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WOMEN: HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION AND VIOLENCE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO INDIA

PRESENTED BY- MS. HIMANI

Human rights have increasingly concerned the world community since the end of World War II. India has also ratified various international conventions and human rights instruments committing to secure equal rights of women.

Violation of the rights of women are a threat to the welfare & dignity of the entire human family. Equality before law is not enough. This paper provides a cursory look at the situation related to human rights violence and violation against women in India.

Jawahar Lal Nehru once said, Too awaken the people it is the women who must be awakened. Once she is on the move, the family moves, the village moves, the nation moves.

Human rights are said to be those fundamental rights which every man or woman inhabiting any part of the world should be entitled to by virtue of having been born a human being.

The Declaration on Elimination of Violence Against Women adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1993, defines Violence Against Women as any act of gender based violence against women that results in or is likely to result in physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private spaces.

Kinds of Violence against Women Domestic Violence Female genital mutilation Female foeticide Dowry related violence and Early marriage Rape Sexual Harassment Prostitution & Trafficking

Crimes Head-wise Incidents of Crime against Women in India


CRIME HEAD 2006 2011 INCREASE IN NUMBER % INCREASE

Rape
Kidnapping & Abduction Dowry death Torture Molestation

19348
17414 7618 63128 36617

24206
35565 8618 99135 42968

4858
18151 1000 36007 6351

25.1%
104.23% 13.12% 57.04% 17.34%

TOTAL

144125

210492

66367

46.04%

PROTECTION OF WOMEN GIVEN BY LEGISLATION

Constitutional Privileges
The Constitution of India guarantees human certain rights to All Indian women which are as follows: Equality before law for women (Article 14) The State not to discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them (Article 15 (i)) The State to make any special provision in favour of women and children (Article 15 (3)) Equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State (Article 16)

The State to direct its policy towards securing for men and women equally the right to an adequate means of livelihood (Article 39(a)); and equal pay for equal work for both men and women (Article 39(d)) To promote justice, on a basis of equal opportunity and to provide free legal aid by suitable legislation or scheme or in any other way to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities (Article 39 A) The State to make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief (Article 42)

The State to promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people and to protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation (Article 46) The State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people (Article 47) To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women (Article 51(A) (e)) Not less than one-third (including the number of seats reserved for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes) of the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every Panchayat to be reserved for women and such seats to be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a Panchayat (Article 243 D(3))

Indian has an elaborate system of laws to protect the rights of women like
The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 (Amended in 1995) Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986 Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987 The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005

Best Practices of Combating Violence against Women


Creating economic opportunities Empowerment with knowledge of rights Employment Attacking the roots of violence Mass campaigns

Raising awareness of the issue of violence against women, and educating boys and men to view women as valuable partners in life, in development of society are just important as taking legal steps to protect womens human rights.