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SUBMITTED TO :Miss.

Poonam

SUBMITTED BY:Name = Karan Roll NO.2724564

In todays world of competition and perfection, it is not possible to do anything successfully without the proper guidance and help of some experienced person. Now a days, life has become so tough that no matter how much caliber you have, nobody is going to give you the chance to prove it unless and until you are having the support of somebody known in the field. I want to express my sincere thanks and gratitude to all those without which it would be a dream. I am greatly indebted to my project guide Miss Poonam Very sincere and warm thanks to his valuable suggestions, motivation and guidance at every step. His vision and thoughtful counseling acted as my moral support to pursue this major project. I could not think of developing the project without getting the organization help from where I made this project. This project has been accomplished with the latest system, well equipped library, unlimited computer time and a technical environment provided by College. I am thankful to. Miss Poonam. Who made it possible to make my project COMPUTER NETWORKING see the light of the day.

Lastly, I would pay my sincere thanks to my parents and other faculty members who were always besides me to help me out and provide me with the motivation and emotional support, which boosted my aim when I felt tired and so became one of the step of stair-case which made it possible to reach my goal. All this has become a reality because of their blessings and above all by the grace of God

In todays competitive world, computer has assumed critical importance in every field. It has become an essential qualification for almost all ventures. In our Diploma in Computer Engineering, we have been prepared to be at par with the industrial requirements. But theoretical knowledge is not just enough in present area. Theoretical knowledge accompanied with the practical knowledge makes us ready for making a good performance when we enter the industry. Training phase is a very important phase in ones course and gives the student an opportunity to expose himself to the environment of well knit institution and hence understand how the skills that he acquired during theoretical studies to practical situation. This training has been developed as a part of industrial training, which Punjab State Board of Technical Education & Industrial Training requires its students to undergo. The purpose of the industrial training is to familiarize the students of Computer-Engineering course with the present working environment of the Indian industry. To provide them with an opportunity to study the latest technological trends that has been established. It provides an opportunity to both upgrade skills and add to the corpus of professional knowledge in an environment that provides you with practical and theoretical knowledge.

During this period I worked on the project COMPUTER NETWORKING.

The term network in computing system means two or more computers connected each other to form a network and networking means two or more computers connected with each other and sharing data and resources. Today every business in the world from banking to airlines offices, corporate organizations, postal services, universities and a even a home where there are two or more computers, need a network to communicate with other people. With the passage of time, the network technology has adopted many new standards and many inventions in this industry are on their way to provide the maximum advantages according to the needs of every business. Protocols are the agreed upon ways, communication language and a set of rules which both the networking computers understand and communicate with each other. Protocols by default come with the operating systems and computer use them to communicate with each other. Our main emphasis was over the switch, cables and connectors. We had U.T.P. cables but anyhow we converted it into straight cables. This straight cable is used to directly connect several Computers to a Single Switch. The Switch is a 16 Ports Switch and the Connectors used were RJ45 Connector. Through the straight cable we also connected to main Modem (Lease Line) to Switch.

Many Benefits of Computer Networking:File

sharing - Network file sharing between computers gives you more flexibility than using floppy drives or Zip drives. Not only can you share photos, music files, and documents, you can also use a home network to save copies of all of your important data on a different computer. Backups are one of the most critical yet overlooked tasks in home networking.
Printer

/ peripheral sharing - Once a home network is in place, it's easy to then set up all of the computers to share a single printer. No longer will you need to bounce from one system or another just to print out an email message. Other computer peripherals can be shared similarly such as network scanners, Web cams, and CD burners.
Internet

connection sharing - Using a home network, multiple family members can access the Internet simultaneously without having to pay an ISP for multiple accounts. You will notice the Internet connection slows down when several people share it, but broadband Internet can handle the extra load with little trouble. Sharing dial-up Internet connections works, too. Painfully slow sometimes, you will still appreciate having shared dial-up on those occasions you really need it.

Multi-player

games - Many popular home computer games support LAN mode where friends and family can play together, if they have their computers networked.
Internet

telephone service - So-called Voice over IP services allow you to make and receive phone calls through your home network across the Internet, saving you money.
Home

entertainment - Newer home entertainment products such as digital video recorders (DVRs) and video game consoles now support either wired or wireless home networking. Having these products integrated into your network enables online Internet gaming, video sharing and other advanced features.

In this networking project also used many hardware requirements.

Specific Requirements 1. Hardware Interface

H/W Specifications 1. Cables 2. Connectors 3. Switch

1.

Hubs/Repeaters:-Hubs/repeaters are used to connect together two or more


Ethernet segments of any media type. In larger designs, signal quality begins to deteriorate as segments exceed their maximum length. Hubs provide the signal amplification required to allow a segment to be extended a greater distance. A hub takes any incoming signal and repeats it out all ports.

Ethernet hubs are necessary in star topologies such as 10BASE-T. A multi-port twisted pair hub allows several point-to-point segments to be joined into one network. One end of the point-to-point link is attached to the hub and the other is attached to the computer. If the hub is attached to a backbone, then all computers at the end of the twisted pair segments can communicate with all the hosts on the backbone. The number and type of hubs in any onecollision domain is limited by the Ethernet rules.

Switch is a networking device . It is used to connect two or more computers with a LAN. It is an intelligent device. It is a fully unicast and limited broadcast and internally based on star topology. It does not detect the collision domain. A switch can reduce network traffic by directing message intended for a specific computer directly to that computer.

Fig. Shows:- SWITCH

1. There are several ways that VLANs simplify network 2.

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4. 5.

management: Network adds, moves, and changes are achieved by configuring a port into the appropriate VLAN. A group of users needing high security can be put into a VLAN so that no users outside of the VLAN can communicate with them. VLANs can enhance network security. VLANs increase the number of broadcast domains while decreasing their size.

Router is a networking device . It is used to communicate two or more LANs with in a WAN . A device that forwards data packets along different networks . A router is connected to at least two networks commonly two LANs or WANs. Routers are commonly located at gateways , the places where two or more networks connected . A router is a device that forwards data packets between telecommunications networks, creating an overlay internetwork. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When data comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination.

ROUTER LOGO

CISCO ROUTER

Cables are well defined as the physical medium through which signals travel in a network. Cables can be overhead or they can be Underground. Basically cables are of four types, which are in use in networks today: Coaxial (coax), unshielded twisted pair (UTP), shielded twisted pair (STP) and fiber optical.

Coaxial Cable can be a good solution for small networks. Because it is generally wired in a bus topology, it requires less cable than other solutions and doesn't require a hub. It's generally easy to install the connections. Coaxial also offers relatively high immunity to interference from noise sources, so it is often used in manufacturing environments. Coaxial cable is the kind of copper cable used by cable TV companies between the community antenna and user homes and businesses. Telephone companies from their central office to the telephone poles near users sometimes use coaxial cable. It is also widely installed for use in business and corporation Ethernet and other types of local area network.

Twisted Pair (TP):Twisted Pair Ethernet (10baseT), sometime also called "UTP" from "Unshielded Twisted Pair", is based on using a cable similar to phone wiring. The cable is connected via RJ-45 connectors to the network card installed in the PC. These come in two flavors of unshielded and shielded.

This is the most popular form of cables in the network and the cheapest form that you can go with. The UTP has four pairs of wires and all inside plastic sheathing.

The biggest reason that we call it Twisted Pair is to protect the wires from interference from themselves. Each wire is only protected with a thin plastic sheath.

Is more common in high-speed networks The biggest difference you will see in the UTP and STP is that the STP uses metallic shield wrapping to protect the wire from interference.

Something else to note about these cables is that they are defined in numbers also. The bigger the number the better the protection from interference Most networks should go with no less than a CAT 3 and CAT 5 is most recommended.

Definition of Networking:Networking, in general can be defined as communications for the purpose of sharing information and resources. People pronounce it as "network" for professional purposes. They make contact and communicate with other professionals who may be able to offer a service or share information that may be useful to them. These people will also make contact and communicate with others who may want or need to receive a service or information, which they provide. The term networking, when applied to computers, can be defined as communications between two or more entities for the purpose of sharing information and resources. These entities can be two or more persons, computers etc. So a more technical definition for networking is that it is a series of points or nodes (PCs, networked printers, networked FAX machines, etc.) interconnected by communication paths for the purpose of sharing information and resources.

A network is any collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a shared network medium. A computer network is a collection of two or more connected computers. When these computers are joined in a network, people can share files and peripherals such as modems, printers, tape backup drives, or CD-ROM drives.

At least two computers Server or Client workstation. Networking Interface Cards (NIC) A connection medium, usually a wire or cable, although wireless communication between networked computers and peripherals is also possible. Network Operating system software, such as Microsoft Windows NT or 2000, Novell NetWare, UNIX and Linux.

The term LAN refers to a small network that, at most, spans an area (end-to-end) in the range of tens of kilometers. Usually a LAN is used to connect a number of computers inside an office, one campus, or one building

A MAN refers to a network that connects computers from one end of a metropolitan area to the other and usually spans an area in the range of tens to hundreds of kilometers. An example of a MAN could be a citywide bank that has branch offices located around the city, which must be networked to share transactional data.

A (WAN) refers to a network that covers a very large geographical area such as a state, continent, or even the globe. Wide area networking combines multiple LANs that are geographically separate. This is accomplished by connecting the different LANs using services such as dedicated leased phone lines, dial-up phone lines (both synchronous and asynchronous), satellite links, and data packet carrier services.

The Internet is a system of linked networks that are worldwide in scope and facilitate data communication services such as remote login, file transfer, electronic mail, the World Wide Web and newsgroups.

With the meteoric rise in demand for connectivity, the Internet has become a communications highway for millions of users. The Internet was initially restricted to military and academic institutions, but now it is a full-fledged conduit for any and all forms of information and commerce. Internet websites now provide personal, educational, political and economic resources to every corner of the planet.

Network Topologies:A network topology is the geometric arrangement of nodes and cable links in a LAN. There are three topologys to think about when you get into networks. 1. Star, 2. Ring, and 3. Bus.

Bus configurations are the simplest to design and easiest to wire. Individual nodes (computer workstation, peripherals, etc) connect (using a network interface connector) to a single cable, with a terminator at each end to prevent signal echo.

Access to the bus is essentially passive. A workstation transmits a signal by placing it on the node from where it is broadcast to every other node. A receiving node filters signals addressed to it from other signals. The server is typically just another node as far as the architecture is concerned. Individual nodes can be added. Branches to the single cable bus can be added so long as each cable has a terminator at the end.

The failure of a network interface connector affects only the connected node, not the rest of the network. A break in the single cable, however, affects the overall network. Bus configurations using fiber optic as the backbone are more difficult to modify for additional nodes or branches.

With a star topology, the workstations, fileservers, printers etc. are attached via drop cables to a central hub or multiport repeater. The hub is central to a star topology and the network cannot function without it. Other hubs may be attached to the first hub via drop cables, creating nodes. These other hubs can themselves have computers attached to them or even further hubs to create further nodes.

In Ring Topology network takes a shape of Ring if viewed from top. In Ring Topology all the computers are connected to a ring and data travels through this ring from one computer to another computer. Ring topology is not so efficient as that of Star and Bus because, Workstations connect to the ring Faulty workstations can be bypassed More cabling required than bus The connectors used tend to cause a lot of problems Commonly used to implement token ring at 4 and 16mbps Four wire, generally STP or UTP

1. 2. 3. 4.

Cable failures affect limited users Equal access for all users Each workstation has full access speed to the ring As workstation numbers increase performance diminishes slightly.

1. Costly Wiring 2. Difficult Connections 3. Expensive Adaptor Cards

TCP/IP provides for a flexible addressing scheme. All devices given an IP address part of which denotes their location within a network, another portion of which designates which network. The IP is divided in to different classes. Total IP address bit is 32 bits.

Different classes of IP address:A=1-126 B=128-191 C=192-223 D=224-239 E=240=255 Here 127 is a loop back address. It check the LAN card setting is TCP/IP connection and is used to block the web site.
The A class represent a one network id and three host id.

The B class represent a two network id and two host id. The C class represent a three network id and one host id. The D class represent a four network id. It represent a global broadcast address. So D and E class is not used because it also used for a researching

Go to my network place icon on the desktop. 2. Then go to properties. 3. Right click on the local area network. 4. Click properties. 5. Click TCP/IP . 6. Then click properties . 7. Then give the IP address of the class. it may be any class.
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Go to run Type command Then command prompt will be displyed Type Command = C:\> ipconfig This command is used to show the IP address in detail.