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Flow Chart

Data Collecting & Verification

- Regional Geology - Bouguer Map

Loading Seismic and Wells Data

Loading Supporting Data (Checkshot, Formation Market, etc.)

Seismic Well Tie

Seismic Interpretation / Fault Reconstruction

Picking Horizon
Iteration

Structural Map, Isopach & Isochron Lead & Prospect

Y/N

Risk Analysis

REFLECTION PATTERN PARALLEL


HORIZONTAL

SUBPARALLEL
REGULAR MIGRATING

CLINOFORM
SIGMOID

DISCORDANT
ANGULAR

LENTICULAR INCLINED IRREGULAR OBLIQUE

HUMMOCKY UNDULATING PARALLEL CONTORTED

SHINGLED CHAOTIC

REFLECTION PATTERN

FREE/ TRANSPARENT DIVERGENT/CONVERGENT

DISCONTINUOUS

DISCONTINUOUS

CONTINUOUS

REFLECTION CONTINUITY

The

purpose of interpretation is to obtain depth map (structural map) of The surveyed area. We can divide interpretation into two parts The interpretation of structure using the geometry of the beds The interpretation of lithology using seismic signatures and seismic attributes.

Structural

interpretation is relatively straightforward and is largely visual.


the internal geometry of layered strata is revealed sediment packages can be identified erosion surfaces can be identified channelling can be identified

We

must remember the various scale distortions that may exist in a seismic record.
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Deep record from land survey TWT scale in seconds

Offshore sparker survey timescale lines 40ms apart.

It

is possible to estimate the lithology (sediment type) from a seismic record, although this is less precise than determining the structure. The key is the seismic signature of the material. This is the internal appearance of a bed, arising from the composite effect of numerous small reflectors within it.
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A key issue concerns the sound source, since this influences the signature as well as does the sediment type. The signatures obtained in marine surveys in particular are very sensitive to the sound source in use. Thus, in a given material, a boomer may produce a different signature from a sparker. This is due to the differing frequency spectra and resolving power of the two sources. This is less of a problem in terrestrial surveys since the higher frequencies (=details) are usually lost.

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These signatures are both from identical lithologies

False layering produced by non-lithological features


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Signatures are broadly characteristic of the parent materials (with the above proviso). This leads to the idea of a seismic facies. A seismic facies is a unit of sediment that has a consistent seismic appearance. It is often assumed that this implies a consistent lithology. The full geophone record can be analysed statistically as a time series to obtain eg its frequency content, average amplitude, autocorrelation etc. These are known as seismic attributes and can be characteristic of particular layers.

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AI = V AI AI1 2 V2 1V1 RC 2 AI2 AI1 2 V2 1V


AI1 AI 2 RC2 AI 3 RC3 AI 4 RC1

10% Porosity

20% Porosity

30% Porosity

Gas

Oil

Brine

Courtesy of ExxonMobil

10% Porosity Offset

20% Porosity Offset

30% Porosity Offset

Courtesy of ExxonMobil

Synrift Example

Could you tell me where is Fluvial Environment ? Could you tell me where is Deltaic Environment ?

Could You Tell Me Where is Fluvial Environment (Braided Stream, Fan Delt Could You Tell Me Where is Deltaic Environment ? Marine? Marine?

DELTAIC

TRANSITION Lacustrine? FLUVIAL

DHI = Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator


Seismic DHIs are anomalous seismic responses related to the presence of hydrocarbons Acoustic impedance of a porous rock decreases as hydrocarbon replaces brine in pore spaces of the rock, causing a seismic anomaly (DHI) There are a number of DHI signatures; we will look at a few common ones: Amplitude anomaly Fluid contact reflection Fit to structural contours

Courtesy of ExxonMobil

Anomalous amplitudes

Change in amplitude along the reflector Low High Amplitude

Courtesy of ExxonMobil

Hydrocarbons are lighter than water and tend to form flat events at the gas/oil contact and the oil/water contact.

Thicker Reservoir

Fluid contact event

Thinner Reservoir

Fluid contact event

Courtesy of ExxonMobil

L12 Data Analysis

Since hydrocarbons are lighter than water, the fluid contacts and associated anomalous seismic events are generally flat in depth and therefore conform to structure, i.e., mimic a contour line

Courtesy of ExxonMobil

L12 Data Analysis

Goal: To map the extent of the A1 gas-filled reservoir


W
A1 Gas Sand

Inline 840
Courtesy of ExxonMobil

Figure 1

Gas Sand

Water Sand

Traces are clipped

Inline 840
Courtesy of ExxonMobil

Figure 1
L12 Data Analysis

Extent of Gas
Figure 1

Inline 840

Courtesy of ExxonMobil

L12 Data Analysis