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ORGANISATIONAL

RESEARCH-determining
sample size
BY
K. N. K.
CHAITANYA(08MBA043)
SUSHANT JOLLY
(08MBA102)
TYPES OF SAMPLES
• Small sample
When n < 30
• Large sample
When n > 30
Factors affecting the
SAMPLE SIZE
• Nature of universe
• Number of classes proposed
• Nature of study
• Types of sampling
• Availability of finance
• Other considerations
SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL
5% SIGNIFICANT LEVEL
Its value is 1.96
It is the most acceptable
significant level.
It is mainly used in categorical
data.
1%signicant level
Its value is 2.58
It is used in continuous data.
• COMPUTATION OF STANDARD ERROR
• ESTIMATION OF VARIANCE
• DETERMINING SAMPLE SIZE
Continuous data-eg 10,20,30
Categorical data-eg 10,67,92
Population
ESTIMATION OF ERROR
• STANDARD ERROR
It is a standard deviation of
the sampling
distribution.
It measures the sampling
variability due
to random forces.
TEST FOR ERROR
test for number of sucesses
se = √ n p q
where,
n = size of sample
p = probability of success
q=1–p
• TEST FOR PROPORTION OF
SUCCESS
se = √ pq
√ n
where,
p = probability of success
q = 1-p
n = size of sample
• TEST FOR SIGNIFICANCE BETWEEN
PROPOSITION
se = √ pq (1/n1+ 1/n2)
where,
p = n1p1+ n2p2/ n1+n2

• STANDARD ERROR OF MEAN


se = √ sd/ no. of observations
• STANDARD ERROR BETWEEN MEANS
OF TWO SAMPLES FROM SAME
POPULATION
se = √ sd2 (1/n1+1/n2)

• STANDARD ERROR BETWEEN MEANS


OF TWO SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT
POPULATION
se = √ sd12/n1+sd22/n2

• WHEN TWO STANDARD DEVIATION


VARIANCE ESTIMATION
• There are 4 ways of estimating
population variance
Determining appropriate additional
responses
Pilot study result
Data from previous studies
Estimate the structure of the
organization
• V = n/s
where,
v = variance estimation
n = number of points of scale
s = number of standard
deviation

The appropriate variable estimation is


0.50
FORMULA FOR CALCULATING
SAMPLE SIZE FOR CONTINUES
• N = (zs/e)2
• S = range/6

where,
Z = significance level
S = standard deviation level
E = tolerate error
• Samples size will increase if standard
deviation is higher
• significance level is higher
• Tolerance level is lower
• FORMULA FOR SAMPLE SIZE
when variable is categorical
n = pq (z/e)2
Where,
p = probability of success
q = 1-p
e = tolerance level
Z = significance level
• TOTAL SAMPLE SIZE FOR
PROPORTIONATE Statified SAMPLING
n =(z/e)2 ∑ W i Si2
Where,
W = weights of age group
s = standard deviation
• Total sample size for dis-
proportionate stratified sampling
n = (z/e)2 (∑ WiSi)2
OR
ni = (NiSi) n/ ∑ NiSi
REGRESSION ANALYSIS
• In regression analysis there is a
dependent and independent variables.
• We compute multiple R, multiple R2,
adjusted R2, standard error of estimate,
intercept and number of cases.
• There are two types of regression
analysis
forward stepwise regression.
backward stepwise regression.
COMPUTATION OF SAMPLE SIZE
IN REGRESSION
• CONTINUOUS DATA
n=v r
where,
v = number of independent
variable
r = number of ratio
CONCLUSION
• It can be concluded that for a
research process a person should
have a reliable and valid data and
the sample size should be
appropriate and easy to study.