000 ft

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NEW DRILLING TECHNOLOGY

Measurement While Drilling (MWD)

Directional Surveying and Control


Identification of Markers

Identify zones

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Top Drive
Drill with 90-ft stands instead of 30-ft joints

Circulate while pulling drillpipe out of hole Rotate drill pipe while pulling out of hole
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Mud Motors
Drill without rotating pipe Change hole direction while drilling without making a trip to change the BHA

Steerable systems
High-torque motors
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Geological Marker

MWD tools are used to locate geological markers as a well approaches its target so that the driller can determine the vertical distance between the bit and target.
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POTENTIAL PROBLEMS IN HORIZONTAL DRILLING


Running equipment in and out of hole: drillstring, casing, cables Preventing/Remedying differential sticking Excessive torque
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POTENTIAL PROBLEMS IN HORIZONTAL DRILLING (contd)


Cleaning the hole and preventing cuttings from settling along the hole bottom Controlling weight on bit to achieve and maintain directional control Cementing casing or liner
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SUMMARY
Horizontal wells may produce at 3-5 times the rate of vertical wells in the same area. (as much as 20 times higher in special cases)
Horizontal wells typically cost 1.5-3 times as much as vertical wells in the same area.
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SUMMARY

(Continued)

Horizontal wells are often very attractive in formations with extensive vertical fractures.
The use of horizontal wells is growingworldwide. Horizontal wells will increase our recoverable reserves. In the U.S. one rig in ten is drilling horizontal wells. (1995) { ~7% today }
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LONG-RADIUS WELLS
Used for achieving large horizontal displacements from platforms or drilling pads Used for achieving very long horizontal sections (4000 ft +)

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LONG-RADIUS WELLS (contd)


Build Rate: Build Radius: Length of Horizontal Section: ~2-6 degrees/100 ft ~1,000-3,000 ft 1,000-7,000 ft

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METHOD
Use conventional directional drilling technology

Use rigid bottom hole assemblies, motors & bent subs, stabilizers Or, use Navigation drilling systems with steerable drilling motors
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MEDIUM - RADIUS WELLS


Build Rate: Build Radius: Length of Horizontal Section: ~ 8-20 degrees/100 ft ~ 300-700 ft ~1,000-5,000 ft

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METHOD
Use modified long-radius drilling technology

Use different motors for ANGLE BUILD and ANGLE HOLD sections
Use a TANGENT SECTION between the two build sections
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Fig. 1: Medium String Stabilizer Radius Angle Build Assembly Dump Valve
Bent Sub Low-Speed, High-Torque Motor Upper Bearing Housing with Stabilizer

Kickoff Sub

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SHORT - RADIUS WELLS


Build Rate: Build Radius: Length of Horizontal Section: ~ 1-3 degrees/ ft ~ 20-40 ft 400-1000 ft

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METHOD
Downhole motor designs are now available
Drill vertical rathole to identify horizon Build angle with special curvedrilling assembly with a non-rotating shell that gives curvature to the tool
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METHOD

(Continued)

After building angle to horizontal, use a special angle-hold assembly:

this consists of two undergauge stabilizers behind the bit, and flexible drillpipe

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Drill Pipe (rotating)

Clutch Stabilizer

Clutch Sub (rotating)

Fig. 4: Short Radius Curve Drilling Assembly

Curved Drill Guide (non-rotating)

Stabilizer

Bit Sub (rotating)

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Multi-Lateral Completion Systems from Baker Oil Tools


Has Finally Taken Root

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Multi-Lateral Drilling and Completions

Some Things are Designed for Easy Re-entry.

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Complex well geometries boost Orinoco heavy oil producing rates


Oil & Gas Journal, Feb. 28, 2000

Single horizontal lateral Gull-wing well Stacked multilateral Fishbone well Gull-wing, fishbone well Stacked fishbone well
~9oAPI oil. ~1.2 * 1012 bbls in place. ~250 * 109 recoverable
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End of Lesson 20
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