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Construction builds the basic framework and infrastructure of a country . One of the products traditionally used to reinforce concrete is plain carbon steel. Large number of reinforced structures are starting to show serious signs of deterioration, particularly those over 30 years of age due to corrosion of reinforcement. This necessitates costly and time-consuming repairs and maintenance of the structure.

What Causes Corrosion?

Chloride ion is the main culprit Chlorides may be incorporated into the original mix due to their presence in the sand, aggregate or water. Chlorides penetrate through the "cover" when the external surfaces of the concrete are exposed to seawater, marine atmospheres. When steel corrodes, it forms an oxide layer. These corrosion products-oxides-have a larger volume than the original steel.

Some Pictures Showing the Deterioration of Structures Due to

Carbon Steel Reinforcement

Fig: leakage of water through the structure


Fig: Corrosion affected carbon steel


Several Methods Are Currently Employed in an Attempt to Reduce

the Corrosion of Carbon Steel Rebars.

Rebar coatings Increased concrete cover Reduced water/cement ratios Corrosion inhibiting admixtures added to the concrete mix Cathodic protection Application of waterproofing membranes, penetrants and sealers on concrete surfaces

Solution lies in providing the stainless steel which is resistant to corrosion


What Is Stainless Steel?

Stainless steel is low carbon steel. It is an alloy of iron with chromium content over 10.5%.Also nickel,molybdenum and certain other alloying elements are added
Chromium is the alloying element that imparts to stainless steel their corrosion resistance qualities

Fig 1.Corrosion Resistance of Stainless steel


Types Of Stainless Steel

Austenitic Ferritic Austenitic-ferritic (duplex) Martensitic Some of the commonly used grades of stainless steel for rebar applications are type 304,316(austenitic) and 2205(duplex).


It is made by adding nickel (from 8 to 25 percent) and increasing the chromium level (from 17 to 25 percent). Molybdenum can also be added (up to 7 percent) to increase the corrosion resistance

Basic properties: Excellent corrosion resistance in organic acid, industrial and marine environments. Excellent weldability (all processes) Excellent formability, fabricability and ductility Excellent cleanability, and hygiene characteristics Good high and excellent low temperature properties (high toughness at all temperatures) Non magnetic .

Ferritic stainless steel has properties similar to mild steel but with the better corrosion resistance. These are plain chromium stainless steels with varying chromium content between 12 and 18%, but with low carbon content

Basic properties: Moderate to good corrosion resistance increasing with

chromium content
Not hardenable by heat treatment and always used in the annealed condition

Weldability is poor Formability not as good as the austenitic

Austenitic-ferritic (Duplex):
Austenitic-ferritic (duplex) duplex stainless steels have a
metallurgical structure that is a combination of both ferritic and austenitic. They have a high chromium content (from 18 to 26

percent) and a low nickel content (from 4 to 7 percent). Most

grades also contain some molybdenum (from 2 to 3 percent) Basic properties: High resistance to stress corrosion cracking Increased resistance to chloride ion attack Higher tensile and yield strength than austenitic or ferritic steels Good weldability and formability

Martensitic stainless steel contains mostly 11 to 13% chromium.
Martensitic stainless steels were the first stainless steels commercially developed (as cutlery) and have relatively high

carbon content (0.1 - 1.2%) compared to other stainless steels

Basic properties Moderate corrosion resistance Can be hardened by heat treatment and therefore high strength and hardness levels can be achieved

Poor weldability

Properties Of Stainless Steel

Grade UNS No Family Crc Nic Moc Nc Yield Tensile C strength strength (max) MPa MPa b (min) (min)b 0.12 0.15 (min) 9 9 11 11 5 2.1 2.1 3 0.08 0.03 0.08 0.03 0.15 0.03 205 1480c 205 170 205 170 450 1720 515 485 Elong % (min)b

430 420 304 304L 316 316L 2205

S43000 S42000 S30400 S30403 S31600 S31603 S31803 S32205


17 13 18 18 17 17 22

22 8 40 40 40 40 25

Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Duplex

485 620



Fig 2 Stress-Strain Curve


Is Stainless Steel Costly?





Initial cost of stainless steel products will definitely be higher. However to work out the cost of ownership and usage over the

design life of the structure, say 50 or 80 years, one has to include the

initial cost and add the cost of maintenance, repair, replacement,

downtime and other factors.

In life cycle cost (LCC) analysis, will show how much the choice of different materials is actually going to affect the cost of ownership and use of the structure Viewed in this manner stainless steel always proves itself to be the most cost-effective choice over the design life of the structure or the product The end result is always the same stainless steel is cost-effective to the user

Partial repair to Janak Sethu Bridge built in 1981 in Delhi cost Rs
32 crore in 1999, whereas the initial cost of the bridge was only Rs 9 crore .250% increased.

In Tokyo, carbon steel bridges carrying drinking water have to be painted every 5-7 years. Analysis showed that whilst the installed cost of a stainless steel Water Bridge would be 10% more expensive, the saving in maintenance costs would result in an overall cost saving of 40% over 30 years. Today, all newly installed water bridges in Tokyo are in stainless steel


Actual Life Costing Example-Oland Bridge,Sweden

Fig 4

On an average, most bridges need a repair between 18-22 years,

at an average cost of the original cost of the bridge itself.
In the above example, the initial capital cost increase amounts to 4% for Type 304 and 8% for Type 316

UK Midlands Link Viaduct

Built in 1972 at a cost of 28 million, evidence of

corrosion operation.



after two



By 1989, 45 million had been spent on repair. By 2010 it is estimated that a further 120 million

will be spent on repair.


Marine Pier in Progresso, Mexico (Built in 1937-1941)

2.1 km long pier was constructed by a Danish contractor


A detailed account of the history and remarkable performance of

this pier has been provided by in the August/September 1999 issue

of Concrete Engineering International. Stainless reinforcement (Type 304) was incorporated in view of the severely corrosive exposure conditions pier still performs very well, the company reports with almost no sign of deterioration, whereas an adjacent pier made of carbon steel rebar about 30 years ago has virtually disappeared. They estimate the remaining service lifetime to be at least 20 to 30 years, even without any significant routing maintenance activities


The increase in overall cost of the project by the introduction of

stainless steel reinforcement bars can vary from 0.5% to 15%

depending on the design. Maximum durability is obtained with total substitution of stainless steel rebar in the structure. However, selective substitution is considered as a means of achieving enhanced durability at minimum increase in initial cost.


The following benefits of stainless rebar

Corrosion resistance

Ease of handling and shipping

Lighter structure (greater strength) Economical cost (life cycle cost analysis)


Fire and heat resistance Impact resistance Environmentally friendly Durability Available in many different product forms Good strength Good weldability for common rebar grades Good ductility for common rebar grades (capable of 3D 180E bends) No coatings to chip, crack, deteriorate Good mechanical properties for common rebar grades at high and low temperatures


A host of marine structures such as bridge decks, sidewalks, ramps, parapets, pilings, barriers, retaining walls, anchoring systems, parking garages, sea walls, columns, piers. Anchorages and any kind of joints Offshore platforms Tunnels, underpasses and subways Bridges, viaducts, overpasses Cement frameworks with magnetic characteristics Frameworks which are prone to breaking up due to frost or because of low temperatures Concrete slabs for drainage in environments with corrosive agents Supports/restoration for statues, monuments, cement, stone and marble works


The Marine Pier in Progresso, Yucatan (Mexico), Was Built in 1937-1941.


A Coastal Replacement Bridge at North Bend, Oregon Has Used 2205 Stainless Steel Rebar Instead of Carbon Steel Rebar for Critical Structural Elements in a Harsh Marine Environment. ODOT Expects the New Bridge to Provide Maintenance-free Service for an Amazing 120 Years. That Is 2.5 Times the Service Life of the Bridge It Is Replacing!


New Haynes Inlet Slough Bridge Completed State of the New Haynes Inlet Slough Bridge From North Bank of the Inlet, With Retired Timber Trestle Bridge at Right and Contractor's Partially Dismantled Workbridge in Left Background.


More Than 75 Tons of Type 316LN Stainless Rebar Were Used for the Brush Creek Highway Bridge in Oregon (1998)


165 Tons of 2205 (Duplex) Stainless Rebar Were Supplied for the New Ramp of the Garden State Parkway in New Jersey (1998).


Nuclear Plant In France: Stainless Steel Has Been Used to Build Ferroconcrete Drums for Disposal of Radioactive Nuclear Wastes. In This Application, for Safety Reasons, Is Mandatory the Use Stainless Steel in Order to Avoid Cracks in the Concrete (Caused by Reinforcing Bars Corrosion) and Subsequent Waste Leaking


Stainless Steel Reinforcement Has Been Used in Order to Minimize Future Maintenance Work of the Buildings. The Guildhall Yard East Project in London, England (1996) One of the Most Famous Historic Buildings in the Centre of the City of London, Utilized Over 140 Tons of Type 304 Rebar.


Chrysler Building New York


240 Tons of Type 316 Stainless Steel Rebar Used in the Road Slab of an Underpass at Cradlewell, UK (1995).


46 Tons of Austenitic Stainless Rebar Were Used in a New Laboratory Building of the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington, United Kingdom.


Stainless Steel Is Also Used in Restoration Works

Colosseo, Roma - Italy The work involved the partial restoration of the arena floor. The foundations in roman concrete was reinforced by stainless steel ribbed bars type AISI 304L in diameters 6, 8, 10, and 14 mm. Total quantity 3 tonnes.


Rocco Church, Dolo, Venezia - Italy The Work of Restoration Was Realized Employing Stainless Steel As the Wall Tie for the Supporting Structure.


San Benedetto Po Bridge, Mantova - Road 43, Romana, Anas Milano Italy Maintenance Work in the Foundation Decks and Piers of the Reinforced Concrete Bridge. The Stainless Steel Reinforcing Was Joined With Existing Mild Steel Reinforcing.


Glandstone Bridge, Queenslans, Australia The Gladstone Bridge Was Built in 1960 and Showed Corrosion of the Reinforcing Mild Steel on the Deck. The Maintenance Works Have Seen the Use of 12 mm Diameter Stainless Steel Ribbed Bars Type 316L Joined With the Original Carbon Steel


Stainless Steel Rebars Were Used in a Sea-front Building Restoration in Scarborough, UK (Early 1980's). They Were Selected for Stabilization of the Sea Wall, In-situ Concrete on the Promenade, and Pre-cast Units Around the Main Entrance. Type 316 Stainless Steel Rebar Was Utilized Immediately Adjacent to the Sea, While Type 304 Stainless Reinforcing Was Applied Further Inshore. Conventional Rebar Was Used Well Back From the Sea Front


Peak Tram Station. Hong Kong


Focal Dome, Parliament Library Building. Delhi


Despite the initial cost, there is considerable potential in savings of life cycle cost, especially infrastructures,

which are exposed to corrosive environment

Best suited material at all temperatures. Also stainless steel are suited for cryogenic applications

Available in different grades and hence significant

savings can be done Also the material is available in different forms, which is

more advantageous
Material is new generation and environmental friendly hence can be very rightly utilized as a new generation

material for all applications