Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 23

CELULA PROCARIOTA

Prokaryotic flagella

Nucleoid region (DNA) Ribosomes Plasma membrane Cell wall Capsule Pili

Figure 4.5

Fig. 4.1

Staining Differences

Gram Positive

Gram Negative

Have a 2-layered, peptidoglycan-rich cell wall that easily absorbs a colored stain

Have a 3-layered, peptidoglycan-poor cell wall that resists staining

Visin macroscpica del Muro de las estructuras tubulares del GI

LE 21-11b

Vein with blood en route to the liver Epithelial cells

Lumen of intestine Nutrient absorption Nutrient absorption into epithelial cells Microvilli

Amino acids and sugars

Fatty acids and glycerol Fats

Muscle layers Large circular folds

Lumen Blood capillaries Blood Lymph vessel Nutrient absorption

Villi

Lymph
Epithelial cells Villi

Intestinal wall

LE 41-23

Key

Vein carrying blood to hepatic portal vessel

Nutrient absorption
Microvilli (brush border)

Blood capillaries Epithelial cells Muscle layers Villi Large circular folds Epithelial cells Lacteal

Villi Intestinal wall

Lymph vessel

INTERIOR OF INTESTINE Blood vessel with blood en route to the liver Nutrient absorption Nutrient absorption Microvilli Epithelial cells Lumen Muscle layers Circular folds Villi Blood capillaries Lymph vessel Nutrient absorption EPITHELIAL CELLS

INTESTINAL WALL

VILLI Figure 21.10B

Hepatic portal transports nutrients first to liver

The enormous microvillar surface Is an adaptation that greatly increases the rate of nutrient absorption

Figure 41.23

Vein carrying blood to hepatic portal vessel

Microvilli (brush border)

Blood capillaries Epithelial cells Muscle layers Villi Large circular folds Lacteal Epithelial cells

Key
Nutrient absorption Intestinal wall Villi

Lymph vessel

B. Funciones de las enzimas digestivas


Los carbohidratos de digestin

p.268

Disaccharidases

Absorption of Proteins and Carbohydrates

Figure 14.13

Glucose Transport: a

Na+-driven

co-transporter

p.306

apical brushborder membrane

(secondary active transport)

(facilitated diffusion)

sugars exclusively absorbed as monosaccharides

Silv. p.683

SGLT- sodium dependent glucose transporter. Glut- facilitated diffusion transporter

Absorption of Fats

Figure 14.14

Fat globule

Bile salts

Fat droplets coated with bile salts Micelles made up of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and bile salts

Epithelium of small intestine Lacteal

Epithelium of lacteal

Fat Absorption: a problem of solvent association


Steps in the fat absorption process

p.308

emulsification
micellar formation hydrolysis absorption re-esterification

lipoprotein formation/transport

Protein Digestion

p.268

NaCl Absorption by the Colon

Silv. p.687

Small Intestine: Chemical Digestion