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CODE SWITCHING

Linguistic View: Poplack (1980) : Tag Switching (emblematic SW) Intra Sentencial Switching Inter-sentencial Switching Singh (1985) : Code Mixing = Intrasentencial Switching

EXAMPLES

This text is a monologue, a student telling about her experience visiting a town, Waitabula (West Sumba). (1) Aha la Waitabula dummu dira hammunya, ko. Ai Waitabula itu sangat bagus, ya. (2) Na pemandangannya sangat indah ya. Apalagi selama perjalanan di pinggir jalan hijau wammunya.(Kau tahu) Aiha da uma da dummu madanguha, la hingi anda mama nadanguha tapi da tembok da bai watu puda papadoiha Ai rumah-rumahnya sungguh indah terletak di pinggir jalan, tetapi temboknya dari batu buatan sendiri.

EXAMPLES

Text 2 Partisipants : a university student, staff 1, staff 2, staff 3, staff 4. The conversation happened in the office. St : Bagaimana pak bukunya jadi dikasih pinjam untuk dikopi ? S 3 whispered to S4 in Sumbanese. (2) Napa la wuanya yaka na buku hidana pabeli a nya Nanti kita beri bukunya jangan sampai tidak dikembalikan lagi St heard the conversation then, he said in Sumbanese. (3) Ha nyungga tau Humba, makai duku padaingu ku pabeli nggaya. Ha saya juga orang Sumba asli, saya tetap akan mengembalikan bukunya. Saya titip katu mahasiswa saya. (4) S2 : Minta maaf bukannya kami tidak percaya, karena tadi belum tahu identitas bapak.

MOTIVATION OF CODE SWITCHING


Code

SW : Any diglossic situation. Motivation of Code SW :Stylistic, Metaphorical, borrowing, Prestige and need. Cultural Specific Items: food, dress, cultural Institution, activities.(BORROWING) Gumperz (1972) : the mixture is not random : stylistic and metaphorical rather than grammatical Nouns --- largest in CS: relatively free of syntactic restriction.

PRAGMATIC FACTORS IN CODE SWITCHING


Blom and Gumperz (1972): Metaphorical and Transactional Switching (nonsituational CS and Situational CS. Transactional SW: being controlled by components of the speech event, like topic and participants. Metaphorical CS concerns the communicative effect the speaker intends to convey.

FUNCTIONS OF CODE SWITCHING


Discourse function : Direct and Indirect Reported speech or quotation. To mark injections or to serve as sentence fillers.(Tag switching). To clarify or emphasize a message To qualify the message To specify an addressee as the recipient of the message

SITUATIONAL CODE SWITCHING


Situational CS --- for reason that can be identified. Topic
triggers a switch. Example Sarah : I think everyones here, except Mere. John : She said she might be a bit late but actually I think thats her arriving now. Sarah : You are right. KIA ORA MERE. HAERE MAI, KIETE PEHEA KOE ? (Hai Mere. Come in. How are you ? Mere : KIA ORA E HOA. KEI TE PAI. (Hello my friends. Im fine). Have you started yet ?

EXAMPLE 2
People here get divorce easily. Like exchanging faulty goods. In China its not the same. JIA GOU SUI GOU, JIA JI SUI JI (If you have married a dog, you follow a dog, if youve married a chicken you follow a chicken). emphasize the precise message and ethnic identity.

METAPHORICAL SWITCHING
Metaphorical SW is related to rhetorical skill. No new person No change in setting/topic. Rapid switching = code mixing --- Holmes: metaphorical SW. Code mixing: mixing indiscriminately due to incompetence.

BORROWING
Borrowing --- lack of vocabulary --- adapted to the speakers first language. People may borrow words from another language to express a concept or describe an object for which there is no obvious word available in the language they are using. Borrowing of this kind generally involves single words, mainly nouns, and it is motivated by lexical need. It is very different from switching where speakers have a genuine choice about which words they will use in which language. Borrowed words are usually adapted to the speakers first language. They are pronounced and used grammatically as if they were part of the speakers first language.