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General Chemistry CHEM 151

Week 5
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Week 5 Reading Assignment


See D2L CONTENT

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Unit 2: Zooming In
What are they made of? Why are they joined in this way?

They could be atoms, molecules, ions

What holds them together?

Why are there forces between them? (intermolecular forces)


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Electrical Nature
How do we explain this?

We assume atoms and molecules have an electrical nature (they are made of + and - charges) Understanding charge distribution in atoms and molecules is of central importance in chemistry.
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PLANETARY MODEL

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PLUM PUDDING MODEL


.

What experiment Resolved the problem?

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Rutherford and Marsden

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Current view of the atom


23 2 11

Na X 1 4

1+ 3

1)Atomic number(Z) = # protons = # electrons= ? 2) Mass number (A) protons plus neutrons neutrons = 3) Ionic charge -0 if neutral atom + if electrons lost - if electrons added Electrons? 4) Number of times previous item appears in the compound

Na3 ?

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objective
Given any element or ion find the Number of protons neutrons electrons (especially ions) p= n= e=

27 13

Al

3
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old

Atoms
Made of electrons (-) , protons (+), and neutrons (no charge).

new

Mass Number, A (protons+ neutrons)


A Z

Atoms are characterized by the number of protons in the nucleus (atomic number, Z). In a neutral atom, the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons.

X
O

16 8

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Atomic Number, Z, and Mass Number, A


All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons in the nucleus, Z, but they may differ in the number of neutrons Mass Number A= # protons + # neutrons A boron atom can have A = 5p + 5n

10 5

B
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Daltons model revisited


By all experiments Cl (chlorine) weights 35.45 amu

You CANNOT HAVE 0.45 of a mass unit


All matter is made of atoms (Greeks) All atoms of an element are the same Compounds are whole number combinations of different atoms In a chemical Rx. Atoms are reorganized but never made or destroyed DALTONs LAW was in trouble
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Isotopes
Atoms of the same element (same Z) but different mass number (A). Boron-10 (10B) has 5 p and 5 n Boron-11 (11B) has 5 p and 6 n
How many p and n in this atom?
12 6

11B

10B

What is this?
208 82

??
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Atomic Mass
The scale of atomic masses is defined relative to a standard:
12 6

12 amu (atomic mass units)


12 6

1 amu is exactly 1/12 the mass of an atom of or 1.66 x 10-24g


1 1

1.00728 amu
11.0093 amu

10 5 79 35

B 10.0129 amu

11 5

Br 78.918 amu

Because of the existence of isotopes, the mass of an atom in the periodic table is expressed as an average value of the mass of the different natural isotopes.
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Average Atomic Mass


Boron is 19.9% 10B (10.013 amu) and 80.1% 11B (11.009 amu) What is the average atomic mass?
10B

11B

Average Mass = fraction(1) x M1 + fraction(2) x M2 +. = 0.199(10.013 amu) + 0.801(11.009 amu) = 10.81 amu Periodic Table
5 B 10.811
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Average Atomic Mass


By EXPERIMENT for Every element

Symbol Atomic number Average Atomic mass Name

Cl 17 35.45 Chlorine

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Electrical Interactions
Protons and electrons have exactly the same charge (magnitude) but opposite signs.
attract + r

repel

q 1.602 x 10

19

Coulomb(C )

Coulombs Law

q1 q 2 F 2 r

Electrons have both kinetic and potential energy.

Atoms are most stable when the total energy (kinetic + potential) is a minimum.
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Interesting fact

Every element, compound, substance that has an ODD number of Electrons is magnetic! Most but not all substances with an EVEN number of electrons are non-magnetic. Electrons are the source of all magnetism -how? Demo

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Electrons like to form pairs But only one pair per box

ms = +1/2 ms= -1/2

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Other Interactions
Protons and electrons have an additional property called spin.

Same Spin Additional Repulsion

Opposite Spin Some Attraction

Spin generates an additional force between electrons (magnetic)

Magnetic force much less than Electric force


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A Look into Electronic Structure


The chemical properties of elements and compounds depend on the electronic structure of their atoms or molecules. How are electrons distributed in the system? (space-wise, energy-wise)
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Chemical Analysis
Because we cannot see inside atoms, we need to use indirect methods to analyze their structure.
Our analytical methods are based on the use of light or electromagnetic radiation We analyze the light emitted or absorbed by different atoms to make models of their structure
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Im glad you are learning ahead of time.

Print this page only and turn it in on Wednesday For this weeks participation points.

NAME PRINT ________________________________ Name Sign Dr.W ________________________________

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Light Interactions
Because atoms have an electrical nature, they can interact with light.

Waves can be characterized by their wavelength Wavelength (l) - distance between the top of nearby crests. (meters-m)
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Electromagnetic Radiation

Frequency-Number of waves per unit time. (1/s=s-1 = Hertz=Hz)


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Relationships
For all waves v (velocity) = or frequency x wavelength
dimensional analysis =

ALL forms of light = electromagnetic radiation

ALL ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION TRAVELS AT THE SAME VELOCITY


V= = c (speed of light)

3 x 108 m/sec 3 x 1010 cm/sec 186,000 miles/sec or is it /hr?

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Energy INCREASES -rays

X-rays
UV

VISIBLE Infrared

microwave Radio/TV

Long waves

VIB G YOR

ROY G BIV

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Page 259

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What does light do?


-ray destroys tissue X-ray penetrates tissue knocks out es UV- moves es; breaks bonds Visible- moves es inside of atoms (jumps) IR causes molecules to vibrate- no e jump Microwave- spins molecules; rotates bonds Radio/TV passes through tissue will flip the nucleus of H MRI Long waves communications through the earth Taos,NM HUMMMM ELF (extreme low freq)

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Fig. 7.3

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ALL ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION MOVES AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT


ALL ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION MOVES AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT ALL ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION MOVES AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT
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Spectra

Most heated objects (horse shoes, etc.) Give all the colors of the spectrum but in Different amounts we see the most intense.
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Light from Glowing objects

Most heated solid objects (light bulbs, electric stove) give all the colors of the spectrum (white light) but in different amounts we see the most intense. red hot (mostly red) and white hot (more blues)
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Heated Elements give only one color

Copper
Strontium Sodium

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Metal Ions make Fireworks!!

Strontium

Copper or Barium

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Atomic Emission Spectra


When the light emitted by individual atoms is passed through a prism, only a few colored lines are seen. This is called a line emission spectrum, which is characteristic of the element.
H atoms

Why line Spectra?


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Line spectra
sodium

Each element in the gas phase has a distinctive set of colored lines this was the way new elements were often found at very low concentrations
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Line Spectra of Excited Atoms


Excited atoms emit light of only certain wavelengths

The wavelengths of emitted light depend on the type of atom.


Short l High
700. nm

Long l Low

How do we explain this behavior?


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How do we explain Atomic Line Spectra?


Niels Bohr (1905) suggested that electrons in atoms can only exist in certain discrete orbits, with discrete energy levels, called quantized energy states.
Niels Bohr
Electron orbit

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Atomic Spectra and Bohr Model


If electrons are in quantized energy states, then DE of states can have only certain values. This explains sharp line spectra.

We can use the wavelength of the light emitted to calculate the energy n: principal quantum number difference between levels.

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Interaction Light-Matter
Basic Relationships
where c = speed of light = 2.998 x 108 m/sec When light interacts with matter, energy is transmitted in packets of energy called photons.

l = c

Energy per photon

E = h
h = Plancks constant = 6.6261 x 10-34 Js
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Excited H atoms release light of different colors (wavelengths)

Consider one of the lines that is red light


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700 nm

Electromagnetic Radiation
One H-emission has l = 700. nm (red light) Calculate the frequency in Hertz.

1 x 10-9 m 700. nm = 7.00 x 10-7 m 1 nm

c=

= c/
2.998 x 108 m/s

s-1= Hertz (Hz)

Freq = 7.00 x 10-7 m

= 4.28 x 1014 s-1


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Energy of Radiation
PROBLEM: Calculate a) the energy of a photon of red light (l= 700. nm)

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Predictions

Bohrs Model

Perfect Match !!
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Electromagnetic Radiation

..

The human eye is a complex sensing device for visible light. The optic nerve needs a minimum of 2.0 x 10-17 J of energy to trigger a series of impulses that eventually reaches the brain: How many photons of blue light (475. nm) are needed?

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What other properties can help us understand electronic structure?


First Ionization Energy
Energy required to remove a first electron from a gaseous atom to create a positively charged gaseous +1 ion

M(g) M+ (g) + eUA GenChem

1st Ionization Energy Data


M M+ + 1eE= I.E.

Trend?

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What trends do you see? Implications?


H He Li

1st IE decreases down a group

1st IE increases across a period

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Shell Model of the Atom


The trends in the first ionization energy suggest that electrons are arranged in energy shells.
n=2

Observations Shell n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 # of e2 e8 e8 e18 e-

n=1

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Summary Activity:
What ion does a sodium atom form and why?

Ionization Energy (kJ/mol)

7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1st 2nd 3rd

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end

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