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Naming and Chemical Formula Writing

facts about the PERIODIC TABLE

It was arranged by Mendeleev according to their atomic number The vertical columns are called Groups or Families. The horizontal columns are called Periods The elements are divided into three categories -metals, nonmetals and metalloids

Elements

substances that cannot be decomposed by simple chemical change into two or more different substances.

Compounds

substances of definite composition that can be decomposed by simple chemical change into two or more different substances.

Mixtures

materials that contain two or more different substances more or less jumbled together

Elements
Elements can occur in nature as: a. Monatomic form All metals and noble gases exist in their simplest form or as atoms. b. Diatomic molecule H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2 c. Polyatomic molecule Elements containing more than two atoms phosphorus (P4) and sulfur (S8)

the only elements that exist in liquid state are mercury (Hg) and bromine (Br2). elements that exist in gaseous state are H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2, and noble gases. All other elements that exist in solid state including phosphorus (P4) and sulfur (S8) and I2

Ions

charged species formed from a neutral atom or molecule when electrons are gained or lost as the result of a chemical change
Cation Anion

Na+

Cl-

Cation

Metals tend to form cations by losing electrons

Na Na+ + e0 +1 -1

Anion

Nonmetals tend to gain electrons to form anions

Cl + e- Cl0 -1 -1

Cl2 + 2e- 2 Cl0 -2 -2

Oxidation number/Oxidation states

number of charges the atom would have in a molecule (or in an ionic compound) Group 1A Group 2A Group 3A Group 4A +1 +2 +3 -4 Group 5A Group 6A Group 7A Group 8A -3 -2 -1 0

Charges does not apply to metalloids


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.for Transition Metal


Sc Ti V Cr Mn +7 +6 +5 +4 +3 +2 Fe Co Ni Cu

+3

+4 +3 +2

+5 +4 +3 +2

+6 +5 +4 +3 +2

+6 +5 +4 +3 +2

+4 +3 +2

+3 +2

+3 +2 +1
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In formula writing..
The subscript of the cation is numerically equal to the charge on the anion, and the subscript of the anion is numerically equal to the charge on the cation

Al 3+

O 2-

Al2O3
Note: Cation are written first then the anion
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Formula writing
How do we compute the sum of the charges?
Al2O3 2(+3) + 3(-2) = 0
Subscript of Cation Charge of Cation Subscript of Anion

Charge of Anion

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Compounds

formed when atoms of 2 or more different elements chemically combine in ratios of whole numbers
Types: Binary Compounds Ternary Compounds

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Naming Compounds
Ionic compounds
Element
Na K Mg Al Sodium Potassium Magnesium aluminum

Name of Cation
Na+ K+ Mg2+ Al3+ Sodium ion Potassium ion Magnesium ion Aluminum ion
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Naming Compounds
Ionic compounds (Anion)
Group 4A
Si Silicide(Si4-)

Group 5A
P Phosphide (P3-)

Group 6A
O Oxide (O2-) S Sulfide (S2-) Se Selenide (Se2-) Te Telluride (Te2-)

Group 7A
F Fluoride (F-) Cl Chloride (Cl) Br Bromide (Br-) I Iodide (I-)

C Carbide (C4-) N Nitride (N3-)

The suffix -ide is added to the root word of the anion

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Binary Compounds

Contains two (2) elements only Types:

Metal (cation) + Nonmetal (anion)


a. Cations with fixed oxidation state + Anion derived from nonmetals b. Cations with Variable oxidation state + Anion derived from nonmetals

Hydrogen (cation) + Nonmetal (anion) Nonmetal + Nonmetal


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Metal (cation) + Nonmetal (anion)

Cations with fixed oxidation state + Anion derived from nonmetals


Fixed oxidation states refers to the elements belonging to group A

NaCl

Sodium Chloride

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Binary Compounds
Cations with fixed oxidation state + Anion derived from nonmetals
Example:

BaCl2 Al2O3 AgBr NaF CaCl2


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Metal (cation) + Nonmetal (anion)

Cations with Variable oxidation state + Anion derived from nonmetals


Variable oxidation states refers to the elements belonging to group B

Copper

Cu+

Cu2+ Cupric Copper (II)


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Cuprous
Copper (I)

Binary Compounds
Cations with Variable oxidation state + Anion derived from nonmetals

CuCl
Example: FeBr2 FeBr3

Copper (I) Chloride Copper (II) Chloride

CuCl2

Manganese (III) oxide


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Hydrogen (cation) + Nonmetal (anion)


Formula HX
HF HCl HBr HI H2S

Name (pure subs) Name (aqueous soln)


Hydrogen + ____ -ide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen iodide Hydrogen sulfide Hydro + ___ic acid Hydrofluoric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Hydrosulfuric acid

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Nonmetal + Nonmetal
Prefix MonoDiTriTetraPenta-

Meaning 1
2 3 4 5

Prefix HexaHeptaOctaNonaDeca-

Meaning 6
7 8 9 10

Format: (Prefix + first element) + (Prefix + root of second element +ide)


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Nonmetal + Nonmetal
Format: (Prefix + first element) + (Prefix + root of second element +ide)
Exceptions: 1. When the subscript of the first element is one (1) then the prefix mono is omitted. 2. If the second element is oxygen and the last letter of the prefix is a letter a or a letter o, these letters are omitted.
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.example
N2O4
___nitrogen _____oxide tetr di Example:

CCl4 CBr4 Phosphorus pentachloride

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Exercises
Write the chemical symbols of the ff :
o calcium nitride
o o o o

phosphorus pentachloride
lithium sulfide cesium iodide barium phosphide
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Ternary Compounds
Contains 3 elements only.

A. Metal (cation) + Polyatomic ion (anion) Polyatomic ion (cation) + Monoatomic Anion Polyatomic ion (cation) + Polyatomic Anion
NaNO3 NH4Br NH4NO3 Sodium Nitrate Ammonium bromide Ammonium nitrate

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Must know..
Ammonium Carbonate Chlorate Hydrogen carbonate Hydrogen sulfate Hydroxide Nitrate Phosphate Sulfate Sulfite NH4+ CO32ClO3HCO3HSO4OHNO3PO43SO42SO3228

Thiocyanate Permanganate Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrogen Phosphate Chromate Dichromate Cyanide Diborane Silane Phosphine

SCNMnO4HPO4H2PO4CrO42Cr2O72CNB2H6 SiH4 PH3


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Some Acids
Nitric Acid Sulfuric Acid Hydrochloric Acid Carbonic Acid Chloric Acid Phosphoric Acid Phosphorous Acid Sulfurous Acid Nitrous Acid HNO3 H2SO4 HCl H2CO3 HClO3 H3PO4 H3PO3 H2SO3 HNO2
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B. H + oxyanions (oxyacids)
Formula of Oxoacids Naming of Oxoacids Formula of Oxoanion Name of Oxoanion

HClO4
HClO3 HClO2

Perchloric acid
Chloric acid Chlorous acid
Hypochlorous acid

ClO4ClO3ClO2-

Perchlorate
Chlorate Chlorite

HClO
HNO3 HNO2

ClONO3NO2-

Hypochlorite
Nitrate Nitrite
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Nitric acid Nitrous acid

Only halogens Cl, Br, I have four names

Balancing Chemical Equations

Chemical Equation summarizes the molecular changes involved in a chemical reaction

A+BC+D Reactants Products


STARTING MATERIAL

Formed substances

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Balancing Chemical Equations


Examples: a) Evaporation of water H2O(l) H2O(g)

b) Combustion of carbon to form carbon dioxide C(s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g)


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Balancing Chemical Equations


Steps in writing Chemical Equation: Step 1: write the formulas of the reactants Step 2: write the formulas of the products by writing the oxidation numbers of the two combined elements and applying the crisscross Step 3: it is very important to balance the equation. (the number of atoms of each element in the reactant side should be equal to the number of atoms of the said element in the product side.
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Balancing Chemical Equations

a) b) c) d) e)

Balance the following chemical equations: N2 + O2 NO2 P + Cl2 PCl3 Zn + AgCl ZnCl2 + Ag Cl2 + NaI NaCl + I2 CO + O2 CO2
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Types of Chemical Reactions: 1. Combination/Synthesis 2. Decomposition 3. Single Displacement 4. Double Decomposition


Chemical Reaction a process in which a substance is changed into one or more new substances

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Combination/Synthesis

A single substance is formed by union of two substances


A. Rule: A + B AB Sodium + Iodine Step 1: Na + I2

Step 2: Na+1 I-1


Step 3: 2Na + I2 2NaI
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Combination/Synthesis
A. Rule: A + B AB
Combustion process of burning; requires oxygen

a. Metal + oxygen metallic oxide


2Ba + O2 2BaO

b. nonmetal + oxygen non-metallic oxide


2S + 3O2 2SO3
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Combination/Synthesis
B. Rule: A + O2 C + D
Complete combustion CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O Incomplete combustion

2CH4 + 3O2 2CO + 4H2O

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Combination/Synthesis
C. Rule: Metallic oxide + H2O Base
MgO + H2O Mg(OH)2

D. Rule: Non-metallic oxide + H2O Acid


SO2 + H2O H2SO3

E. Rule: Active Metal + H2O Base + H2


2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2
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Decomposition
A reaction that involves using of heat or electric current. It is the opposite reaction of synthesis also known as Metathesis

General Rule: AB A + B

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Single Displacement
The possibility of the positive part of a compound may interact with the negative part of the second compound Also known as Single Substitution, Single replacement

AB + C CB + A

CaCl2 + 2Na 2NaCl + Ca


Where A and C are metals and C is more active than A. if not there is no reaction
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Activity Series
Metal K Na Ca Mg Al Mn Zn Metal Sn Pb H Cu Bi Sb Hg

dec

dec

Cr
Fe Ni

Ag
Pt Au
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Single Displacement
Rule: AB + C AC + B
BaCl2 + F2 BaF2 + Cl2
Where B and C are non-metals and C is more active than B. if not there is no reaction

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Single Displacement
Non-metals F O Cl

dec

Br
I S
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Double decomposition

Also known as Double Displacement, Double Substitution


General Rule: AB + CD AD + CB HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O
Strong Acid Strong Base

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Double Decomposition

Also known as Double Displacement, Double Substitution

General Rule: AB + CD AD + CB
Strong Acid

HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O


Strong Base

Neutralization reaction between an acid and a base that produces a salt and water
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