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Overview of 3G Packet Data

Salih Ergut 7/16/2003

Outline
cdma2000 packet data architecture and network elements Simple IP/Mobile IP Packet Network Nodes State Machines MAC Layer Packet Data Call Flows 1x EV-DV (1xRTT Evolution for high-speed

integrated Data and Voice)

Motivation, goals and basic principles


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Packet Data Architecture


SS7 Network VLR MSC HLR PSTN Telephone Network

AAA BSC PCF PDSN Packet Network

Home Agent

Home AAA

Simple IP vs. Mobile IP


Mobile stations IP address will be changed

as the subscriber moves to different cells Mobile station will be able to use a constant IP even when moving across different cells
Packet Network

BSC

PCF

PDSN

PDSN PCF

BSC
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Mobile IP Registration

BSS

PDSN (FA)

Packet Network

Home Agent

MIP-RRQ MIP-RRQ

Mobile registers its care of address HA replies with lifetime


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MIP-RRP MIP-RRP Packet Data Tunnel (UDP over IP)

Packet Network Nodes


PCF (Packet Control Function)

A required IP element in cdma2000 networks Provides relay to mobile from PDSN Keeps track of registration lifetime expiration and ensures that the sessions are renewed as necessary Controls the available radio resources Buffers data received from PDSN until radio resources becomes available Controls dormancy PDSN (Packet Data Serving Node) PPP datalink layer to mobile is terminated Interfaces with PCF IP packets are routed In MIP network acts as a FA

Packet Network Nodes


AAA (Authentication, Authorization, and

Accounting)

Stores accounting information and authenticates/authorizes mobiles Provides security to FA and Foreign AAA.

HA (Home Agent) Establishes a secure packet-data tunnel with the FA to provide MIP services and routes the packets destined to the mobile to the FA Authenticates MIP registrations
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Mobile Originated Packet Data Call


UCSD BSC / PCF Origination Base Station Ack CMServReq SCCP-CC TCH Setup Assign Request A11-RRQ A11-RRP Assign Complete PPP Link Establishment and Mobile IP Registration User Packet Data Packet Network
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Ericsson ///
MSC PDSN

A8 /A10 setup

Control Plane Signaling

A11 UDP IP Link

A11 UDP IP Link

Phys

Phys

BSC/PCF

PDSN
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User Plane Relay Mode

IP PPP GRE RLP AIR Interface RLP IP AIR Link Interface Phys BSC/PCF A10 RS-232

IP PPP GRE IP Link Phys

IP

IP

Link

Link

RS-232

Phys

Phys End Host


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PDSN

User Plane Network Mode

IP
SLIP or PPP

IP
SLIP or PPP

IP PPP GRE RLP AIR Interface RLP IP AIR Link Interface Phys BSC/PCF A10

IP PPP GRE IP Link Phys

IP

IP

Link

Link

RS-232

RS-232

Phys

Phys End Host


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PDSN

MAC States (1/3)


Active Mode and DTX Data traffic flows Reverse pilot is not gated MS and BS can discontinue traffic for 10-20 frames (~200ms) without tearing down traffic channel
Active SCH
millisecond

Active FCH

Control/Hold
second minute

Dormant
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MAC States (2/3)


Control Hold Triggered when the data traffic is idle ~1-2 seconds Signaling only Power control is maintained Reverse pilot can be gated MS Stores radio information
Active SCH
millisecond

Active FCH

Control/Hold
second minute

Dormant
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MAC States (3/3)


Dormancy Triggered when data traffic is idle ~1-2 minutes Traffic channels and A8 (BSC-PCF) connection is released A10 (PCF-PDSN) connection and PPP is maintained
Active SCH
millisecond

Active FCH

Control/Hold
second minute

Dormant
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Dormant Mode
Initiation BSC initiates when inactivity timer is expired or RF failure occurred MS initiates when inactivity timer is expired or TCH is released Reactivation Initiated when network or MS has data to send Since PPP is maintained no extra control plane signaling required User data is exchanged after reactivation
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Inter BSC Intra PDSN HHO


Source MSC BSC/PCF User Packet Data
HO Required

PDSN

Target BSC/PCF

HO Request HO Request ACK

Null Fwd Traffic

HO Direction Msg

HO Command HO Commenced

Rev Traffic

HCM
Tear Down Channels Clear Command A11 RRQ A11 RRP Handoff Complete

Clear Complete
A11 RRQ (Lifetime = 0) A11 RRP

User Packet Data


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Quality of Service
Still standardization is continuing

Air interface is bottleneck for an end-to-end

QoS Some parameters are defined such as

Users priority level (14 possible levels) Minimum acceptable data rate (2x, 4x, ) Acceptable FER (1%, 2%, 5%, 10%)

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1x EV-DV (1xRTT Evolution for high-speed integrated Data and Voice)

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Motivation
CDMA 1x supplemental channel scheduling

is slow (~2-4 secs) and data rate is not satisfactory (~144 kbps) Forward link has priority due to asymmetric nature of the data applications Flexibility against short term and long term voice and data demands

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Design Goals
Backward compatibility with cdma2000 1x

cdma2000 1x features, applications and services and voice/data capabilities are maintained

Minimal effect on the terminals and

infrastructure for cdma2000 1x customers increase battery life as a side goal

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Design Requirements
FL peak data rate > 2.4 Mbps

RL peak data rate > 1.25 Mbps


Average throughput in FL and RL > 600 kbps Peak data rate and average throughput is at

least as much as 1X EV-DO

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Whats needed?
Radio resources should be optimally used

Radio link control & resource allocation must

be optimized

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How is it achieved? (1/3)


100%

Base Station Power

Residual power for 1x EV-DV 1xEV-DV overhead

Power for 1x voice and data

1x overhead Time Packet Data Common Channel is introduced


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How is it achieved? (2/3)


Left-over power is used, hence no power

control Rate control (higher order modulation and coding) is used to maintained link quality Optimally schedule delay tolerant data

Favor the user with good channel quality Serve users both in parallel (CDM) and serial (TDM) while TDM is preferred if possible

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How is it achieved? (3/3)


Fast sector switching

Fast channel quality indicator send by MS


Fast physical layer ARQ (Automatic Repeat

Request) which also provides error correction

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Whats next?
Reverse link data enhancements are

necessary to meet the requirements, i.e. 1.25 Mbps Common services and mobility with different type of network access technologies, such as Wireless LANs, DSL, satellites etc.

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4G
Higher data rates ~2-20 Mbps New air interface needs to be developed Potential candidate OFDM Smart antennas can form directed beams to

increase strength of the desired signal A new spectrum needs to be assigned Software radio can transmit over different air interface technologies All-IP vision: base stations become an access router
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