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Chemical Bonding

Chapter 5

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Valence electrons are the outer shell electrons of an atom.
The valence electrons are the electrons that participate in
chemical bonding.

Group e- configuration # of valence e-


1A ns1 1
2A ns2 2
3A ns2np1 3
4A ns2np2 4
5A ns2np3 5
6A ns2np4 6
7A ns2np5 7
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The Ionic Bond (Electrovalence)

An Ionic bond is the electrostatic force that holds ions together


in an ionic compound
Ionic compound combine a Group IA & Group IIA metal with
a halogen or oxygen

Li + F Li+ F -
1s22s11s22s22p5 [He]
1s2[2Ne]
1s 2s22p6

Li Li+ + e-

e +- F F -

Li+ + F - Li+ F -

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The Covalent Bond

A covalent bond is a chemical bond in which two or more


electrons are shared by two atoms. (Non metal & non metal)

Why should two atoms share electrons?

F + F F F
7e- 7e- 8e- 8e-
Lewis structure of F2

single covalent bond lone pairs F F lone pairs

single covalent bond


lone pairs F F lone pairs

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Lewis structure of water single covalent bonds

H + O + H H O H or H O H
2e-8e-2e-

Double bond – two atoms share two pairs of electrons

O C O or O C O
8e- 8ebonds
double -
8e- double bonds

Triple bond – two atoms share three pairs of electrons

N N or N N
8e-8e
triple -
bond
triple bond

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Lengths of Covalent Bonds

Bond
Length
Bond Type
(pm)

C-C 154

C=C 133

C≡C 120

C-N 143

C=N 138
Bond Lengths
C≡N 116
Triple bond < Double Bond < Single Bond

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Comparison of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

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Polar covalent bond or polar bond is a covalent bond with
greater electron density around one of the two atoms

electron rich
electron poor
region
region e- poor e- rich

H F H F
δ+ δ-

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Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract toward itself
the electrons in a chemical bond.

Electron Affinity - measurable, Cl is highest


Electronegativity - relative, F is highest

Both are related but


different concepts. EA
refers to an isolated
atom and E refers to an
atom in chemical bond.
Usually, EA > then E >.

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Classification of bonds by difference in electronegativity

Difference Bond Type

0 Covalent
≥2 Ionic
0 < and <2 Polar Covalent

Increasing difference in electronegativity

Covalent Polar Covalent Ionic

share e- partial transfer of e- transfer e-

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Classify the following bonds as ionic, polar covalent,
or covalent: The bond in CsCl; the bond in H2S; and
the NN bond in H2NNH2.

Cs – 0.7 Cl – 3.0 3.0 – 0.7 = 2.3 Ionic

H – 2.1 S – 2.5 2.5 – 2.1 = 0.4 Polar Covalent

N – 3.0 N – 3.0 3.0 – 3.0 = 0 Covalent

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Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular forces are attractive forces between molecules.


Intramolecular forces hold atoms together in a molecule.

Intermolecular vs Intramolecular
• 41 kJ to vaporize 1 mole of water (inter)
• 930 kJ to break all O-H bonds in 1 mole of water (intra)

Generally,
intermolecular “Measure” of intermolecular force
forces are much boiling point
weaker than melting point
intramolecular ∆Hvap
forces.
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Intermolecular Forces

Dipole-Dipole Forces

Attractive forces between polar molecules

Orientation of Polar Molecules in a Solid

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Intermolecular Forces

Ion-Dipole Forces

Attractive forces between an ion and a polar molecule

Ion-Dipole Interaction

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Intermolecular Forces

Dispersion Forces (London)

Attractive forces that arise as a result of temporary


dipoles induced in atoms or molecules

ion-induced dipole interaction

dipole-induced dipole interaction

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Intermolecular Forces

Dispersion Forces Continued

Polarizability is the ease with which the electron distribution


in the atom or molecule can be distorted.

Polarizability increases with:


• greater number of electrons
• more diffuse electron cloud

Dispersion
forces usually
increase with
molar mass.
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What type(s) of intermolecular forces exist between
each of the following molecules?

HBr
HBr is a polar molecule: dipole-dipole forces. There are
also dispersion forces between HBr molecules.

CH4
CH4 is nonpolar: dispersion forces.

S O
SO2 O
SO2 is a polar molecule: dipole-dipole forces. There are
also dispersion forces between SO2 molecules.
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Intermolecular Forces
Hydrogen Bond
The hydrogen bond is a special dipole-dipole interaction
between they hydrogen atom in a polar N-H, O-H, or F-H bond
and an electronegative O, N, or F atom.
A H--B or A H--A
A & B are N, O, or F

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Why is the hydrogen bond considered a “special”
dipole-dipole interaction?

Decreasing molar mass


Decreasing boiling point

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