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Komal Preet Kaur Diksha Govind Tiwari Anand Singh Patel Tashi

Biodiversity hotspots.

Pollution filters

Carbon sequestration

Store house of plant genetic material

2nd Feb. : World Wetlands Day 648,507 ha area under wetland in India.

Anthropogenic pressures resulting in habitat destruction and loss of biodiversity. Infilling and inflow of polluted urban, agricultural, industrial wastewaters. Overfishing, overhunting destructs wildlife habitat, food chain support and human recreation.

Affects wetland dependent flora and fauna, including exploitable fish and shellfish stocks.

Wetlands in India support around 2400 species and subspecies of birds. Loss of habitat threatens the diversity of this ecosystem. Exotic invasive species.

Deforestation and cutting of trees, soil erosion. About 35% of mangroves have been lost over the last two decades, primarily due to aquaculture development, deforestation and freshwater diversion. Rapid depletion of ground water. Hydrological interventions resulting in loss of aquifer.


National wetland strategy should encompass:

Conservation and collaborative

management. Prevention and loss of restoration. Sustainable management.

Protection. Planning, managing and monitoring. Comprehensive inventory of all Indian wetlands. Coordinated approach. Research, assessment and dissemination of findings. Building awareness among the general public, educational and corporate institutions. Use of remote sensing and GIS in wetland management. Flood zone mapping. Inventory and monitoring of irrigation and cropping pattern. Water quality and modeling to detect ecological character. Mapping changes in river course. Delineation of extinct river course.

No conversion for water area for any purpose and under any circumstance. In each case relating to development proposal, prior permission to designated authority. Waste recycling practice. Excavation of new channels or desiltation of silted channels.

The six lakes known as Samaspur wetlands in Rae Bareily district of Uttar Pradesh Declared as Samaspur Bird Sanctuary in 1987. 800 Ha of total area of sanctuary About 370 Ha is private and community lands. Due to this, the management and conservation of the sanctuary has become an extremely complex issue. Each year about one-lakh birds migrate here from regions like Siberia during the winter season. The percentage of visiting birds has reduced to just one-fourth in last eight-ten years.

Primary Stakeholders 1. Migratory waterfowls 2. Local communities 3. Forest Department Secondary stakeholders 1. Local media 2. Irrigation department

Samaspur Bird Sanctuary is listed as one of the Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in India. Almost 250 species of resident and migratory birds find shelter here.

Egrets, Painted stork, Purple Moorhen, Purple Heron, White breasted water hen, Whistling teal, Phaesant Teal, Jacana, Little grebs, Cormorants,

Kingfisher, Bronzed winged Jacana, Darter, Cotton Teal, Brahmany kite, Black Drago, Green Bee Eater, Indian Sarus Crane, Pintail etc.

Source: IBAs of India. (BNHS)

Source: IBAs of India. (BNHS)

Reasons for the reduction in number of arriving birds to one fourth in last eight-ten years: 1. Invasion of Echhiornia crassipes (water hyacinth), 2. Submergence of agricultural land around the lakes and 3. Poaching of visiting birds.

1. Inadequate staff strength at the Samaspur sanctuary. 2. Conflicts between the local communities and the forest department. 3. Management of Bissaiya Lake 4. Non-existence of an efficient local NGO. 5. Lack of research facilities at the sanctuary.

1.Efforts should be taken that the issue submergence of land is solved so that the mixed landuse can allow agriculture as well as conducive habitat for birds again. This will help to reduce the conflict between conservation and livelihoods. 2. The forest department at the Samaspur Bird Sanctuary needs to be strengthened with staff and additional budgetary allocation. 3. Efforts should be taken on much larger scale to stop the spread of Water Hyacinth in the lakes.

4. The collaborative efforts through schemes such as eco-development have provided an opportunity to the forest department and the local community to interact and understand the nature of the problem. Hence, such schemes need to be continued and expanded in other villages. 5. There are no local non-governmental organizations or community based organizations to facilitate the dialogue between the forest department and local communities. 6.Research facilities need to be established at the sanctuary for regular monitoring of important ecological factors like soil, water etc. If this is not possible, the collaboration could be sought with the regional research bodies for such monitoring.

Submitted by : Anand Singh Patel 1152 PFM 11-13

Located in Japan. Osaka Bay was destroyed because of Osaka Plain. Main cause was the drainage. Landfill was started to reclaim the wetland in 1983. Tidal flat was created.

Sand or mud areas found in many estuarine areas and typically lack recognizable plant life.(Ecotone) Birds started to visit. Seeing the success, they opened the mound line in 1995 between Lagoon and the pool. COD was increased.

Bird density increased. Sandpipers and Plovers also began to visit the area. Other species like H.penicillatus and Ocypodid Crabs. Predators also came and returning waves controlled plants infestation. Natural ecosystem became functional and was restored to a greater extent for shore birds. Adaptive management is management as experiment in dynamic situations were controls and strict replication are not possible.

Pilot programs on small scale should be run. Landfills to be done for tidal flat. Strict monitoring and evaluation to be required at each stage. Effects after landfill and before landfill to be compared. Artificial landfill to be substituted by natural means to make it durable for a long time.

EcoManagement for Successful Pelican Conservation

Review Article http://www.cpreec.org/vol10_April2010.pdf

Govind Tiwari-1159

The Spot-billed Pelican or the Grey Pelican(Pelecanus philippensis) among the seven valid species of pelicans existing today, is confined biogeographically, to the South and Southeast Asia. Up to the 1920s, more than a million of these pelicans were said to be flourishing but by about the 1990s, their numbers plummeted precipitously to less than about 12,000 only. This was Due to the loss of their freshwater wetland habitats, food and nesting sites. Bird Life International that surveys the status of each species of birds, listed this species, under the category of Vulnerable Species (VU).

After Second world war many developing countries adopted the Green Revolution for the agriculture of rice and sugarcane, using excessive quantities of DDT. DDT-exposed pelicans tend to lay thin-shelled eggs which are fragile and fail to hatch out successfully. By 1993-1994, the total Spot-billed pelican population, came down to fewer than about 11,50013,000 and by about 2003-2004, it dropped down further to a precarious 5,500 only. Also Aquaculture necessitated the decimation of the pelican-nesting trees, in order to dig aquafarms. Thus, destruction of pelican-habitats and deprivation of their natural food and feeding grounds.

It was notified in 1976, and has two irrigation tanks with a total area of 82.56 ha. Forest Department desilted these tanks by about a metre, mostly around the Barringtonia trees, in order to render them insulated by water all around, to attract the nesting pelicans. Construction of rocky mounds near these trees so that parent pelican give their fledgelings, their first lessons in flying (gliding), swimming and fishing. Spreading awareness in nearby schools for pelican conservation. Planting of Indian oak tree as this tree can withstand inundation by water for a long time.

Community-based conservation strategy in which volunteers save pelican-nestlings that fall to the ground from their congested nests. Strict code of conduct for the visitors and action against the offenders who violates the rules. From October-November and in February, the Forest Department releases about 50,000 fingerlings of three or four species of fish, into the Nelapattu tanks, to supplement the food for the breeding birds. The sanctuary because of its management effortsis declared as IBAs(Important Bird Areas) and as potential Ramsar Site.

Human-Bird Conflicts and Management Issues: A Case Study of Birds at Uppalapadu Lake, Andhra Pradesh, India

Migration from Garapadu Lake to Uppalapadu. A study by SACON recorded about 1,583 birds belonging to 40 wetlands and 20 land species in and around Uppalapadu Lake with spot-billed pelican, painted stork, and night heron as dominant species(2006). An increase in the breeding population (400 individuals in October 2007 to 1,500 in February 2008) and breeding nests (428 in 2007 to 560 in 2008)

In 2006 -2010 the pelicans population was most abundant with a total of 6,700 individuals observed in three years, followed by white ibis (2,600), painted storks (2,000), open bill stork (1,820), glossy ibis (550), and darter (11), along with six other species (250). With respect to the distribution of bird species within the lake habitats, he noticed grey pelicans, painted storks, and open bill stork occupying upper strata levels and white ibis, glossy ibis at lower levels of Prosopis juliflora, and Acacia nilotica trees.

Overcrowding and resource limitations. Size of the lake. Bird Excreta Invasive Species (Eichhornia spp., and microscopic algae)

Construction of Bund (sand fence). Construction of mounds. Introduction of artificial trees Seasonal introduction of fish. Additional outlet to drain excess water. Declaration as a CommunityWildlife Reserve in 2005.