Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 55

Subpart L-Scaffold Safety

1926.451-453

Vincent J. Giblin, General President

1293 Airport Road Beaver, WV 25813

Phone: (304) 253-8674 Fax: (304) 253-7758 E-mail: hazmat@iuoeiettc.org

This material was produced under grant number 46C5-HT16 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

Introduction
Subpart L specifies the requirements needed to safely erect scaffolds or staging. Scaffolds are temporary platforms workers use in order to access their work area and to hold the supplies needed for that job. Because of the locations and dangers involved, only trained and competent persons are to erect scaffolds at the job site.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 3

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements


All scaffolds are to be capable of supporting, without failure, at least 4 times the maximum intended load.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Safety Precautions


Never allow debris/materials to collect on scaffold Always use netting to catch anything that falls Make sure scaffold is secure

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Safety Precautions


Do not stand on ties, guardrails, or extensions

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Safety Precautions


Do not overreach outside the guardrails

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Safety Precautions


Stay off scaffold during loading or unloading Replace guardrails after loading or unloading Use 3-point climbing Dont hang tarps without evaluation Exit mobile scaffolds before moved

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Safety Precautions


Always wear fall protection to avoid accidents

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Footing or Anchorage


The footing or anchorage is to be on a solid foundation; sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the maximum intended load without settling or displacement.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 10

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Footing or Anchorage


The use of unstable objects to support planks or scaffolds is prohibited.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

11

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Guardrails


The use of guardrails is very important, preventing workers from falling. Nearly 3/4 of the reported scaffold accidents are caused by improper guarding.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 12

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Guardrails


Open-ended or opensided platforms must have standard guardrails and toeboards.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 13

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Guardrails


The guardrails are to be 2 X 4 and about 42 high with a midrail whenever needed. The supports for the guardrails are to be at intervals no more than 8 feet.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

14

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Protective Screening


Overhead protection shall be provided for men on scaffolds and, in the same sense, a screen is to be placed below the scaffold where persons may in danger of falling objects.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 15

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Safe Platforms


Scaffold construction is to be with the proper grade lumber with a minimum of 1,500 fibers (Stress Grade). This lumber is marked with a grading stamp and is free of defects.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 16

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Safe Platforms


The planking is to be of Scaffold Grade wood or metal, free of defects that may contribute to an accident.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 17

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Safe Platforms


The planking shall be overlapping or secured from movement, extending not less than 6 nor more than 12 over their end supports.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 18

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Safe Platforms


The poles, legs, or uprights of scaffolds shall be plumb (vertical members standing perpendicular to horizon) and securely and rigidly braced to prevent swaying and displacement.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 19

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Safe Platforms


Only synthetic or fiber rope that has been treated properly may be used as staging support where open flame work or corrosive substances or chemicals will be used.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 20

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Safe Platforms


Any means of support for scaffold suspension shall be capable of supporting at least 6 times the rated load.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

21

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Safe Access


In order for workers to avoid injuries when getting on or off the platform, internal stairs or attached vertical ladders will be used.Never use the frame or braces for climbing!
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 22

1926.451 Scaffolding General requirements Design load


The design load of all scaffolds shall be calculated on the basis of: Light--Supporting 25 lbs per square foot Medium--Supporting 50 lbs. Per square foot Heavy-- Supporting 75 lbs. Per square foot
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 23

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds


This standard covers many different scaffold types. We will touch briefly on the three basic types that are most commonly used in the construction industry. 1. Suspension Scaffolds 2. Supported Scaffolds 3. Aerial Lifts (Subpart N)
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 24

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds


Suspension Scaffolds (hung from an

overhead structure)
Single-point adjustable suspension-

These may be power units (either electrically or air motor driven) or manually operated winches. All power operated gears and brakes shall be enclosed.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 25

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds


Suspension Scaffolds (hung from an overhead structure)

Two-point suspension- Theses scaffolds

are to be securely lashed to the building or structure to prevent them from swaying.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

26

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds


Suspension Scaffolds (hung from an

overhead structure)
Multi-point suspension- Capable of

sustaining a working load of 25 pounds per square foot. The platform shall be securely fastened to the hangers by Ubolts or other equivalent means.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 27

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds


Suspension Scaffolds (hung from an overhead structure) Needle beam- Ropes or hangers used as

supports, shall be attached to the needle beams by a scaffold hitch or a properly made eye splice. The loose end of the rope shall be tied by a bowline knot or by a round turn and a half hitch.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 28

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds


Suspension Scaffolds (hung from an overhead structure) Interior hung- Hung or suspended from

the roof structure or ceiling beams by rope capable of supporting at least 6 times the rated load.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 29

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Suspension Scaffolds


The workers on these scaffolds are to wear fall protection at all times.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

30

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Suspension Scaffolds


These suspension scaffolds must: Be solidly attached to a structure Be regularly serviced and inspected Have proper guardrails, netting, and toeboards Be at least 20 wide but no wider than 36
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 31

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Suspension Scaffolds


Upon meeting these requirements, the platform can be one of four types: Plank type Beam-type Light metal-type Ladder-type
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 32

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Suspension Scaffolds


The scaffold unit shall be suspended from metal outriggers, iron brackets, wire rope slings, or iron hooks, inspected daily by a competent person. Supporting parts are to be inspected before every installation and periodically inspected during use.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 33

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Suspension Scaffolds


Suspension scaffolds are hung by: Outrigger beam with counterweights Rolling outrigger beam with counterweights Parapet clamps Roof hook or cornice hook
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 34

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Supported Scaffolds


These scaffolds are raised on posts, uprights, frames, or outrigger beams. They may also be mounted on trucks or casters. Tube and coupler Frame Pole Mobile
35

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Supported Scaffolds


Tube and coupler scaffolds- Have limited heights to be followed using tables L-10-L-12. Light, medium, and heavy duty tube and coupler scaffolds are to follow specified requirements for the appropriate categories, all of which are to hold 4 times the maximum intended loads.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 36

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Supported Scaffolds


Pole - Scaffold poles shall bear on a foundation of sufficient size and strength to spread the load from the pole over a sufficient area to prevent settlement. Independent pole scaffolds shall be set as near to the wall of the building as practicable.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 37

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Supported Scaffolds


Frame - Proper cross bracing or diagonal bracing is to be used for securing vertical members together laterally with coupling or stacking pins to provide proper vertical alignment of the legs.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

38

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Supported Scaffolds


Mobile - When freestanding mobile scaffold towers are use, the height shall not exceed four times the minimum base dimension.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 39

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Supported Scaffolds


Mobile - When using casters, they are to have a positive locking device to hold the scaffold in position.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

40

1926.451 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Supported Scaffolds


Mobile - A ladder or stairway, affixed to or built into the scaffold, shall provide proper access and exit
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 41

1926.453 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds
This section applies to ladder stands (not aerial) and rolling scaffolds (towers).
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 42

1926.453 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds
Due to the wide variety of materials and design possibilities, specified design and construction requirements are not a part of this section.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 43

1926.453 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds
The minimum platform width for any work level shall not be less than 20 inches for mobile scaffolds. Ladder stands shall have a minimum step width of 16 inches, with all exposed surfaces free from sharp edges, burrs or other safety hazards.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 44

1926.453 Scaffolding Types of Scaffolds Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds
Wheels or casters shall be properly designed for strength and dimensions to support four times the design working load.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 45

1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)


These are vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms such as ladder trucks and tower trucks. Aerial lifts are to be operated only by authorized persons.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 46

1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)


Aerial ladders shall be secured in the lower traveling position by the locking device on top of the truck cab, and the manually operated device at the base of the ladder before the truck is moved for highway travel.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

47

1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)


Never move an aerial lift truck when the boom is elevated in a working position with men in the basket, except where specifically designed for this type of operation.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 48

1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)


Lifts that are used primarily as personnel carriers must have both platform (upper) and lower controls. The lower controls are to override the upper controls, never to be used without permission from the employee in the lift, except in emergencies.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 49

1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)


While working on aerial lifts, employees shall: Always stand firmly on the floor of the basket and not sit or climb on the edge

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

50

1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)


While working on aerial lifts, employees shall: Wear a body belt and have a lanyard attached to the boom or basket for fall protection
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 51

1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)


While working on aerial lifts, employees shall: Keep within specified load limits Use brakes and wheel chocks when needed

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

52

1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)


Examples: Telescoping Rotating boom Scisor type

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

53

This material was produced under grant number 46C5-HT16 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

End
This publication was made possible by grant numbers 5 U45 ES06182-13 AND 5 U45 ES09763-13 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH.
Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program 55