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BY- SUNEET SRIVASTAVA

History of Fiber Optic Transmission Types of Multiplexing Principle of WDM WDM Technology WDM Components Transmission Challenges Future Scope Application Conclusion

EVOLUTION OF FIBER OPTIC TRANSMISSION


In mid 1960s researchers proposed optical fiber as suitable transmission medium.

In 1970 , Corning produced the first communication grade fibers. AT& T first standardized transmission at DS3 speed(45Mbps) for multimode fibers.

Thereafter, single mode fibers were shown to be capable of transmission rates 10 times that of older type. These regions called windows, lie between area of high absorption.

WINDOWS
O - band Wavelength (nm) 1280 1320 1360 E - band 1400 1440 S - band 1480 C - band 1520 1552 1560 L - band
DWDM Window

1600

CWDM Window

C Band Range : 1530nm 1560nm L Band Range : 1570nm 1600nm

Fiber Characteristics

Water Peak

1310 Window

1550 Window

WHAT ACTUALLY IS MULTIPLEXING ?

MULTIPLEXING (also known as muxing) is a method by which multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. a device that performs the multiplexing is called a multiplexer (mux), and a device that performs the reverse process is called a demultiplexer (demux).

Time Division Multiplexing Frequency Division multiplexing Code Division Multiplexing Wavelength Division multiplexing

PROBLEM: DEMAND FOR MASSIVE INCREASES IN CAPACITY

IMMEDIATE SOLUTION: WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING

LONGER TERM SOLUTION: OPTICAL FIBRE NETWORKS

PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

LIGHTWAVE SYSTEM

Colors are transmitted through air and may mix These colors can be easily separated by prism

PRINCIPLE

ADVANTAGES OF WDM
Unlimited Transmission Capacity Transparency Scalability Dynamic Provisioning

IS WDM FLEXIBLE?
GE WDM Fiber MUX

Independent opticial bit rates and formats

SONET

Fiber Channel ATM


Fiber Cable

IS WDM EXPANDABLE?
Incremental capacity expansion to 80 Gbits/s and beyond Allows reuse of the installed equipment base

TYPES OF WDM

WDM SYSTEM

Block Diagram of DWDM System

WDM COMPONENTS
lens Fiber optic lens

prism
l1...n l1 l3 l2

prism
l1 l2 l3

l1...n

Light source

Photo detector

LIGHT SOURCES
LED (light emitting diode)
LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated

Emission of Radiation)

WDM COMPONENTS
l1 850/1310 15xx l2 l3 l1...n

Transponder Optical Multiplexer

l1 l2 l3 l1...n

l1 l2 l3

Optical De-multiplexer Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM)


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WDM SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS Component reliability


System availability System margin. System wavelength and bit rate can be upgraded

Attenuation Attenuation is caused by : - intrinsic factors primarily scattering and absorption - extrinsic factors, including stress from the manufacturing process, the environment, and physical bending Rayleigh scattering - is an issue at shorter wavelengths

TRANSMISSION CHALLENGES

RAYLEIGH SCATTERING

Attenuation due to absorption


- is an issue at longer wavelengths - the intrinsic properties of the material

- impurities in the glass, and any atomic defects in the glass.

Absorption

DISPERSION
Spreading of light pulses

Two general types of dispersion


Chromatic Dispersion - is linear Polarization Mode Dispersion - is nonlinear.

FUTURE OF WDM
What the future holds

Two-way video communication Digital video for our everyday use

The Ultimate Squeeze - reducing the space between wavelengths - expanding the range of transmission wavelengths - better EDFAs

Develop better equipment Cheap WDM pipelines

APPLICATIONS OF WDM
Long-distance telecommunications Building or expanding networks

Network wholesalers can lease capacity


Utilize the existing thin fiber DWDM improves signal transmission

New technology for utilization of bandwidth Ultra high speed data rate