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Presentation onPublic & Private Company as per The Companies Act, 1956. Presented ByDevesh Srivastava B.B.A III Sem.

A Company is a voluntary association of persons formed for the purpose of doing business, having a distinct name and limited liability. They can be incorporated under the Companies Act (it may be any type of company) Corporations enacted under special enactments ( Even those which are incorporated outside India) Corporate sole Any other body corporate notified by the central government

A company which has a minimum of two persons. They have to subscribe to the MOA and AOA It should be have a minimum paid up capital of 1 lakh or more as prescribed by the article. The maximum number of members to be fifty ( it does not include members who are employed in the company, persons who were formerly employed) The rights to transfer the shares are restricted in the Private companies Continued.

Prohibits any invitation to the public to subscribe and therefore it cannot issue a prospectus inviting the public to subscribe for any shares in, or debentures of the company It prohibits acceptance of deposits from persons other than its members, directors or their relatives. If two or more are holding one or more shares in a company jointly, they shall for the purpose of this definition, be treated as a single member. As there is no public accountability like a public company, there is no rigorous surveillance.

It can have a minimum of two members. It can commence business immediately after obtaining certificate of incorporation. It need not issue prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus. It can have a minimum of 2 directors. It need not hold statutory meeting or file statutory report with the ROC.

A Public company means a company> Which is not a private company > Which has a minimum paid-up capital of Rs 5 lakh or such higher paid-up capital, as may be prescribed > Which is a private company and is a not a subsidiary of a company, which is private company. >It includes- any company which is a public company with a paid up capital of less than 5 lakh, then it has to enhance its paid up capital as per the statutory requirement

Private Limited No. of members can be 2 to 50. Minimum paid-up capital of Rs. 1 lakh . Minimum no. of Directors present should be 2.

Public Limited No. of members can be 7 to Unlimited. Minimum paid-up capital of Rs. 5 lakh. Minimum no. of Directors present should be 3.

Private Limited Can accept deposits from Members, Directors or their relatives. Should contain words Private Ltd.at the end of its name. Can not invite public to subscribe for share or debenture. Statement in lieu of prospectus not required even for 1st issue.

Public Limited Can accept public deposits. Should contain words Limited at the end of its name. Can invite public to subscribe for Share or Debenture. Statement in lieu of Prospectus or prospectus required.

Private Limited Does not require Certificate to commence business after Incorporation. Statutory meeting and statutory report is not required. No limit on fees of Director.

Public Limited Require Certificate to commence business after Incorporation. Statutory meeting and statutory report are required. Director should not get more than 11.5% of profit.

The Act provides for conversion of public company into a private company and vice versa A private company is converted into a public company either by default or by choice in compliance with the statutory requirements. Once the action for conversion takes place then, a petition can be filed with the central government with the necessary documents for its decision on the matter of conversion.


It should take a necessary decision in its board meeting & fix up the time, place & agenda for convening a General meeting to alter the AOA & consequently the name by a special resolution as well as to alter by special resolution the objects clause of the Memorandum subject to the confirmation of the Company Law Board Under Section 17 & by ordinary resolution the Share Capital Clause under Sec 94 if the alteration of Share Capital is involved in the process. Continued



The company has to see that any change in the articles confirms to the provisions of the Companies Act [Section 31(1)]; also to see that such changes does not increase liability of any member who had become the member before alteration. It must issue notices for the General meeting in order to pass there at the special resolutions together with the explanatory statements for the alteration of the articles and the memorandum. Continued


It will have to convene the general meeting in order to pass there at the special resolution (i) for the purpose of the alteration of the memorandum and AOA; and (ii) also for the purpose of deleting those articles which are required to be included in the articles of a private company only [Section 3(1)(iii)]. Such other articles which do not apply to a public company should be deleted and those which apply should be inserted. Consequent upon the above changes, it will have to delete the word Private from its name [Section 21] Continued



It shall file either the prospectus in the Form prescribed under Schedule II or the statement in lieu of prospectus in the form prescribed under Schedule IV within 30 days of the passing of the resolution mentioned in (4) above in the manner stated in Section 44. The aforesaid prospectus or the statement in lieu of the prospectus must be in conformity with Parts I and II of Schedule II or with Parts I and II of Schedule IV respectively. In the matter of the prospectus or the statement in lieu of the prospectus the company Continued

has to adopt abundant caution against any untrue statement being included therein, because inclusion of untrue statement will attract penalty by virtue of Sec 44(4). It may be noted that a statement included in a prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus shall be deemed to be untrue if it is misleading in the form and context in which it is included. Likewise, where the omission from prospectus or a statement in lieu of prospectus of any matter is calculated to mislead, it shall be deemed, in respect of such omission, to be a prospectus in which an untrue statement is included. Continued




It shall file with the concerned Stock exchange 6 copies of such amendments on both articles and memorandum, one of which must be a certified copy. It shall file with the Registrar the said special resolution together with the explanatory statement within 30 days of their passing [Sec 192]. It must take some of the steps regarding future issue of capital under Section 81 which are not in common with the steps discussed in relation to future issue of share. Continued


The company has to apply to the Registrar for the issue of fresh Certificate of Incorporation for the changed name, namely, the existing name with word Private deleted. On issue of such certificate shall the name of the converted company be final and complete[Sec 23].