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Historical Background:From ancient times when mankind did not even know the words Biotechnology and Fermentation,

they were using fermentation process in yogurt making, dye making and life saving drugs with the help of Fungi and Bacteria. Now a days usage of Bacterial and fungal compounds has been transformed into an industry for welfare of mankind.

Friend (Positive aspects) Mineralization (mycorrhizal fungi) Food & fodder ( Mushrooms) Medicine (Penicillin, Streptomycin etc) Biological control ( Bio-degradation of different fungicides, insecticides & plastics)

Food products and fodders:From the start of human race different species of fungi are being used as valuable food products. Adam & Eve temptation scene from fungus tree (Book of Wasson). Ancient civilizations like Egyptians, Mesopotamians, Greeks, Chinese used edible fungi as valuable source of food.

It is an ancient process about 6000 B.C. ago. And yeast was playing the key role in fermentation leading to production of Beer and alcohol. Pasteur first stated that alcohol fermentation is caused by living organisms (Etudes sur la biere) in 1876. Emil Christian Hansen first isolated brewing yeast and cultured it. Beer production is an old alcoholic fermentation process using Barley water, Hopes (Humulus upulus) and yeast strains. Mixture of these substrates are poured down in the wooden container and mashed up then high maltose content are extracted. Hopes, gives flavor and aroma along with yeast strains. The clarified wort is aerated and converted into ethanol and Carbon dioxide. This conversion is 50/50 process. 50% substrate is converted into ethanol and 50% is converted in Carbon dioxide and byproducts. Examples of yeast strains; S. cerevisiae, S. carlsbergensis, S. bayanus, S. paradoxus, S. pabtorianus. Infact fermentation process is anaerobic in biochemical terms but in industries we usually prefer both aerobic and anaerobic processes in fermentation. Fermentor: They contain thousands of litters of medium in industries while a few litters in laboratories.

(i)Pilot scale (ii)Large scale On the basis of mechanism Submerged fermenter Surface fermenter On the basis of composition Homo fermenter Mix fermenter

Breads Vinegar Soya

sauces Vine & beers Milk products Cheese Preserved fish meat Gallic acid ( Trihydroxy Benzoic acid) Phenolic acids (Antifungal , cytotoxic against cancer cells) Acetone butanol ( Substrates for rubber production) Penecillin, Streptomycin Steroid transformation by fungal spores Preparation of amino acids Mycotoxins Reuse of waste materials by fermentation.

Mild

conditions (pH and temperature) Low cost, low consumption of energy Food inhibited from pathogens by lactic acid fermentation which results in production of hydrogen peroxide and diacetyl Lactic acid fermentation reduces toxins in plants ( cyanogenic glycosides in Cassava plants & softening of plant tissues). Enhanced digestibility by degradation of complex sugars in oligosaccharides. Complementary food for children containing amylose. Beneficial health effects; improves food safety via probiotics ( save from hyper cholestrolic & carcinogenic effects).

Require careful control of raw material , lack of sanitation. Contamination (e.g. fermentation carried out in plastic containers enhance the chance of botulinum contamination). Vulnerability of metabolites to contamination

It makes resistant from spoilage and development of food toxins and less likely to transform pathogens. Fermented Products Breads Indian Idli (Bread) Sourdough bread

Egyptian

kishk (dried wheat-milk product) Russian kefir (Acidic, mildly alcoholic ) Russian Koumis milk Labonese Labneh Cheese Dahi

Ethiopian

tej (home processed wine from honey) Kenyan urwaga ( From Bananas, millets) African kaffir beer Mexican tesguino Whisky Indian lager Mango wine Kiwi fruity wine

Japanese

soyu Chinese Jiang Malaysian soya sauce Indonesian soya sauce Beside these fermented soyabeans (tempe) Cereals (Chinese Minchin, Chinese red rice & different mix fermented foods (Nigerian Burukutu; creamy drink from Sorghum, Cassava, Candida, Aspergillus) Tubers fermented (African fufu, West African Gari of Cassava, Nigerian Cafuri of Cassava). Fermented meat ( Fungi and bacteria undergo lactic acid fermentation which enhance proteolytic and lipolytic activity). Fermented Fish; ( Japanese katsuobushi, Camboidan phaak, vietnamese nuocman). & salted sea foods.

Ergotamine (claviceps purpurea) Facilitate delivery, Migraine headaches Steroids production by fungus Antifungal greisofulvin ( Penecillium greisofulvum) Penicillin antibiotic. Cephalosporins (cephalosporin acremonuim) Cyclosporin ( Immuno supressor) ( Tolypocladium inflatum) Cilofungin (for candidasis ) (Candida albicans) Statins (products of metabolic reactions in fungi e.g. lovastatin (Aspergillus terreus) anti cholesterolic Vitamins (e.g. Vitamin B by Nematospora gossypii, Eremothecium ashybi)

Family Oxido reductase Glucose oxidase Catalase Hydrolases Lipase Catalase Ribonuclease

Functions Taste intensifier Removal of H2O2

Aroma development Taste intensifier

FAMILY Glucosidase amylase amylase Dextranase Glucoamylase Invertase Lactase Melibiase Naringinase Pectinase Xylanase Cellulase

FUNCTIONS Baking, Brewing industry Starch hydrolysis Cosmetic industries Food industry Production & processing of sweets Milk & Baking industry Sugar production from sugar beets Bewerage industry (Removal of bitter taste) Bewerage industry ( fruit juices) Food industry Food, cellulose-paper industry SCP production

Peptide hydrolases
Proteases Renin

Food industry Milk industry (Peptide preparation & cheese production)

Citric acid:D-glucose Pyruvate Pyruvate

Pyruvate DH

CO2

pyruvate carboxylase
Oxaloacetate

Acetyl Co.A

Citric acid (citrate)

Gluconic

acid:- Critical Enzyme;- Glucose oxidase.(penicillium) Itanoic acid(Decarboxylase) Fumaric acid L. Malic acid Succinic acid Meso-tartaric acid Oxalic acid

Fungus Cortinarius sanguineus Cortinarius semisanguineus Fomes fomentarius Gymnopilus penetrans Hydnellum caeruleum Hyphaolama fasiculare Ramaria pallida Tricholompsis rulilans

Dye color Orange, rust-red, scarlet, deep fox red Yellow, pink, salmon /pink, grey/brown Beige, yellow brown Gold (non-mordant), Gold (alum), cinnamon (copper) Brown green, Dark forest, Greenish brown, Yellow olive, Blue dye Mustard, Brown (chrome, alum)

Process by which living organisms degrade or transform hazardous organic contaminants to less toxic compounds.

Biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons by fungi has traditionally been considered co metabolic nature e.g. benzene, toulene, styrene, xylene by fungi. White rot fungi:- ( biodegradation of phenols) Panus tigrins (Biodegradation of olive mills waste water) Fusarium (Biodegradation of olive mill dry residue) Phlebia brevispore (Biodegradation of polychloryphenols)

Fungi can also degrade n-alkanes such as tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hectadecane. N-eicosane by Aspergillus, T.asperelluim, Penicillium, Aspergillus niger Similary oleic acid, stearic acid, decanoic acid,Imidazolium comounds (Ics) Quarternary ammonium compounds (QSEs) Carbon tetrachlordie, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene.

Biphenyls, monohydroxylated derivatives (2-hydroxy biphenyl, 4-hydroxy biphenyls) Tribromophenol (Trametes versicolor, Agaricus augustus, Laetoporeus sulfureus,G. australe) Widdral (Botrytis cinerea)

Endosulfan (Chaetosartorya stromatoides, Aspergillus terricola) Toxaphene, lindane (B jerkandera, Non-white rot, Phanerochaete, Chyrosporium,Bjerkandera adusta) Dyes biodegradation (Phanerochaete, Trametes versicolor, Pychoporus sanguineus) Lignin cellulose degradation (Pleutrotus ostreatus, Schizophyllum species, Paecilalomioes eameus)

PVCs (Polyveniyl chloride) Penicillium species, Gloephylum trabeum, Aspergillus niger. Polyhydroxy butyrate hydroxyvolerate (PHB(V)) Phanerochaete chrysporium